Secret Son

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Raised by his mother in a one-room house in the slums of Casablanca, Youssef El Mekki has always had big dreams of living another life in another world. Suddenly his dreams are within reach when he discovers that his father—whom he’d been led to believe was dead—is very much alive. A wealthy businessman, he seems eager to give his son a new start. Youssef leaves his mother behind to live a life of luxury, until a reversal of fortune sends him back to the streets and his childhood friends. Trapped once again by ...
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Raised by his mother in a one-room house in the slums of Casablanca, Youssef El Mekki has always had big dreams of living another life in another world. Suddenly his dreams are within reach when he discovers that his father—whom he’d been led to believe was dead—is very much alive. A wealthy businessman, he seems eager to give his son a new start. Youssef leaves his mother behind to live a life of luxury, until a reversal of fortune sends him back to the streets and his childhood friends. Trapped once again by his class and painfully aware of the limitations of his prospects, he becomes easy prey for a fringe Islamic group.

In the spirit of The Inheritance of Loss and The Reluctant Fundamentalist, Laila Lalami’s debut novel looks at the struggle for identity, the need for love and family, and the desperation that grips ordinary lives in a world divided by class, politics, and religion.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

"Gives us an insider’s view of the underlying turmoil of Morocco . . . A nuanced depiction of the roots of terrorism, written by someone who intimately knows one of the stratified societies where it grows." —The New York Times Book Review

"Lalami's depiction of Moroccan life in Secret Son, illuminating the social, political, religious and poverty issues facing its citizen—especially its still-hopeful young—is both sensitive and startling." —Los Angeles Times

"Lalami does an impressive job of concentrating on one young man's candide-like experiences among all sectors of a complicated society . . . She raises question after question—about privilege vs. poverty, Western commercialism vs. traditional ways, secularism vs. religion—without ever seeming to be doing more than telling a compelling story." —The Oregonian

The New York Times Book Review
"Gives us an insider’s view of the underlying turmoil of Morocco . . . A nuanced depiction of the roots of terrorism, written by someone who intimately knows one of the stratified societies where it grows." —The New York Times Book Review
Los Angeles Times
"Lalami's depiction of Moroccan life in Secret Son, illuminating the social, political, religious and poverty issues facing its citizen—especially its still-hopeful young—is both sensitive and startling." —Los Angeles Times
The Oregonian

"An absorbing tale."—Kirkus Reviews

Gaiutra Bahadur
Secret Son gives us an insider's view of the underlying turmoil of Morocco…[it's] a nuanced depiction of the roots of Islamic terrorism, written by someone who intimately knows one of the stratified societies where it grows.
—The New York Times
VOYA - Hilary Crew
Eighteen-year-old Youssef El Mekki lives in the slum district of Casablanca with his mother. He seems set to succeed at the local university despite his restlessness and outsider status. Told by his mother that his father is dead, Youssef unwraps the tissue of lies woven around his birth. When he discovers that he is the illegitimate son of a prominent businessman, Nabil Amrani, Youssef confronts his father. Youssef's life changes as he lives in an apartment belonging to his father, works at a hotel job his father acquires for him, and studies less. After two years, things unravel. Nabil disowns Youssef under pressure from his family. The subplot involving Youssef's sister adds another dimension to the father-son relationship. Back with his mother, without a job or degree, an angry Youssef is caught up in the manipulations of the local Islamic "Partisans" party and agrees to murder a journalist. In an abrupt ending, he changes his mind, but is framed by the plotters. When Youssef returns home, the story gains a passion that seems absent for much of the novel. Settings contrast Casablanca's wealthy suburbs with slum conditions. The party leader's radical polemic rages against the government and the immorality of young people. The story shows how poverty, anger, and despair can easily lead to illogical decisions and violence. Coming-of-age themes include a first sexual encounter and relationships with parents and peers in a diverse society. This novel offers an interesting perspective of Morocco for older teens. Reviewer: Hilary Crew
Library Journal

The tragic loss of hope is the theme of this powerful debut novel from Morocco-born Lalami, author of the highly regarded story collection Hope and Other Dangerous Pursuits. University student Youssef El-Mekki studies English while living with his mother in the squalid slums of Hay An Najat. The handsome, blue-eyed Youssef has always been told that his father is dead. But when he comes across a photo of Nabil Amrani, a wealthy businessman who looks just like him, Youssef immediately realizes that this man truly is his father. Youssef reunites with Nabil and is given a job at Nabil's luxury hotel, and he thinks his future is secure. But his mother intervenes, leaving him jobless, and he is eventually recruited by a fundamentalist group to assassinate an outspoken journalist. The culture and politics of contemporary Morocco are well displayed in this beautifully written tale, with the talented Lalami deftly portraying Youssef's struggles for identity, work, and family. A brilliant story of alienation and desperation that easily transports readers to hot, dusty Casablanca; highly recommended.
—Lisa Rohrbaugh

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781565124943
  • Publisher: Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill
  • Publication date: 4/21/2009
  • Pages: 291
  • Product dimensions: 5.80 (w) x 8.30 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Meet the Author

Laila Lalami was born and raised in Morocco. Her work has appeared in the Los Angeles Times, the Nation, the New York Times, the Washington Post, and elsewhere. She is the recipient of a Fulbright fellowship and was short-listed for the Caine Prize for African Writing in 2006. She lives in Los Angeles.
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Read an Excerpt


By Laila Lalami

Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill

Copyright © 2009 Laila Lalami
All right reserved.

ISBN: 978-1-56512-494-3

Chapter One

The Year of the Flood

The rain came unexpectedly, after nearly three years of drought. In those days, Youssef still lived with his mother in a whitewashed house that huddled with others like it along a narrow dirt road. The house had one room with no windows, and a roof made of corrugated tin held down by rocks. The yard, where his mother did the cooking and the washing, was open to the sky. It was in the yard that she cleaned the sheep hides she took in on the day of Eid, and there Youssef received the rare friends who came to visit. The front door was painted blue, but over the years rust had eaten its edges, turning them reddish brown, so that holes had begun to appear at each of the four corners.

They were having lunch when it began to drizzle, the thin raindrops making craters as they landed on the fava bean soup. Youssef's mother looked up at the sky for a few surprised seconds, and then, as though a spark had ignited inside her, she jumped to her feet, grabbed the soup pot by its ears, and took it to the bedroom. Youssef's first thought was of the framed black-and-white picture of his father, which hung on the yard wall, above the divan. He took it inside, wiping the raindrops off the glass with the hem of his shirt. His father gazed backat him - a young man in his twenties, in a dark suit and gray tie, with his hair combed back neatly, as if he were on his way to an important appointment. His smile was timid, or perhaps reluctant; Youssef had never been able to tell. He left the picture next to his bed and went back outside.

His mother had already picked up the bowls and the loaf of bread, so he grabbed the radio and carried it to the water closet. He lifted the divan on which they had been sitting and positioned it on its side, under the green awning that ran from the kitchen corner to the front door. There was just enough room there for the table as well. His mother finished collecting the laundry - now everything was safe.

They stood together at the door of the bedroom, arms folded, watching the rain. "The year might turn out to be good," Youssef said. He was thinking of the farm laborers who had been moving into the city, chased by the drought. They came from the Gharb, from the Chaouïa, and even from as far south as Marrakech, here to Casablanca, where their teenage children crowded the markets and drove down wages for every kind of labor. Maybe this year there would not be as many of them.

His mother looked up at him. "We're already in March," she said. "It's too late for the rain to do most crops any good."

"Your flowers, at least, won't mind it," Youssef said, glancing at the row of potted roses, daisies, and gardenias under the laundry lines. One by one, she had rescued the flowers from the trash cans at the hospital where she worked, brought them home, and nursed them back to health. It was a rare indulgence; she was a woman who valued work over pleasure, utility over beauty. And she was beautiful. The week before, she had turned thirty-nine, and though her hair was streaked with gray and her forehead lined with wrinkles, her green eyes and high cheekbones gave her a distinguished, almost aristocratic look.

At length, they sat down on the straw mat, facing the open door. Youssef's mother dipped her bread in the thick soup and tasted it. "It's all cold now," she said. "I'll reheat it for you."

"Don't trouble yourself, a-mmi," he said. Always, she doted on him like this, as though he were eight instead of eighteen. Even though he discouraged her constant attention, it never occurred to him to resent it. He was her only child.

When they finished eating, he put on his sneakers and checked his watch. He wondered what movie he would see this week at the Star Cinema, but even before he could ask his mother for ticket money, she was already sorting through her purse. She handed him a coin. "Don't forget your jacket," she said. He left the house, hunching his shoulders against the light rain, and headed for the theater.

The Star was not, strictly speaking, a cinema. This would have been obvious to anyone who visited the dilapidated building that stood across from a butcher and a tailor on one of the garbage-strewn alleyways of Hay An Najat. Nevertheless, that was the name that a Casablanca charitable association had given to the place where, every week, a new older movie was projected on a cracked screen, and where patrons competed with rats for space on the gutted seats. For five dirhams, Youssef could watch Hong Kong action films, Bollywood romances, Egyptian dramas, or American blockbusters. He never missed a show.

All his life, he had dreamed of becoming an actor. He had performed in the only play his high school had ever put on, a reenactment of the Green March, and he had spent long afternoons playing football, hoping to have the athletic chest that was appropriate for the moment when, shirtless, he would raise the Moroccan flag and lead his fellow civilians to reclaim the Spanish border post in the Sahara. He loved inhabiting the life of the hero, loved feeling his triumph, and when the audience applauded, a surge of euphoria, much like the one he had felt when he had tried hashish with Amin and Maati, ran through him. Of course, Youssef knew that his dream was unachievable - no different than wanting to win the lottery when you can't even afford to buy a ticket - but it provided a refuge from the more sobering turns he knew his life would, by necessity, have to take: finish high school, go to university, and, with any luck, find a steady job that would finally get his mother and him out of Hay An Najat.

This week, the Star Cinema was showing Boyz N the Hood. Right away Youssef knew that it would not be a big hit with his friends: there were no explosions, no car chases, and, most unforgivable of all, only one naked woman - and she didn't even face the camera. But he stayed glued to his seat because of Laurence Fishburne's fatherly presence, his smooth voice and limitless experience. Youssef had lost his own father at the age of two, so his memories were few, and also faint. He remembered a tall man walking through the doorway, a hand tousling his hair, the smell of a stuffed pipe at night, but, maddeningly, little else.

Whatever tangible knowledge he had of his father came to him at second hand, from his mother. Nabil El Mekki was a fourth-grade teacher, respected by colleagues and students alike for his dedication. Back then, the family lived in an apartment in the Fès medina, though Nabil often worked odd jobs at night or on weekends to save enough money for a house. Some neighbors who were preparing for a big Eid party asked him to hang lights on their roof. He tripped on a wire and fell down three floors, breaking his neck on a cart filled with roasted sheep heads. He died instantly. It was an accident, the doctors said, though everyone called it fate - mektub - for how else could one accept that such a young man had died so needlessly?

Of course, Youssef and his mother weren't the only people in Hay An Najat without a father or a husband, but they seemed to be the only ones without any family. She was an orphan, raised in the French orphanage at Bab Ziyyat. After her husband's death, she had moved from Fès to Casablanca but refused to stay in touch with Nabil's parents, who had cheated her out of the meager inheritance. This was why, growing up, Youssef had often felt that he and his mother were both unmoored, somehow.

After the movie, Youssef walked out of the theater into the darkening afternoon, making his way around the puddles of water, heaps of trash, and pieces of metal. It was raining a little more steadily now, and the clouds hung low, shrinking the horizon in all directions. He always found it hard to go home after a movie. He needed time to adjust to real life, where heroes and villains could not be told apart by their looks or their accents, where women did not give themselves over on the first date, where there were no last-minute reversals of fortune.

He wanted to buy roasted sunflower seeds or chickpeas, but the cart vendors near the theater had all left because of the rain. Amin and Maati, who could usually be found at the street corner, had retreated under the blue awning of a hanout farther down the road. Standing between crates of wrinkled oranges and dark mint, they were arguing about the Widad and the Raja', the odds of either football team at the national championship.

"What's the difference between the Widadi goalkeeper and a taxi driver?" Maati asked, flashing a wide, gap-toothed smile. Even though it was cold, he wore a short-sleeved shirt. Youssef suspected it was because Maati liked to show off his biceps.

"What?" Youssef asked with a smile.

"The taxi driver only lets in three at a time."

Amin clicked his tongue. "You won't be joking like that when the Widad defeats the Raja'. And anyway, that's an old joke. Tell us one we haven't heard."

"All right," Maati said. "What's the difference between a girlfriend and a wife?"


"Twenty-five kilos."

This time, Amin slapped his thighs and laughed.

"Here's another one," Maati continued. "What's the difference between a bucket of shit and the government?"


"There isn't any."

Youssef and Amin chuckled. Maati lit a cigarette and passed it around. A girl none of them knew walked up the lane, carrying a bag. They watched her pass them by. Her wet sweater clung to her body, showing the faint lines of her bra and the tips of her nipples. "Come here, kitten," Amin said.

The kitten didn't acknowledge him.

"Hshouma," Youssef said. "You should respect the girl."

"Come on, my brother," Amin said. "Let us live a little. Didn't you see those breasts?"

"Her name's Soraya," Maati reported. "Her family just moved in, three streets up that way. Stay away from her, or her brother might come find you."

"Youssef's bringing us bad luck," Amin said. "She'd have talked to me if he wasn't around, looking so serious, wanting to respect her."

All three of them laughed. The year before, they had been taken by Amin's brother Fettah to visit a prostitute, where their Eid money had bought them ten minutes each. Now they dreamed of doing it with a girl their own age, someone who would, unimaginably, let them go all the way.

"She wouldn't have talked to you," Youssef said. "She's not the type."

"And how do you know this?" Amin asked, narrowing his eyes in a playful way, already sure of the answer.

Youssef shrugged.

"That's what I thought," Amin said, laughing. "So let me try my luck."

The rain grew heavy. Youssef walked hurriedly home and was soaked by the time he arrived. He found his mother struggling to move the divan, carefully covered with a plastic tablecloth, to the bedroom. "It's just some rain," he said. "Do we need to move everything inside?"

"It's going to flood," she replied. She had a habit of immediately thinking about the worst outcome to any situation, and Youssef had long ago learned not to argue when she got into one of these moods. He took the divan inside. "Can you put some more plastic on the roof?" she asked, and while he did that, she lined his side of the bedroom with pieces of cardboard to keep out the damp.

Inside, he changed out of his wet clothes. When he sat on his bed, his eye fell on his father's picture, and immediately he noticed that a drop of water had seeped in between the frame and the photograph, darkening the print. He grabbed the picture, running his palm over the spot - his father's forehead - as though he could dry it. In frustration, he put it back down on the floor and rummaged under his bed for his history textbook. His high school exams were just three months away. Amin and Maati always complained that they were required to learn things by rote, but Youssef told himself he was an actor. An actor could learn lines.

* * *

The weather forecast had said that it would clear up late in the evening, but it rained furiously all night long. Youssef could not sleep for the sound of the water drumming the tin roof and the wind thrashing the bathroom door. Halfway through the night, just as he had begun to drift into slumber, he heard a group of men splashing down the alley, arguing loudly. He pulled his blankets up to his chin and turned to the wall, where the cardboard had begun to smell of ink.

In the morning, he could not go out to meet his friends because it was still pouring. He studied by the yellow light of the lamp, fiddled with the radio for a while, and then grew restless. His mother was knitting a sweater, her eyes fixed on the Mexican telenovela showing on television. She was different from the other women in Hay An Najat, he knew. The widow, he had heard some of them call her, a scornful look on their faces, as though his mother were a leper, as though widowhood were contagious. The fact that she could speak flawless French somehow exacerbated their resentment; they said she put on airs. And she was not given to large displays of emotion. Aside from a few photographs, she had not saved any of his father's relics - a ring, a watch, a book, some prayer beads.

Youssef, too, was different from the other boys. Until he was twelve or thirteen, he had never been left alone in the house while his mother was at work. Instead, his mother told him to play in the hospital garden or go across the street to the used-book store, whose cashier she knew. He spent all his summer days sitting between stacks of books, reading. He had grown five centimeters in the past year alone and towered over all his friends. And then there were his eyes - sky blue, bright turquoises - nearly out of place on his face, certainly out of place in Hay An Najat. You would expect his eyes on a Fassi, a descendant of the Moors, one of those pedigreed men who had for generations controlled the destiny of the nation. You might expect them on a tribal chieftain from the Atlas, though even there they might come with the freckled skin of Berber ancestors. You would not expect those eyes in the melting pot of misery and poverty that was Hay An Najat.

Youssef had to wrap his shoes in plastic before going to school the next day, and in the unheated classrooms he regretted not wearing the additional pair of socks his mother had pressed into his hands that morning. When he came home, he found that water had trickled through an opening in the roof onto his mattress. He climbed back onto the roof to adjust the blocks of concrete, then stripped the sheets and blankets off the bed and set them to dry. But at least the television and the radio seemed to be in working order.

By the time his mother came home, the rain had at last faded to a drizzle. She asked him to go buy some flour, oil, and sugar, so he left the house and headed down the muddy road toward the hanout. At the first intersection, water pooled into a little pond, from which emerged a rusted old signpost, upright and persistent like a warning. In the next row of houses, the water ran into a rivulet. It quickly met with other tributaries to form a river, brown and fast and hungry. Youssef stopped at the bottom of the street. The river before him carried possessions away with it, like offerings to an ancient god - a suitcase, some tires, a broken bicycle, a few cinder blocks. A yelping dog swam helplessly in the middle of the debris.

Holding on to the wall, Youssef craned his neck to see if he could make it to the grocer's, but all along the little street, shops and houses were flooded. Hammad came out of his store, pushing a wheelbarrow stacked high with bags of flour. A group of boys splashed around in the dirty water. Standing where the water was shallow, the tailor yelled into his mobile phone, asking someone to come help him. Through the broken window of the beauty shop, a blond-wigged mannequin head with painted lips surveyed the scene dispassionately.

Across the street, three red cushions floated aimlessly outside the gaping doors of the Star Cinema. Youssef felt a pinch in his heart at the sight, though he had no time to dwell on the damage to the theater because, just a few feet away, knee-deep in the water, men and women were moving their belongings. A man and his two sons turned the corner toward him, carrying a chipped divan base, a torn mattress, and a table. In places where the mud was too slippery, they held on to house walls or laundry lines. Youssef ran up behind the smaller of the sons to help him with the table. They were moving to an uncle's house, the boy told him. It was the worst thing in the world, Youssef thought, to lose everything and, at the same time, to have everyone see that you did not own anything worth saving.


Excerpted from SECRET SON by Laila Lalami Copyright © 2009 by Laila Lalami. Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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Interviews & Essays

A Conversation with Laila Lalami

BN Review: You grew up in Morocco, where French, Arabic and English are all commonly spoken. You've said that when you first started writing, it was in French. Would you share with us the various reading and writing influences you encountered at an early age, in Arabic, French and English, respectively?

Laila Lalami: I grew up speaking both Arabic and French, but my earliest exposure to books came through French because I received, to my long-lasting despair, a semi-colonial education. In addition, most of the children's books that were available in my hometown in the 1970s were in French. As a child, I read Jules Verne, Alexandre Dumas and Georges Bayard, and so naturally when I started writing, it was in French. While I could read and write Arabic competently enough, I found it very hard to write fictional narrative in Arabic. It wasn't until I became a teenager that I really became exposed to the work of Moroccan and Arab writers. My favorites were Leila Abouzeid, Mohammed Choukri, Naguib Mahfouz, and later Tayeb Salih and Alifa Rifaat.

I started learning English at the age of 15, in high school, and later I majored in English in college. Being immersed in a new language gave me a new vantage point from which to observe the bilingualism with which I had grown up. It struck me that French and Arabic did not have a harmonious relationship in Morocco; they were always in competition and in conflict for space. For example, one's fluency in French was used as a major determinant of social class. I started to feel really uncomfortable with the idea of writing fiction in French and in fact I stopped writing for a while. When I moved to Los Angeles to go to graduate school, I decided to try my hand at writing fiction in English. I always find it hard to pinpoint specific literary influences, but the English-language writers I have always admired include J.M. Coetzee, Joseph Conrad, Margaret Atwood, Chinua Achebe, Vladimir Nabokov, among many others.

BNR: I'm interested in the genesis of your blog, Moorish Girl, which premiered less than one month after the 9-11 terrorist attacks. Early entries reflect on the attacks and their aftermath, but not exclusively, as you wrote in one instance about your decision to spend a day reading and writing rather than watching CNN's coverage of the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan. How has writing the blog influenced your other writing, be it fiction, essays or book reviews? Are there other literary blogs you particularly enjoy?

LL: In the fall of 2001, I was working as a linguist for a tech company in Los Angeles. I had been thinking of trying this new medium of blogging, but it wasn't until after the terrorist attacks that I felt I had to do it. I wanted to have a space in which to record my thoughts about politics, literature, and culture. The blog was anonymous during the first year, but as I became more comfortable with it (and after I left my job) I used my name on posts and eventually changed the name of the blog to

Blogging has introduced me to many more writers than I would normally have found on my own. For instance, I stumbled on the work of Marlon James, Andrew Sean Greer, Tayari Jones, Alison Bechdel, and many others through recommendations on other blogs or websites. The sense of a large, continuing conversation about books and literature is what I like about the medium. The blogs I read include Literary Saloon, Maud Newton, Amitava Kumar, Neil Gaiman, and The Elegant Variation, among others.

BNR: In your collection of stories, Hope and Other Dangerous Pursuits, Murad, a male character, questions his choice of a college major. "Maybe he shouldn't have bothered going to college to study English, spending his time learning a language and its literature. No one cared about these things." What was the reaction to your decision to study English literature? Did you ever question your career path? Did anyone in your family think it was wasteful? Has their attitude changed over the years?

LL: I was supposed to go to the Faculty of Medicine, but I somehow managed to miss the application deadline. I think my parents were expecting me to study biology -- my older sister is a scientist -- so when I announced I was doing English instead, they were worried about my future job prospects. By the time I started graduate school, I think they made themselves believe that linguistics was still the "sensible" way to go, so you can imagine their horror when I said I was quitting my job to write full-time. Of course, once they realized I wasn't going to change my mind, they became completely supportive.

BNR: Why the "long-lasting despair" about receiving a semi-colonial education?

LL: I think that when a child's first exposure to books is through a foreign language it creates a sort of separation between her and her imagination. When I was little, my imaginative world was exclusively populated by people who looked differently than me, spoke a language other than mine, had a culture different than mine. Then, as a teenager, once I began to read the work of Moroccan authors, I had a keen feeling of recognition, of revelation.

BNR: In a 2005 essay, you wrote, "Poverty has receded from the list of popular themes of the American novel. No longer do we have a John Steinbeck, a Richard Wright, a Theodore Dreiser, or a Zora Neale Hurston writing about the working poor...Poverty has curiously disappeared from the literary conversation. Now, after Hurricane Katrina, perhaps the time has come to engage it again." Has your opinion on this matter changed in the last four years?

LL: I wrote that piece right after Hurricane Katrina, and I was very angry. But I think my basic point still holds. There are various reasons why we don't see the working poor in fiction nowadays -- mostly because the working poor are too busy trying to make ends meet to find time to write fiction. I think the economic meltdown is bringing all these issues to the forefront again, so perhaps we will see more works concerned with class.

BNR: Your new novel, Secret Son, largely focuses on Youssef, a poor teenager who discovers that his father, whom he'd thought was dead, is in fact alive and wealthy. Reading the novel, however, it's difficult not to draw parallels between yourself and the character of Amal, Youssef's half-sister, who was born in Morocco but now attends UCLA. Within the spectrum of rich and poor described in this novel, where did your own experience in Morocco fall? How did your upbringing affect your understanding of the class tensions described in Secret Son?

LL: While Amal and I are both women who came to study in the U.S., the similarities really stop there. In reality, I have a lot more in common with my protagonist Youssef. Like him, I studied English in Morocco. Like him, I speak French fluently but don't feel any connection to the French-educated elite. And my mother was an orphan, like his. Originally, the book was supposed to be told, alternately, in Amal's and Youssef's points of view, but I think my interest in Youssef grew into a very personal one.

My family was middle class, but that didn't shield me from noticing class tensions everywhere. For example, I went to a public high school, but several of my classmates were the children of government ministers and were chauffeured to and from school. At the same time, I had other classmates who couldn't afford to buy textbooks or a winter coat. I suppose being somewhere in the middle was what made me so aware of the differences and tensions.

BNR: Secret Son was supposed to be told, alternately, in Amal's and Youssef's points of view, yet your interest in Youssef became very personal, you said. Beyond the most famous example -- Gustave Flaubert writing in the person of Madame Bovary -- what other works of fiction stand out for you as memorable examples of an author describing a protagonist of the opposite sex? Did particular works come to mind as you were developing Secret Son?

LL: I can think of a few: Tolstoy and Anna Karenina, Hardy and Tess of the d'Urbervilles, George Eliot and Daniel Deronda. Among contemporary writers, the one who stands out to me is J.M. Coetzee and his character Elizabeth Costello, who appears both in the novel that bears her name and in Slow Man. In fact, many of Coetzee's novels are told from the point of view of a woman character: Foe, In the Heart of the Country, and one strand of his three-pronged novel Diary of a Bad Year. I wasn't consciously thinking of any of these books as I was working on Secret Son.

BNR: You teach several literature courses at UC Riverside, and you mentioned in your blog that you felt both anxious and excited about an introduction to creative writing class (180 students). How has the class been? And how has teaching this class (and other classes) affected your understanding of reading and writing fiction?

LL: The class has been great so far. It's certainly a different experience than the typical workshop or seminar, which has fewer than 15 students, all of whom are creative writing majors. In this introductory class, I have students who major in physics or math or music and I find that the mix is really wonderful. The students each bring a different perspective [small correction to put this into sing/plural agreement] to bear on the works we discuss. What I like about teaching is that it forces me to articulate my critical reactions to a piece of work clearly. I find that this helps me with my nonfiction, but I am not sure if it helps me with my fiction. That's perhaps for readers to judge.

BNR: In Secret Son, you describe one character as being "like so many other people in (Morocco), completely disabused of the notion that there was much use fighting against injustice." Would you please elaborate on this sentiment? In this novel, as well as in Hope and Other Dangerous Pursuits, there's a sense of sadness, a feeling that things in Morocco will never change with regard to class warfare, free expression, and the country's attitude towards women. Do you think you'll ever return there to live?

LL: The line appears when Youssef experiences a cruel and unendurable rejection, so it comes from the depths of his despair. It's a sentiment that is driven by this immediate experience and so it can't describe the totality of his experience.

Nor, of course, does my character's pessimism necessarily apply to my own political positions. I think history teaches us that no social or political situation lasts forever, so while one might not see tangible changes in the very short run, things do in fact change in the longer term.

I have in fact returned to live in Morocco (I was there for a year to work on this book) and I go back as often as I can, although being married to an American and having a child who just started school makes long-term travel a little more complicated.

BNR: Now that you've lived in the United States for some time, have you entertained the possibility of writing fiction that addresses issues in American life? Or will you continue to write fiction centered in Morocco? Who, among contemporary American writers, consistently impresses you with their work? What is it about their writing that draws your interest?

LL: I've been writing down some notes for my new book, but I haven't started writing it yet, so it's hard to say where and when it will be set. As for contemporary American writers, I like the work of Edward P. Jones, Ha Jin, Andrea Barrett, Cormac McCarthy, Gary Shteyngart, Colum McCann, Antonya Nelson, and many, many others. My taste is for fiction that displays great imaginative empathy and also opens up the psychological and emotional intricacies of characters.

BNR: In your experience, does knowing the sex of an author influence your reading of a particular text? If so, how much? In teaching, do you encounter many students who are reluctant to read works by authors of the opposite sex?

LL: In the vast majority of cases, we do know some basic facts about an author -- approximate age, race, and sex -- so it's hard to compare these experiences with the very rare cases in which we don't know anything about an author. I would say, though, that I am always willing to be guided by a writer into the world he or she is creating, and I only feel thrown out of the narrative when some detail feels forced, or affected, or unconvincing somehow. I do find, in general, that my male students are less likely to want to read works by women writers or works about women characters, while my female students are, in general, willing to read either. Why that might be, I'm not sure, but I do of course stress how important it is -- especially for budding writers -- to read from a wide variety of perspectives, as it helps develop greater imaginative empathy.

BNR: What was the first English-language novel that really bowled you over, and why? Under what circumstances did you read it?

LL: I think the first English-language novel I read was John Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men, but the first book that impressed me was Jane Austen's Emma. It was assigned in my British literature course when I was a sophomore at Mohammed V University and I remember being excited about going to class because I'd get to discuss the book with my classmates and teacher. I loved how Austen makes the reader care about Emma, despite -- or perhaps because of -- all her faults; and the language was so beautiful and so witty.

BNR: You recently contributed a chapter to a serial novel in the Los Angeles Times. Had you ever written anything in serial form before? What were the particular concerns and considerations that went into your contribution? After your chapter was posted, did you read subsequent chapters by other authors?

LL: I had never written anything in serial form or in collaboration with anyone else, so this was a whole new experience for me. The biggest concern for me was to see where the story was headed until my turn came up and then try to give it a specific direction. The characters had already been introduced and it was time to move the plot forward, so to speak, so I tried to do that in my installment. And yes, of course, I read the subsequent postings by the other writers -- many of whom are friends, so I'd have read their work whether or not we were doing this project together.

BNR: Do you still experiment with writing fiction in Arabic and French? And do you still read much fiction in those languages, or is your relationship with fiction predominantly English-based? You were the first Moroccan author to have her works published by a major press in the United States. What other Moroccan writers would you like to see reach a wider audience? And why them?

LL: No, I haven't written anything in Arabic or French in many, many years, but I still do read in both of these languages. Usually what happens is I'll hear about some book that sounds interesting and rather than wait for the translation, I read it in the original Arabic or French. But really the vast majority of what I read everyday is in English. I would love to see other Moroccan writers reach a greater American audience; Tahar Ben Jelloun and Leila Abouzeid and Mohammed Choukri have all been translated into English but mostly with small presses. Translations of the late, great Driss Chraibi have fallen out of print, I believe, which is a shame. Among the younger writers, I'm surprised that Fouad Laroui has never been translated into English, but I do hear that Abdellah Taia will have a book coming out with MIT Press this year. In an ideal world, I'd have my own imprint and get all of these people translated and published here in the States.

BNR: What do you think reaction will be to Secret Son in Morocco? Do you anticipate criticism from particular quarters?

LL: Ever since I predicted that George W. Bush would lose the 2004 elections, I've stopped trying to prophesize what would happen anywhere! So I really don't know what the reaction will be to Secret Son, either here in the States or in Morocco. I do, however, hope that readers, wherever they may be, will connect with the characters in some way.
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Customer Reviews

Average Rating 3.5
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  • Posted April 24, 2009

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    Advanced Reader's Copy

    After reading some of the other reviews I wish I could be as eloquent as they have been but alas, I am not a writer--just a simple reader. Nevertheless, I continue. I was surprised at how taken I was with this novel. Would I have picked it up off a bookseller's shelf? I'm not sure. However, I certainly appreciated Lalami's writing style and found her stark descriptions of modern Morocco, it's culture, and its struggles quite captivating. Gently, Lalami pulled me into Youseff's life and I found myself quite taken with this young man. I was also taken with his mother and the sacrifices she had made in order to avoid shaming her family. This is a hard book to put down and it is certainly an appropriate novel for this decade. I give it only 4.5 stars simply because I did not care for the ending but, to be fair, I'm not sure if an ending I desired would have been best for the author's message.

    2 out of 2 people found this review helpful.

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  • Posted April 16, 2009

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    A tour de force on the psychology of modern North Africa

    In this superb short novel, Laila Lalami deftly limns the rise and fall of Youssef El Mekki, unacknowledged bastard son of prominent businessman, disillusioned activist, and bon vivant Nabil El Amrani. Seemingly sprung from the trap of the Casablanca slums when he learns that his father, far from being dead, is in fact a Moroccan tycoon, Youssef is soon caught in a complex web of familial and political intrigue. A mark of this novel's quality is its ability to portray what for many Americans is the mildly exotic culture of Morocco while also convincingly revealing the ways in which both Americans and Moroccans are enmeshed in their own cultural contexts (a point illustrated in another fashion by Malcolm Gladwell's recent Outliers). While each character acts as though autonomously, behind the apparently simple interactions among the characters lies a complex web of human relationships, cultural relationships, and sometimes sinister motivations, which Lalami gradually unveils. Lalami's lean style, unsparing eye, and tight construction mean not a word is wasted in this elegant depiction of the book's all too human characters and its damning indictment of the cruel forces that manipulate them.

    2 out of 2 people found this review helpful.

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  • Posted May 20, 2009

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    Secret Son

    Youssef El Mekki is a son of the slums where he grows up with his widowed mother and hopes for a better future. When we first meet him, he is about to graduate high school and hopefully head for university. Both he and his mother look to his higher education as a bridge to a better life and possibly out of the ghetto. But by chance, Youssef discovers that his father who he was brought up to believe died in a tragic accident is in fact alive and quite a rich and influential member of Moroccan society. He is whisked into a world of power, privilege and money and its truly like a whirlwind romance for a boy who finds his fairly tale of leaving the ghetto becoming a reality.

    As Yossef gets acquainted with his father, he begins to change both physically and mentally. He begins to scorn his mother who he believes is trying to deny him access to greatness and embraces the limited admittance he is granted into his father's life. He eventually abandons his university studies, believing that his father will assure his future and along with that go his old friends from the neighborhood. But as his mother warned,all is not as it may seem and Youssef is again relegated to the ghetto. The resulting sadness and feelings of rejection that follow set into motion a tragic set of events that will taint and scar almost everyone involved.

    The author's quiet comments on Morocco and the country that it is becoming are evident. There is a sense of nostalgia that is palpable all through the book, be it a return to the ghetto for a former resident or the return of a favored daughter to the Morocco she used to know. The sights, smells and sound of Morocco are a constant and help draw in the reader. There are so many themes apparent in this book, from the lies that we tell the ones we love to protect them and ourselves from certain harsh realities, to the lies we tell to cover our past mistakes. There is the theme of the presence of social classes and its pervading evidence in all facets of Moroccan life. The resulting effect of this being young men who lose hope as they find that because they did not win the birth lottery that allowed them to be born rich, they will remain low and subject to the will of the rich and powerful. And most dangerously, there is the theme of what happens when hope is lost and messengers of death promise an outlet. A very interesting book that I enjoyed reading. 3.5 out of 5.

    1 out of 1 people found this review helpful.

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  • Posted April 30, 2009

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    Riveting family drama set against the politics of modern Morocco

    In Secret Son, Laila Lalami paints a vivid picture of modern Morocco and its politics, while telling the story of Youssef El-Mekki, whose entire life is circumscribed by the class structure of his country. Youssef's journey from the slums of Casablanca, to college, to a luxury apartment paid for by his previously believed dead father, and then back to the slums plays out against the rise of a radical Islamic group, and Lalami's story makes it easy to see just how a group like this could appeal to poor disillusioned youth like Youssef and his friends, which, coupled with the complex motivations of all the principal characters, leads to the book's climax and disturbing, yet appropriate, conclusion.

    1 out of 1 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 16, 2014

    Well written book, I would have given it 5 stars but I didn't ca

    Well written book, I would have given it 5 stars but I didn't care for the ending. If you knew it had a sequel, I would have read it immediately.

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    Posted May 6, 2009

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    Posted April 21, 2009

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    Posted June 7, 2009

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