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Section 1983 Litigation in a Nutshell / Edition 1
     

Section 1983 Litigation in a Nutshell / Edition 1

by Michael G. Collins, Collins
 

ISBN-10: 031421190X

ISBN-13: 9780314211903

Pub. Date: 01/28/1997

Publisher: West Group

Monroe and the Modern Action; Parratt and the Scope of Due Process; Excessive Force, Private Violence, and Enforcing Federal "Laws" Under Municipal Liability; State Sovereign Immunity; Personal Immunities; Damages and Injunctions and Declaratory Relief; Attorney's Fees; Choice of Law and Section 1983 in the State Courts; Preclusion and Abstention and Related Doctrines

Overview

Monroe and the Modern Action; Parratt and the Scope of Due Process; Excessive Force, Private Violence, and Enforcing Federal "Laws" Under Municipal Liability; State Sovereign Immunity; Personal Immunities; Damages and Injunctions and Declaratory Relief; Attorney's Fees; Choice of Law and Section 1983 in the State Courts; Preclusion and Abstention and Related Doctrines; Section 1983 and Habeas Corpus; Bivens and Federal Officer Liability; Jurisdiction and Procedure.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780314211903
Publisher:
West Group
Publication date:
01/28/1997
Series:
Nutshell Series
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
366
Product dimensions:
4.98(w) x 7.40(h) x 0.61(d)
Age Range:
18 Years

Related Subjects

Table of Contents

PREFACE V(16)
TABLE OF CASES
XXI(20)
TABLE OF STATUTES
XLI(14)
TABLE OF FEDERAL RULES OF CIVIL PROCEDURE
LV
Chapter 1. Introduction
1(9)
A. Historical Background
1(4)
B. Early Interpretations
5(5)
Chapter 2. Monroe and the Modern 1983 Action
10(10)
A. Monroe v. Pape: The Rebirth of XXX 1983
11(9)
1. Exhaustion of State Remedies?
12(5)
(a) Legislative History and the Purposes of 1983
13(1)
(b) The Constitutional Dimension of Official Illegality
14(1)
(c) Alternative Possibilities
15(2)
2. "Under Color of" Law
17(3)
(a) "Unauthorized" Official Illegality
17(2)
(b) Justice Frankfurter's Dissent
19(1)
3. Municipal Liability
20(1)
B. Permutations on the No-Exhaustion Rule
20(6)
1. State Administrative Remedies
20(1)
2. State-Law "Notice of Claim" Requirements
21(1)
3. Qualifications on the No-Exhaustion Rule
22(3)
(a) Abstention and Related Doctrines
22(1)
(b) Suits by Convicted Persons
23(1)
(c) Takings of Property
24(1)
4. The Consequences of Exhausting State Remedies
25(1)
C. Permutations on "Color of" Law and "State Action"
26(6)
1. The Relationship Between the Two
26(1)
2. Private Actors and State Action
27(3)
3. State Actors and Private Action
30(2)
D. The Constitutional Coverage of XXX 1983
32(3)
1. The Scope of Enforceable Duties
32(1)
2. State of Mind and XXX 1983
33(2)
Chapter 3. Parratt and the Scope of Due Process
35(21)
A. Fundamental Rights and Due Process
36(1)
B. Non-fundamental Rights and Due Process
37(10)
1. State of Mind and Due Process
40(2)
(a) Intentional Deprivations
40(1)
(b) Negligent Deprivations
40(1)
(c) Between Negligence and Intent
41(1)
2. Authorized versus Unauthorized Official Behavior
42(2)
3. The Scope of Protected Liberty and Property
44(3)
C. "Substantive" versus "Procedural" Due Process
47(4)
1. Construing "Fundamental" Rights
47(1)
2. From Torts to "Substantive" Due Process Claims
48(2)
3. Pre-deprivation Procedural Due Process Claims
50(1)
D. Monroe versus Parratt
51(2)
E. Constitutionally Compelled Remedies?
53(3)
Chapter 4. Excessive Force, Private Violence, and 1983
56(18)
A. Official Violence
57(6)
1. Searches and Seizures
57(2)
2. Cruel and Unusual Punishments
59(1)
3. "Substantive Due Process"
60(3)
B. Private Violence and Affirmative Governmental Duties
63(11)
1. Custodial Settings
63(3)
(a) Prisoners
63(2)
(b) Others in Custody
65(1)
2. Non-custodial Settings
66(3)
(a) Private Violence and the "Free World"
66(2)
(b) Parolee Violence
68(1)
(c) Workplace Safety and Public Employeess
68(1)
3. The Limits of DeShaney
69(5)
(a) Special Relationships
70(1)
(b) State-Created Dangers
71(1)
(c) Non-Due Process Claims
72(2)
Chapter 5. Enforcing Federal "Laws" Under 1983
74(12)
A. Statutory Violations and XXX 1983
75(2)
B. Exceptions to Statutory Enforcement Under XXX 1983
77(5)
1. Non-enforceable Rights
77(1)
2. Congressional Displacement
78(2)
3. New Directions?
80(2)
C. Pre-emption and Supremacy Clause Claims
82(4)
Chapter 6. Municipal Liability
86(17)
A. Entity Accountability and Its Limits
87(5)
1. Local Governments as Suable "Persons"
87(2)
2. No Respondeat Superior Liability
89(1)
3. The Consequences of Monell
90(2)
(a) In Theory
90(1)
(b) In Practice
91(1)
B. The Uncertain Contours of "Custom or Policy"
92(6)
1. Formal Policies versus Random Acts
92(1)
(a) Formal Policy
92(1)
(b) Random and Unauthorized Official Acts
93(1)
2. "Custom" and Informal Policy
93(1)
3. Decisions of "Policymakers"
94(3)
4. Monell in Flux
97(1)
C. "Failure to Train" as a Basis for Municipal Liability
98(3)
1. Inaction versus Indifference
99(1)
2. Causation
100(1)
D. Fault in Hiring
101(1)
E. Individual "Supervisory" Liability
102(1)
Chapter 7. State Sovereign Immunity
103(23)
A. Sovereign Immunity and Individual Officer Suits
104(2)
B. Retrospective versus Prospective Relief
106(4)
1. Prospective Injunctive Relief
107(2)
2. Retrospective Damages Relief
109(1)
C. "Ancillary" Awards of Monetary Relief
110(2)
D. Abrogation, Waiver, and States as Suable "Persons"
112(3)
E. Section 1983 Litigation After Seminole Tribe
115(3)
F. What Are Arms of the State?
118(2)
G. Individual versus Official Capacity Suits
120(3)
H. Pendent Claims Under State Law
123(3)
1. The Pennhurst Limitation
123(1)
2. Limitations on Pennhurst
124(2)
Chapter 8. Personal Immunities
126(24)
A. Good Faith Immunity
127(9)
1. Freedom to Act in Areas of Uncertain Legality
129(1)
2. Freedom From Trial
130(3)
3. Assessing Reasonableness
133(2)
4. Interlocutory Appealability
135(1)
5. Beneficiaries of Qualified Immunity
136(1)
B. Absolute Immunity of Judicial Actors
136(4)
C. Absolute Immunity of Legislative Actors
140(2)
D. Prosecutorial and Related Quasi-judicial Immunities
145(1)
E. Hybrid Officials
145(1)
F. Private Actors and Immunity
146(2)
G. Local Governments and Official Immunities
148(2)
Chapter 9. Damages and XXX 1983
150(12)
A. Compensatory Damages
151(6)
1. Standards and Proof
151(2)
2. Damages and the "Inherent" Value of Constitutional Rights
153(2)
3. The Role of State Law
155(2)
B. Punitive Damages
157(5)
1. Against Individual Officers
157(2)
2. Against Local Governments
159(3)
Chapter 10. Injunctions and Declaratory Relief
162(29)
A. Prerequisites for Equitable Relief
163(4)
1. Adequacy of Legal Remedies
163(2)
2. Irreparable Harm
165(1)
3. Likelihood of Prevailing on the Merits
166(1)
4. Balance of Harms
167(1)
B. Structural Injunctions: Federalism, Justiciability, and Remedial Discretion
167(9)
1. Unconstitutional Law Enforcement Practices
168(5)
(a) Justiciability Concerns
169(3)
(b) "Our Federalism
172(1)
2. The Limits of Remedial Discretion
173(3)
C. Declaratory Judgemnts
176(3)
D. Coercive Enforcement of Remedies
179(7)
1. Damages Judgments
179(2)
2. Equitable Relief and the Public Fisc
181(2)
3. Contempt
183(3)
E. Relief From Continuing Injunctive Relief
186(5)
1. Achieving Compliance
186(1)
2. Relief From Hard Bargains
187(2)
3. Prison Litigation Reform Act
189(2)
Chapter 11. Attorney's Fees
191(22)
A. The Rationale Behind Statutory Fee Shifting
192(3)
B. Judicial Elaboration of the Fees Act
195(10)
1. Prevailing Parties
195(2)
2. Assessing a Fee's Reasonableness
197(3)
(a) The Lodestar
197(1)
(b) Proportionality in Fee Awards and Damages Judgments
198(2)
3. The Risk of Not Prevailing
200(4)
4. Defendant Fees in XXX 1983 Litigation
204(1)
C. Who Pays the Fee Award?
205(3)
D. Litigation Costs Other Than Counsel Fees
208(1)
E. Attorney's Fees and Settlement
209(4)
Chapter 12. Choice of Law and XXX 1983
213(16)
A. Choice of Law in Federal Litigation
215(2)
B. Choice of Law in XXX 1983 Actions: Section 1988
217(7)
1. Deficiencies in Federal Law
217(1)
2. Requiring Resort to State Law
218(1)
3. "Inconsistencies" With XXX 1983 or Federal Law
219(3)
(a) Abatement and "Inconsistency"
219(2)
(b) Examples of Inconsistency
221(1)
4. The Uncertainty of XXX 1988's Applicability in Federal Court
222(2)
C. Statutes of Limitations
224(4)
1. State Court Analogies
224(2)
2. Tolling and Accrual
226(1)
3. Inconsistency
227(1)
D. Attorney's Fees
228(1)
Chapter 13. Section 1983 in the State Courts
229(12)
A. State Court Powers and Duties
230(2)
B. Procedures and Remedies in State Courts
232(6)
1. Undue Procedural Burdens
233(2)
2. Discriminatory Procedures
235(1)
3. Attorney's Fees and Other Remedies
236(1)
4. Pleading
237(1)
C. Section 1988, Gap-Filling, and State Courts
238(1)
D. Displacement of XXX 1983 by State Remedies
239(2)
Chapter 14. Preclusion and XXX 1983
241(14)
A. Issue Preclusion
242(5)
1. State Court Proceedings
242(3)
2. State Administrative Proceedings
245(2)
B. Claim Preclusion
247(2)
C. Rooker-Feldman and Related Doctrines
249(3)
D. Preclusion and the Convicted Criminal
252(1)
E. Guilty Pleas, Arbitration, and Release-Dismissal Agreements
253(2)
Chapter 15. Abstention and Related Doctrines
255(32)
A. Tax and Rate Injunction Acts: 28 U.S.C.A. XXX 1341 & 1342
256(4)
1. The Scope of the Non-interference Rules
257(1)
2. What Constitutes a "Plain, Speedy and Efficient" State Remedy?
258(2)
B. The Anti-Injunction Act: 28 U.S.C.A. XXX 2283
260(1)
C. "Our Federalism": The Younger Doctrine
261(14)
1. Ongoing State Criminal Proceedings
261(4)
(a) Deference to Good Faith State Criminal Process
261(2)
(b) Bad Faith Prosecutions
263(2)
2. Declaratory Relief and Damages
265(1)
3. Younger, Ex parte Young, and "Anticipatory" Relief
266(5)
(a) Declaratory Relief
267(1)
(b) Preliminary and Permanent Injunctions
268(1)
(c) Timing
269(2)
4. Younger's Application to Civil Actions
271(4)
(a) Government-Initiated Civil Enforcement Proceedings
271(2)
(b) Private Litigation
273(2)
D. Unclear Questions of State Law: Pullman Abstention and Certification
275(9)
1. Abstention Theory
275(3)
2. Abstention Procedure and Certification
278(2)
3. Assessing the Uncertainty of State Law
280(1)
4. Parallel State Constitutional Grounds
280(4)
E. State Administrative Decisionmaking: Burford Abstention
284(3)
Chapter 16. Section 1983 and Habeas Corpus
287(14)
A. The Habeas Remedy
288(4)
1. Relitigation and its Limits
289(1)
2. Defaulted Claims
290(2)
(a) Non-capital Cases
290(1)
(b) Capital Cases
291(1)
3. Timing and Successive Petitions
292(1)
B. The Intersection of Habeas and XXX 1983
292(3)
C. Undermining the Integrity of Underlying Convictions
295(6)
Chapter 17. Bivens and Federal Officer Liability
301(19)
A. Implied Constitutional Rights of Action for Damages
302(4)
1. The Bivens Action
302(3)
2. Bivens's Impact
305(1)
B. Expansion of the Bivens Action
306(3)
C. Contraction of the Bivens Action
309(4)
1. "Special Factors Counseling Hesitation"
309(1)
2. Substitute Congressional Remedies
310(2)
3. Narrowing the Content of "Liberty"
312(1)
D. Remedial Details and Federal Common Law
313(3)
E. Federal Tort Claims and the Westfall Act
316(4)
Chapter 18. Jurisdiction and Procedure
320(33)
A. Subject Matter Jurisdiction
320(2)
B. Supplemental Jurisdiction Over Pendent Claims and Parties
322(3)
1. Judicial Power
322(2)
2. Judicial Discretion
324(1)
C. Venue
325(2)
D. Removal
327(2)
E. Pleading
329(4)
1. Liberal or Strict Pleading?
329(2)
2. Burdens of Pleading (and Proof)
331(2)
F. Individual versus Official Capacity Suits
333(2)
G. Justiciability
335(14)
1. Standing to Sue
337(7)
(a) Injury in Fact
337(3)
(i) Generalized Grievances
338(1)
(ii) Taxpayer Standing
339(1)
(b) Causation
340(1)
(c) Redressability
341(2)
(d) Associational and Third-Party Standing
343(1)
2. Ripeness
344(3)
3. Mootness
347(2)
(a) Individual Litigation
347(1)
(b) Class Action Litigation
348(1)
H. "Facial" versus "As Applied" Challenges
349(4)
INDEX 353

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