Sediments and Toxic Substances: Environmental Effects and Ecotoxicity

Overview

This book is the result of a research project on environmental behaviour of sediments. It represents one of the most comprehensive programs in the field of chemical and biological interactions of toxicants in sediments. It also provides valuable insights into the actual international state of sediment quality assessment and discusses various chemical and biological approaches to sediment toxicity. The understanding of interactions of toxic substances in sediments and of conditions controlling mobilization, ...
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Paperback (Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1996)
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Overview

This book is the result of a research project on environmental behaviour of sediments. It represents one of the most comprehensive programs in the field of chemical and biological interactions of toxicants in sediments. It also provides valuable insights into the actual international state of sediment quality assessment and discusses various chemical and biological approaches to sediment toxicity. The understanding of interactions of toxic substances in sediments and of conditions controlling mobilization, transfer and bioavailability can be used to predict environmental fates and effects of chemicals. This new book provides valuable information to governmental administrations, technical advisers and research institutions dealing with the management of contaminated sediments.
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Table of Contents

1 Sediment Quality Assessment: Chemical and Biological Approaches.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Chemical Methods.- 1.3 Integrated Chemical and Biological Methods.- 1.4 Tiered Sediment Assessment Strategy.- 1.5 Conclusions.- Laboratory Studies.- 2 The Influence of Diagenetic Processes on the Exchange of Trace Contaminants at the Sediment-Water Interface.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Materials and Methods.- 2.3 Results and Discussion.- 3 Interaction of Pesticides with River Sediments and Characterization of Organic Matter of the Sediments.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Experimental.- 3.3 Results and Discussion.- 3.4 Conclusion.- 4 Partitioning Behaviour of Phenols Between Water and Hydrophilic/Hydrophobic Interfaces.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Fundamentals.- 4.3 Adsorption of Phenols on Hydrophilic Mineral Surfaces.- 4.4 Sorption of Phenols on Coated Surfaces.- 4.5 Adsorption of Colloidal Particles on Surfaces.- 4.6 The Partition Coeffient: kD.- 4.7 Concluding Remarks.- 5 Sorption Properties of Biofilms.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Composition and Properties of Biofilms.- 5.3 Biofilms and Sorption.- 5.4 Sorption Sites in Biofilms.- 5.5 Remobilization.- 5.6 Concluding Remarks.- 6 Ecotoxicity of Certain Heavy Metals Affecting Bacteria-Mediated Biogeochemical Pathways in Sediments.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Heavy Metal Resistance of Bacteria.- 6.3 The Gap Between Microbial Physiology and Ecology.- 6.4 Influence of Cd, Hg, and Cu on Some Key Measures of Microbiological Sediment Analysis.- 6.5 Conclusions.- 7 Bioassays on Sediment Toxicity.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Ecological Requirements.- 7.3 Organismic Responses in Sediments and Impacts of Environmental Stressors.- 7.4 Enzymatic Inhibition (Cholinesterase) in Sediment Organisms.- 7.5 Genetic Damage.- 7.6 Ecological Relevance of Biological Responses in Sediments.- 7.7 Recommendations.- Field Studies.- 8 Trace Element Diagenesis in Polluted Sediments of the River Elbe Estuary.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Materials and Methods.- 8.3 Results and Discussion.- 8.4 Conclusions.- 9 Mercury Distribution and Speciation in a Polluted Fluvial System.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Results.- 9.3 Conclusions.- 10 Organotin Compounds in Sediments of the Rivers Elbe and Mulde.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Organotin Compounds in Elbe and Mulde Sediments.- 10.3 Analytical and Chemical Methods — Species Analysis.- 10.4 Conclusions.- Modelling Aspects.- 11 Advective Transport of Interacting Solutes: The Chromatographic Model.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Transport Equations.- 11.3 Riemann Problem and Centred Waves.- 11.4 Analytical Integration of Transport Equations.- 11.5 Coherence Conditions, Rankine-Hugoniot Relation and Retardations.- 11.6 The Jacobian and the Retardation Matrix.- 11.7 Topology of Waves for Multicomponent Langmuir-Type Isotherms.- 11.8 Waves in Two-Component Systems.- 11.9 Barrier Against Remobilization of a Contaminant.- 11.10 Conclusions.- Appendices.- Glossary of Notation.
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