The Seismogenic Zone of Subduction Thrust Faults [NOOK Book]

Overview


Subduction zones, one of the three types of plate boundaries, return Earth's surface to its deep interior. Because subduction zones are gently inclined at shallow depths and depress Earth's temperature gradient, they have the largest seismogenic area of any plate boundary. Consequently, subduction zones generate Earth's largest earthquakes and most destructive tsunamis. As tragically demonstrated by the Sumatra earthquake and tsunami of December 2004, these events often impact densely populated coastal areas and...

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The Seismogenic Zone of Subduction Thrust Faults

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Overview


Subduction zones, one of the three types of plate boundaries, return Earth's surface to its deep interior. Because subduction zones are gently inclined at shallow depths and depress Earth's temperature gradient, they have the largest seismogenic area of any plate boundary. Consequently, subduction zones generate Earth's largest earthquakes and most destructive tsunamis. As tragically demonstrated by the Sumatra earthquake and tsunami of December 2004, these events often impact densely populated coastal areas and cause large numbers of fatalities.

While scientists have a general understanding of the seismogenic zone, many critical details remain obscure. This volume attempts to answer such fundamental concerns as why some interplate subduction earthquakes are relatively modest in rupture length (greater than 100 km) while others, such as the great (M greater than 9) 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and 2004 Sumatra events, rupture along 1000 km or more. Contributors also address why certain subduction zones are fully locked, accumulating elastic strain at essentially the full plate convergence rate, while others appear to be only partially coupled or even freely slipping; whether these locking patterns persist through the seismic cycle; and what is the role of sediments and fluids on the incoming plate.

Nineteen papers written by experts in a variety of fields review the most current lab, field, and theoretical research on the origins and mechanics of subduction zone earthquakes and suggest further areas of exploration. They consider the composition of incoming plates, laboratory studies concerning sediment evolution during subduction and fault frictional properties, seismic and geodetic studies, and regional scale deformation. The forces behind subduction zone earthquakes are of increasing environmental and societal importance.

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Product Details

Meet the Author


Timothy H. Dixon is a professor of tectonics, geodesy, and remote sensing at the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, which is associated with the University of Miami.

J. Casey Moore is professor of earth sciences at the University of California Santa Cruz.

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Table of Contents


Preface     viii
Introduction     1
The Seismogenic Zone of Subduction Thrust Faults: Introduction   Timothy H. Dixon   J. Casey Moore     2
The Seismogenic Zone of Subduction Thrust Faults: What We Know and Don't Know   R. D. Hyndman     15
The Incoming Plate     41
Sediment Inputs to Subduction Zones: Why Lithostratigraphy and Clay Mineralogy Matter   Michael B. Underwood     42
The Thermal State of 18-24 Ma Upper Lithosphere Subducting Below the Nicoya Peninsula, Northern Costa Rica Margin   M. Hutnak   A. T. Fisher   C. A. Stein   R. Harris   K. Wang   E. Silver   G. Spinelli   M. Pfender   H. Villinger   R. MacKnight   P. Costa Pisani   H. DeShon   C. Diamente     86
Influence of Subducting Topography on Earthquake Rupture   Susan L. Bilek     123
Convergent Margin Structure, Fluids and Subduction Thrust Evolution     147
Pore Pressure and Fluid Flow in the Northern Barbados Accretionary Complex: A Synthesis   Barbara A. Bekins   Elizabeth J. Screaton     148
Pore Pressure within Underthrust Sediment in Subduction Zones   Demian M. Saffer     171
Deformation andMechanical Strength of Sediments at the Nankai Subduction Zone: Implications for Prism Evolution and Decollement Initiation and Propagation   Julia K. Morgan   Elizabeth B. Sunderland   Ne E. Blanche Ramsey   Maria V. S. Ask     210
The Nicaragua Convergent Margin: Seismic Reflection Imaging of the Source of a Tsunami Earthquake   Kirk D. McIntosh   Eli A. Silver   Imtiaz Ahmed   Arnim Berhorst   Cesar R. Ranero   Robyn K. Kelly   Ernst R. Flueh     257
How Accretionary Prisms Elucidate Seismogenesis in Subduction Zones   J. Casey Moore   Christie Rowe   Francesca Meneghini     288
Laboratory Studies     316
Friction of the Smectite Clay Montmorillonite: A Review and Interpretation of Data   Diane E. Moore   David A. Lockner     317
Fault Friction and the Upper Transition from Seismic to Aseismic Faulting   Chris Marone   Demian M. Saffer     346
Laboratory-Observed Faulting in Intrinsically and Apparently Weak Materials: Strength, Seismic Coupling, Dilatancy, and Pore-Fluid Pressure   N. M. Beeler     370
Seismic and Geodetic Studies     450
Asperities and Quasi-Static Slips on the Subducting Plate Boundary East of Tohoku, Northeast Japan   Akira Hasegawa   Naoki Uchida   Toshihiro Igarashi   Toru Matsuzawa   Tomomi Okada   Satoshi Miura   Yoko Suwa     451
Anomalous Earthquake Ruptures at Shallow Depths on Subduction Zone Megathrusts   Thorne Lay   Susan Bilek     476
Secular, Transient and Seasonal Crustal Movements in Japan from a Dense GPS Array: Implication for Plate Dynamics in Convergent Boundaries   Kosuke Heki     512
Elastic and Viscoelastic Models of Crustal Deformation in Subduction Earthquake Cycles   Kelin Wang     540
Distinct Updip Limits to Geodetic Locking and Microseismicity at the Northern Costa Rica Seismogenic Zone: Evidence for Two Mechanical Transitions   Susan Y. Schwartz   Heather R. DeShon     576
Regional Scale Deformation     600
Collision Versus Subduction: From a Viewpoint of Slab Dehydration   Tetsuzo Seno     601
Subduction and Mountain Building in the Central Andes   Jonas Kley   Tim Vietor     624
List of Contributors     661
Index     665
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