Self-Incompatibility in Flowering Plants: Evolution, Diversity, and Mechanisms / Edition 1

Self-Incompatibility in Flowering Plants: Evolution, Diversity, and Mechanisms / Edition 1

by Vernonica E. Franklin-Tong
     
 

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ISBN-10: 3540684859

ISBN-13: 9783540684855

Pub. Date: 08/19/2008

Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg

Great progress has been made in our understanding of pollen-pistil interactions and self-incompatibility (SI) in flowering plants in the last few decades. This book covers a broad spectrum of research into SI, with accounts by internationally renowned scientists. It comprises two sections: Evolution and Population Genetics of SI, Molecular and Cell Biology of SI

Overview

Great progress has been made in our understanding of pollen-pistil interactions and self-incompatibility (SI) in flowering plants in the last few decades. This book covers a broad spectrum of research into SI, with accounts by internationally renowned scientists. It comprises two sections: Evolution and Population Genetics of SI, Molecular and Cell Biology of SI Systems.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9783540684855
Publisher:
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date:
08/19/2008
Edition description:
2008
Pages:
313
Product dimensions:
6.20(w) x 9.40(h) x 0.70(d)

Table of Contents

Part I Evolution and Population Genetics of Self-Incompatibility

1 New Insights on Heterostyly: Comparative Biology, Ecology and Genetics S.C.H. Barrett J.S. Shore 3

1.1 Introduction 4

1.2 Comparative Biology and Evolutionary History of Heterostyly 6

1.2.1 Phylogeny Reconstruction and Character Evolution 7

1.3 Function and Reproductive Ecology of Heterostyly 10

1.3.1 Function of Heterostyly 10

1.3.2 Floral Morph Ratios and Reproductive Success 12

1.4 Inheritance of Heterostyly and the Supergene Model 14

1.4.1 Inheritance of Distyly and Tristyly 14

1.4.2 Supergene Model 15

1.4.3 Mutational Analyses and the Study of Genetic Variants 19

1.5 Molecular Genetics 19

1.5.1 Theoretical Models and Predictions 20

1.5.2 Protein Profiles 22

1.5.3 mRNA Expression 22

1.5.4 Genetic Localization 23

1.6 Concluding Remarks 25

References 26

2 Genetic and Environmental Causes and Evolutionary Consequences of Variations in Self-Fertility in Self Incompatible Species S.V. Good-Avila J.I. Mena-Ali A.G. Stephenson 33

2.1 Introduction 34

2.2 Genetics of Self-Fertility 35

2.2.1 Mutations Affecting the S-locus 36

2.2.2 Unlinked Modifiers of SI 37

2.2.3 Plasticity in Self-Fertility 40

2.2.4 Summary of Genetics of Self-Fertility 41

2.3 Fate of Self-Fertility Genes 42

2.3.1 Conditions for Stable Polymorphisms 43

2.3.2 Summary and Conclusions Concerning Stable Polymorphisms 45

References 47

3 On the Evolutionary Modification of Self-Incompatibility: Implications of Partial Clonality for Allelic Diversity and Genealogical Structure M. Vallejo-Marin M.K. Uyenoyama 53

3.1 Introduction 54

3.2 Mating System Dynamics 55

3.2.1 Relative Transition Rates55

3.2.2 Multiple Origins of SC in Arabidopsis 55

3.2.3 Modified Forms of SI 56

3.3 S-Locus Evolution Under Partial Clonality 57

3.3.1 Diffusion Approximation 57

3.3.2 S-Allele Number and Frequency 60

3.3.3 Age of the Root 62

3.4 Discussion 65

3.4.1 Clonality in the Solanaceae 65

3.4.2 Evolutionary Stability of Partial SI 65

3.4.3 Paradoxical Effects on Mating Systems 66

3.5 Conclusions 67

Appendix 1 Diffusion Equation Approximation 68

Appendix 2 Simulations 69

References 69

4 Evolution and Phylogeny of Self-Incompatibility Systems in Angiosperms A.M. Allen S.J. Hiscock 73

4.1 Introduction 74

4.1.1 Diversity of SI Systems in Angiosperms 75

4.1.2 Evolutionary Origin(s) of SI Systems 76

4.2 Was Self-Incompatibility Present in the First Angiosperms? 77

4.2.1 Self-Incompatibility in Basal Angiosperms 78

4.2.2 Self-Incompatibility in the Monocots 80

4.3 Phylogenetic Distribution of SI Systems 81

4.3.1 Late-Acting Ovarian Self Incompatibility (OSI) 84

4.3.2 Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility (GSI) 86

4.3.3 Sporophytic Self-Incompatibility (SSI) 88

4.4 The Relationship Between GSI and SSI 89

4.5 Discussion 91

References 95

5 What Genealogies of S-alleles Tell Us J.R. Kohn 103

5.1 Introduction 104

5.2 Long-Term Demographic Information from the S-locus 105

5.3 Implications of Shared Ancestral Polymorphism 108

5.3.1 Tracing the History of Mating System Change 108

5.3.2 Diversification Rate Differences and Character State Reconstruction 110

5.4 The Pace of New Allele Formation 111

5.5 Remaining Issues of S-RNase Evolution 112

5.6 Pollen Specificity Genes 114

5.7 Conclusions 117

References 117

6 Self-Incompatibility and Evolution of Mating Systems in the Brassicaceae S. Sherman-Broyles J.B. Nasrallah 123

6.1 Introduction 124

6.2 Structural and Sequence Diversification of S-locus Haplotypes and Their Recognition Genes 125

6.2.1 Conserved and Diverged Features of the S-locus 127

6.2.2 Intra-Specific Structural Heteromorphism and Sequence Polymorphism: Suppressed Recombination and Maintenance of SRK-SCR Linkage 128

6.2.3 Diversification of the S-locus Genes and the SI Recognition Repertoire 130

6.3 Evolutionary Switches from Self-Incompatibility to Self-Fertility 135

6.3.1 Molecular Genetics of Switches to Self-Fertility 136

6.3.2 Breakdown of SI by Disruption of S-locus Gene Expression in Inter-Specific Hybrids 137

6.3.3 The Case of Self-Fertility in A. thaliana 138

6.4 Future Prospects 142

References 142

Part II Molecular and Cell Biology of Self-Incompatibility Systems

7 Milestones Identifying Self-Incompatibility Genes in Brassica Species: From Old Stories to New Findings M. Watanabe G. Suzuki S. Takayama 151

7.1 Self-Incompatibility as an Agriculturally Important Trait 152

7.2 The First Milestone: Bateman's Idea for Sporophytic Control of the S-locus 154

7.3 The Second Milestone: Identification of SLG by Using IEF 155

7.4 The Third Milestone: Identification of SRK, the Female S Determinant Gene 156

7.5 The Fourth Milestone: Functional Evidences of SRK in SI 157

7.6 The Fifth Milestone: Establishment of Bioassay System 158

7.7 The Sixth Milestone: Identification of SP11/SCR, the Male S Determinant Gene 159

7.8 After Identifying the SI Genes and Future Milestones 160

7.8.1 Demonstrating Physical Interaction Between SRK and SP11/SCR 160

7.8.2 Downstream of the Interaction: Identifying Components and Mechanisms Involved in Mediating the Rejection of Self Pollen 162

7.8.3 Molecular Mechanisms of Dominance Relationships 163

7.8.4 Evolution of SI Genes 164

7.9 Prospects 165

References 166

8 'Self' Pollen Rejection Through the Intersection of Two Cellular Pathways in the Brassicaceae: Self-Incompatibility and the Compatible Pollen Response M.A. Samuel D. Yee K.E. Haasen D.R. Goring 173

8.1 Introduction 174

8.2 The Early Stages of Compatible Pollen-Stigma Interactions in the Brassicaceae 175

8.2.1 Pollen Capture and Adhesion 175

8.2.2 Pollen Hydration 176

8.2.3 Pollen Germination and Pollen Tube Penetration 178

8.3 The SI Response Causes Pollen Arrest at the Stigmatic Surface 179

8.3.1 The S Receptor Kinase Activates a Cellular Signalling Pathway in the Stigmatic Papilla to Trigger Self Pollen Rejection 179

8.3.2 The M Locus Protein Kinase acts Together with the S Receptor Kinase to Promote SI 180

8.3.3 The SRK Kinase Domain can Interact with a Range of Intracellular Proteins 181

8.3.4 Thioredoxin h Inhibits SRK Activity in the Absence of Self Pollen 182

8.3.5 ARC1 Functions Downstream of SRK to Promote SI 182

8.3.6 BnExo70A1 is a Potential Substrate for ARC1 and is Required for Compatible Pollen-Stigma Interactions 184

8.3.7 Endomembrane Changes in the Stigmatic Papillae Following Compatible and Self-Incompatible Pollinations in the Brassicaceae 185

8.4 Conclusions and Prospects 186

References 187

9 Molecular Biology of S-RNase-Based Self-Incompatibility Y. Zhang Y.Xue 193

9.1 Introduction 194

9.2 S-RNase Determines S-Specificity in Pistil 196

9.2.1 Isolation and Identification of S-RNase as the Pistil S 196

9.2.2 S-RNase Sequence Features and the Specificity Determinant 196

9.2.3 The Role of S-RNase: A Cytotoxin Specifically Inhibits Self Pollen 198

9.3 F-Box Proteins Determine S-Specificity in Pollen 199

9.3.1 Clues from Pollen-Part Self Compatible Mutants 199

9.3.2 Isolation of the Pollen SI Determinant, SLF/SFB 200

9.3.3 Sequence Analysis of SLFs and SFBs 201

9.3.4 Identification of SLF as the Pollen S 201

9.3.5 SFBs from Rosaceae Likely Represent Another Class of F-Box Genes 202

9.4 Other Genes That Modulate the SI Response 203

9.4.1 The Pistil Modifier Factors 203

9.4.2 The Pollen Modifier Factors 204

9.5 Molecular Mechanisms for S-RNase-based SI 205

9.5.1 Pollen S, the Positive or Negative Regulator of S-RNase? Clues from Genetic Evidence 205

9.5.2 The Fate of S-RNases: S-RNase Restriction is Likely to Involve Ubiquitination 206

9.5.3 Future Perspectives 208

References 210

10 Comparing Models for S-RNase-Based Self-Incompatibility B. McClure 217

10.1 The Biology of S-RNase-Based SI 218

10.1.1 Genetic Breakdown 218

10.2 S-RNase and S-locus F-box Proteins 219

10.2.1 S-RNase Structure and Specificity 219

10.2.2 S-locus F-Box Genes 221

10.3 Non-S-Specific Genes 222

10.3.1 HT Genes 223

10.3.2 S-RNase Binding Proteins in the Transmitting Tract Extracellular Matrix 224

10.3.3 Non-S-Specific Factors in Pollen 226

10.4 Comparing Models for S-RNase-Based SI 227

10.4.1 How do Compatible Pollen Tubes Resist S-RNase Cytotoxicity? 227

10.4.2 Is There a Separate Mechanism in the Rosaceae? 227

10.4.3 Inhibiting S-RNase Enzyme Activity 228

10.4.4 S-RNase Degradation 228

10.4.5 S-RNase Compartmentalisation 231

References 233

11 Self-Incompatibility in Papaver Rhoeas: Progress in Understanding Mechanisms Involved in Regulating Self-Incompatibility in Papaver V.E. Franklin-Tong 237

11.1 Introduction 238

11.1.1 Genetics and Cell Biology of Self-Incompatibility in Papaver 238

11.1.2 How Studies on Self-Incompatibility in Papaver Started 239

11.1.3 The Papaver in Vitro SI System 241

11.2 S Proteins Determine S-Specificity in the Pistil 242

11.2.1 Identification of Pistil S-locus Components 242

11.2.2 Pistil S-Protein Sequence Information and Residues Required for Function 243

11.3 Identification of the Pollen S-Determinant 243

11.4 Mechanisms Involved in SI in the Papaver System 244

11.4.1 Calcium Signalling Mediates Papaver SI 244

11.4.2 A Role for Soluble Inorganic Pyrophosphatases (sPPases) in Papaver SI 245

11.4.3 Alterations to the Actin Cytoskeleton are Triggered by Papaver SI 246

11.4.4 SI Triggers Programmed Cell Death 247

11.5 An Overall Model for Mechanisms Involved in Regulating SI in Papaver 251

11.5.1 A Contrast to the S-RNase System and Brassica SI Systems 253

11.6 Future Perspectives 254

References 255

12 Molecular Genetics of Sporophytic Self-Incompatibility in Ipomoea, a Member of the Convolvulaceae Y. Kowyama T. Tsuchiya K. Kakeda 259

12.1 Introduction 260

12.2 Sexual Reproduction in the Genus Ipomoea 261

12.3 Genetics of Self-Incompatibility in Ipomoea 261

12.4 Stigma-Specific Proteins 263

12.5 Physical Size of the S-locus 264

12.6 Genomic Organisation of the S-locus 266

12.7 S-locus Genes in Ipomoea 268

12.8 Diversity of the SI Systems 270

References 271

13 Self-Incompatibility in the Grasses P. Langridge U. Baumann 275

13.1 Introduction 276

13.2 Genetic Control of SI in the Grasses 277

13.2.1 Features of the S-Z System 278

13.2.2 The Third Locus 'T' 279

13.2.3 Mechanism of Action of S- and Z-Gene Products 280

13.3 Approaches and Progress in Cloning S and Z 280

13.3.1 Reverse Genetics 281

13.3.2 Forward Genetics 281

13.4 Conclusions 284

References 285

14 Heteromorphic Self-Incompatibility in Primula: Twenty-First Century Tools Promise to Unravel a Classic Nineteenth Century Model System A. McCubbin 289

14.1 Introduction 290

14.2 Floral Characteristics of the Mating Types of Primula 291

14.2.1 Style 292

14.2.2 Stigma 292

14.2.3 Corolla Mouth Size 292

14.2.4 Anthers 293

14.2.5 Pollen 293

14.2.6 Self-Incompatibility Specificity 293

14.3 Functions of Heteromorphic Characters 293

14.4 Physiological Nature of SI 295

14.4.1 Site of Operation 295

14.4.2 Candidate Molecules in the Operation of Heteromorphic SI 297

14.5 The Primula S-locus 297

14.5.1 Genetic Structure 297

14.5.2 Location and Size of the S-locus 301

14.5.3 Allelic Dominance 301

14.6 Floral Development 302

14.7 Molecular Genetic Characterisation of the Primula S-locus: Current Status 303

14.8 Conclusions and Future Prospects 305

References 306

Index 309

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