Self-Organization and the City / Edition 1

Self-Organization and the City / Edition 1

by Juval Portugali

This book integrates the theories of complex self-organizing systems w ith the rich body of discourse and literature developed in what might be called tsocial theory of cities and urbanism.v This is done in seve ral ways: first, by an explicit comparative discussion of the two theo retical bodies in conjunction with some classical issues such as the n ature of

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This book integrates the theories of complex self-organizing systems w ith the rich body of discourse and literature developed in what might be called tsocial theory of cities and urbanism.v This is done in seve ral ways: first, by an explicit comparative discussion of the two theo retical bodies in conjunction with some classical issues such as the n ature of cities, the urban process, urban and regional planning, decis ion making, and the urban revolution (or rather revolutions). Second, by developing a new family of heuristic models and using them to study the issue of socio-cultural spatial segregation in cities. We term th ese models FACS models (Free Agents in a Cellular Space), and third, b y developing a synergetic/pattern recognition theory of cities and of decision-making in the context of city planning.

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Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date:
Springer Series in Synergetics
Edition description:
Product dimensions:
9.21(w) x 6.14(h) x 0.88(d)

Table of Contents

I On Cities and Urbanism.- 1. Cities as Concepts.- 1.1 Cities Have Been with Us for over 5000 Years.- 1.2 The Aristotelian City.- 1.3 The City of Wittgenstein.- 1.4 The City as a (Pattern) Language.- 1.5 The Prototypicality of Core Cities.- 1.6 The Ideal-Type City of Max Weber.- 1.7 IRN Cities.- 2. Prototype Urbanisms.- 2.1 The Ecocity.- 2.1.1 Eco-nomic Cities.- 2.1.2 Eco-logical Cities.- 2.1.3 Their Common Origin.- 2.2 Sir Isaac Newton’s Cities.- 2.3 Chicago.- 2.4 Monstrocity.- 2.5 Taming Megalopolis.- 2.6 Plan the Beast.- 2.6.1 The Disillusionment, or the First Planning Dilemma.- 2.7 The City of (In)Justice.- 2.8 The Humanistic City of Everyday Life.- 2.8.1 The City of Daily Routines.- 2.8.2 The Cognitive City in the Head.- 2.8.3 The Humanistic City.- 2.9 The Marx(ist) City.- 2.10 De-Visualized Cities.- 2.11 The Split.- 2.12 The Second Planning Dilemma.- 2.13 The Postmodern City.- 2.14 Los Angeles.- 2.15 The Hypermodern Self-Organizing City.- 3. Self-Organizing Cities.- 3.1 A Concise Introduction to Self-Organization.- 3.2 Dissipative Cities.- 3.3 Synergetic Cities.- 3.3.1 The Laser Paradigm.- 3.3.2 The Paradigm of Pattern Formation.- 3.3.3 The Paradigm of Pattern Recognition.- 3.3.4 Slow Cities and Fast Regions.- 3.3.5 Pattern Formation and Pattern Recognition in the City.- 3.4 Chaotic Cities.- 3.5 Fractal Cities.- 3.6 Cellular Automata Cities.- 3.7 Sandpile Cities.- 3.8 FACS and IRN Cities.- II City Games.- 4. Free Agents in a Cellular Space.- 4.1 Free Agents.- 4.1.1 Between Atoms and Free Agents.- 4.1.2 Intentionality, Hermeneutics and Memory.- 4.1.3 Internal and External Information.- 4.2 In-Formation.- 4.2.1 Between the Local and the Global.- 4.3 Self-Organization with Free Agents.- 4.3.1 Stratigraphic Change.- 4.3.2 Furcative Change.- 4.3.3 Hermeneutic Change.- 4.4 Free Agents in a Cellular Space (FAGS).- 4.4.1 Cellular Automata.- 4.4.2 City.- 4.4.3 City-1.- 4.4.4 City-2.- 4.4.5 City-3.- 4.4.6 City-4 and City-5.- 4.4.7 Modeling Groups Internal Complexity.- 4.5 Urban Games with FACS.- 5. City: The Greens and the Blues.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 City: A Heuristic Model.- 5.3 City: A Formal Description of the Cellular-Automata Model.- 5.3.1 Internal Migrations.- 5.3.2 Occupation by Immigrants: Rules Ft+2/3.- 5.4 The Properties of the Model.- 5.4.1 Self-Organization.- 5.4.2 A Probabilistic CA Model.- 5.4.3 A Genuinely Spatial Model.- 5.4.4 A Heuristic Model.- 5.4.5 Between the Local and the Global.- 5.5 Three Heuristic Games.- 5.5.1 Game 1: Segregative Blues Versus Segregative Greens.- 5.5.2 Game 2: Neutral and Segregative Greens Versus Segregative Blues.- 5.5.3 Game 3: Neutral and Segregative Blues Versus Neutral and Segregative Greens.- 5.6 Intention Versus Behavior in a City.- 5.6.1 Intention Versus Behavior in Games 1, 2 and 3.- 5.7 Stability and Instability in the City.- 5.7.1 Predictability Versus Unpredictability.- 5.7.2 Local Versus Global Stability and Instability.- 5.7.3 Stability Versus Instability in Games 1, 2 and 3.- 5.8 The Captivity Principle.- 5.9 Conclusions.- 6. International Migration and the Internal Structure of Cities.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 City-1: An Heuristic Immigration Absorption Model.- 6.2.1 A Formal Description of City-1.- 6.2.2 Some Properties of City-1.- 6.3 Selected Results.- 6.3.1 Stability of the Socio—spatial Structure of the City in Face of Massive Waves of International Migration.- 6.3.2 Competing Order Parameters in a Self-Organizing City.- 6.4 Concluding Notes.- 7. Spatial Cognitive Dissonance and Socio—spatial Emergence in a Self-Organizing City.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Intention Versus Behavior.- 7.2.1 Classical Social Theory.- 7.2.2 Self-Organization Theory.- 7.2.3 Cognitive Dissonance.- 7.3 The Model.- 7.3.1 Preliminaries.- 7.3.2 Spatial Cognitive Dissonance and Its Implications.- 7.3.3 In the Queue.- 7.3.4 Further Structural Changes in the City.- 7.3.5 Socio—spatial Emergence.- 7.3.6 City-2 as a Heuristic—Hermeneutic Model.- 7.3.7 The Interpretation Screen.- 7.4 Results and Interpretations.- 7.4.1 Spatial Dialectics.- 7.4.2 Internal Versus External Spatial Information and Cultural Emergence.- 7.4.3 City-3: Human Agents Between the Local and the Global.- 7.5 Conclusions.- 8. Individuals’ Cultural Code and Residential Self-Organization in the City.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 The Memetic Code.- 8.3 The Model.- 8.3.1 The Definition of the m-Code.- 8.3.2 Cultural Groups.- 8.3.3 Model Dynamics: Trade Off Between Migration and Individual’s Change.- 8.4 Results.- 8.4.1 Parameter Value and Initial Conditions.- 8.4.2 Presentation of the City Patterns.- 8.4.3 Model Dynamics for Low-Dimensional Cultural Identity: K = 1 and K = 2.- 8.4.4 Model Dynamics for High-Dimensional Cultural Identity: K = 5.- 8.5 Concluding Notes.- 9. From CA- to GIS-City.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 The GIS (Geographical Information System)-City.- 9.3 Model Description.- 9.4 Preliminary Results.- 9.4.1 Scenario A: A City with No Internal Boundaries.- 9.4.2 Scenario B: City of Quarters, with the Roads as Internal Boundaries.- 10. Internal Complexity and Socio-spatial Segregation of Groups in a Self-Organizing City.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.1.1 Hierarchical and Non-hierarchical Cultural Groups.- 10.1.2 Cultural Generative Orders.- 10.1.3 Aims.- 10.2 The City-6 Model.- 10.2.1 The Cellular Space.- 10.2.2 The Agents.- 10.2.3 Decision-Making.- 10.2.4 The Q-Analysis Device.- 10.3 Game 1: Forms of Unintended Consequences.- 10.3.1 Initial Conditions.- 10.3.2 Results and Discussion.- 10.4 Internal Relations Between Cultural Orders.- 10.4.1 Q-analysis.- 10.4.2 Game 2: The Emergence of a Cultural Order Parameter in Self-Organization Process.- 10.4.3 Game 3: The Relations Between Cultural Levels — Synergetics and Dissonance.- III Self-Organizing Planning.- 11. Planning the Unplannable: Self-Organization and City Planning.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.1.1 The First Planning Dilemma.- 11.1.2 The Second Planning Dilemma.- 11.1.3 The Third Planning Dilemma.- 11.2 The Planning Dilemma of Self-Organizing Cities.- 11.3 In Search of a New Planning Approach.- 11.3.1 Just-in-Time Versus Just-in-Case.- 11.3.2 A City Is Not a Tree; Nor Is It an Aristotelian Category.- 11.3.3 Push Planning.- 11.3.4 The Food-Market of New York City.- 11.4 Preliminary Principles for a Self-Organizing Planning.- 11.4.1 Parallel Distributed Planning (“PDP”) in a Self-Organizing City.- 11.4.2 Decision Making Agents as Self-Organizing Systems.- 11.4.3 Self-Organization in Private and Collective Planning.- 11.4.4 Planning Synergetic Cities.- 11.4.5 Plans as Patterns of Routinized Activities.- 11.4.6 Enslavement to, and Emergence of, a City’s Order-Parameter Plans.- 11.4.7 Between Fast Local Plans and Slow Global Plans.- 11.5 Planning the Ideology of the Unplannable.- 11.5.1 Planning the Ideology of Planning.- 11.5.2 Planning Is an Ideological False Consciousness.- 11.5.3 Planning Between Nationalism and Urbanism.- 11.6 SOCity: A Virtual Self-Planned City.- 11.6.1 SOCity.- 11.6.2 A Concluding Note.- 12. Artificial Planning Experience.- 12.1 Introduction.- 12.2 Planning by Means of Artificial Experience (AE).- 12.3 The Planning Game.- 12.3.1 An Example.- 12.4 Conclusions.- IV Synergetic Cities.- 13. Synergetic Cities I: The Pattern Recognition Approach.- 13.1 Approaches of Synergetics.- 13.2 The Pattern Recognition Approach to Cities.- 13.3 The Model.- 13.4 Linear Models.- 13.5 Nonlinear Models.- 13.6 Another Origin of the Saturation of Attention.- 13.7 Concluding Remarks.- 14. Synergetic Cities II: Pattern Recognition, Cognitive Mapping and Decision-Making.- 14.1 Introduction.- 14.2 Pattern Recognition as Decision-Making.- 14.3 An Extension Concerning Cognitive Mapping.- 14.4 Optimization.- 14.5 Mathematical Formulation.- 14.6 Discussion.- 14.7 Decision-Making Heuristics.- 14.8 SIRN (Synergetic Inter-representation Networks) and Decision-Making.- 14.8.1 Intra-personal Decision Making.- 14.8.2 Interpersonal and Collective Decision Making.- 14.9 An Outline for a SIRN Decision-Making Model.- V Self-Organization and Urban Revolutions.- 15. Self-Organization and Urban Revolutions.- 15.1 From the Urban Revolution to La Révolution Urbaine.- 15.1.1 Gordon V. Childe: The Urban Revolution.- 15.1.2 A Spencerian Interpretation.- 15.1.3 The First City.- 15.1.4 Henri Lefebvre: La Révolution Urbaine.- 15.1.5 Manuel Castells: Network Society with its Information Megacity.- 15.1.6 The Modern, the Postmodern and the Hyper-modern City.- 15.2 Self-Organization, Social Theory and Socio-spatial Revolutions.- 15.2.1 On Punctuated Equilibria and Social Revolutions.- 15.2.2 Similarities Between Self-Organization and Social Theory.- 15.2.3 The Differences.- 15.2.4 Self-Organization, Social Theory and Urban Revolutions.- 15.3 Self-Organized Urban Revolutions.- 15.3.1 The First Urban Revolution from the Perspective of Self-Organization.- 15.3.2 A Sequence of Urban Revolutions.- 15.4 Self-Organized Urban Revolutions at the End of the Second Millennium.- 15.4.1 Cities as a Self-Organized Family Resemblance Category.- 15.4.2 Urbanism as a Generative Order Parameter.- 15.4.3 Two Cognitive Maps: a Territory and Its Cities Versus a City and Its Territory.- 15.4.4 From Nationalism to Urbanism: A New Urban Revolution at the Gate of the 21st Century?.- Concluding Notes: Self-Organizing Cities at the Gate of the 21st Century.

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