Semantic Web for the Working Ontologist: Effective Modeling in RDFS and OWL

Semantic Web for the Working Ontologist: Effective Modeling in RDFS and OWL

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by Dean Allemang, James Hendler

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ISBN-10: 0123735564

ISBN-13: 9780123735560

Pub. Date: 05/09/2008

Publisher: Elsevier Science

The promise of the Semantic Web to provide a universal medium to exchange data, information, and knowledge has been well publicized. There are many sources too for basic information on the extensions to the World Wide Web that permit content to be expressed in natural language yet used by software agents to easily find, share, and integrate information. Until now


The promise of the Semantic Web to provide a universal medium to exchange data, information, and knowledge has been well publicized. There are many sources too for basic information on the extensions to the World Wide Web that permit content to be expressed in natural language yet used by software agents to easily find, share, and integrate information. Until now individuals engaged in creating ontologies-formal descriptions of the concepts, terms, and relationships within a given knowledge domain-have had no sources beyond the technical standards documents.

Semantic Web for the Working Ontologist transforms this information into the practical knowledge that programmers and subject domain experts need. Authors Allemang and Hendler begin with solutions to the basic problems, but don't stop there: they demonstrate how to develop your own solutions to problems of increasing complexity and ensure that your skills will keep pace with the continued evolution of the Semantic Web.

About the Author:
Dean Allemang is the chief scientist at TopQuadrant, Inc.-the first company in the United States devoted to Semantic Web consulting, training, and products

About the Author:
Jim Hendler is the Tetherless World Senior Constellation Chair at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Product Details

Elsevier Science
Publication date:
Edition description:
Older Edition
Product dimensions:
7.50(w) x 9.20(h) x 0.90(d)

Table of Contents

Preface     xiii
About the Authors     xvii
What Is the Semantic Web?     1
What Is a Web?     1
Smart Web, Dumb Web     2
Smart Web Applications     3
A Connected Web Is a Smarter Web     4
Semantic Data     5
A Distributed Web of Data     6
Features of a Semantic Web     7
What about the Round-Worlders?     9
To Each Their Own     10
There's Always One More     11
Summary     12
Fundamental Concepts     13
Semantic Modeling     15
Modeling for Human Communication     17
Explanation and Prediction     19
Mediating Variability     21
Variation and Classes     22
Variation and Layers     23
Expressivity in Modeling     26
Summary     28
Fundamental Concepts     29
RDF-The Basis of the Semantic Web     31
Distributing Data Across the Web     32
Merging Data from Multiple Sources     36
Namespaces, URIs, and Identity     37
Expressing URIs in Print     40
Standard Namespaces     43
Identifiers in the RDF Namespace     44
Challenge: RDF and Tabular Data     45
Higher-Order Relationships     49
Alternatives for Serialization     51
N-Triples     51
Notation 3 RDF (N3)     52
RDF/XML     53
Blank Nodes     54
Ordered Information in RDF     56
Summary     56
Fundamental Concepts     57
Semantic Web Application Architecture     59
RDF Parser/Serializer     60
Other Data Sources-Converters and Scrapers     61
RDF Store     64
RDF Data Standards and Interoperability of RDF Stores     66
RDF Query Engines and SPARQL     66
Comparison to Relational Queries     72
Application Code     73
RDF-Backed Web Portals     75
Data Federation     75
Summary     76
Fundamental Concepts     77
RDF and Inferencing     79
Inference in the Semantic Web     80
Virtues of Inference-Based Semantics     82
Where are the Smarts?     83
Asserted Triples versus Inferred Triples     85
When Does Inferencing Happen?      87
Inferencing as Glue     88
Summary     89
Fundamental Concepts     90
RDF Schema     91
Schema Languages and Their Functions     91
What Does It Mean? Semantics as Inference     93
The RDF Schema Language     95
Relationship Propagation through rdfs:subPropertyOf     95
Typing Data by Usage-rdfs:domain and rdfs:range     98
Combination of Domain and Range with rdfs:subClassOf     99
RDFS Modeling Combinations and Patterns     102
Set Intersection     102
Property Intersection     104
Set Union     105
Property Union     106
Property Transfer     106
Challenges     108
Term Reconciliation     108
Instance-Level Data Integration     110
Readable Labels with rdfs:label     110
Data Typing Based on Use     111
Filtering Undefined Data     115
RDFS and Knowledge Discovery     115
Modeling with Domains and Ranges     116
Multiple Domains/Ranges     116
Nonmodeling Properties in RDFS     120
Cross-Referencing Files: rdfs:seeAlso      120
Organizing Vocabularies: rdfs:isDefinedBy     121
Model Documentation: rdfs:comment     121
Summary     121
Fundamental Concepts     122
RDFS-Plus     123
Inverse     124
Challenge: Integrating Data that Do Not Want to Be Integrated     125
Challenge: Using the Modeling Language to Extend the Modeling Language     127
Challenge: The Marriage of Shakespeare     129
Symmetric Properties     129
Using OWL to Extend OWL     130
Transitivity     131
Challenge: Relating Parents to Ancestors     132
Challenge: Layers of Relationships     133
Managing Networks of Dependencies     134
Equivalence     139
Equivalent Classes     141
Equivalent Properties     142
Same Individuals     143
Challenge: Merging Data from Different Databases     146
Computing Sameness-Functional Properties     149
Functional Properties     150
Inverse Functional Properties     151
Combining Functional and Inverse Functional Properties     154
A Few More Constructs     155
Summary     156
Fundamental Concepts     157
Using RDFS-Plus in the Wild     159
SKOS     159
Semantic Relations in SKOS     163
Meaning of Semantic Relations     165
Special Purpose Inference     166
Published Subject Indicators     168
SKOS in Action     168
FOAF     169
People and Agents     170
Names in FOAF     171
Nicknames and Online Names     171
Online Persona     172
Groups of People     173
Things People Make and Do     174
Identity in FOAF     175
It's Not What You Know, It's Who You Know     176
Summary     177
Fundamental Concepts     178
Basic OWL     179
Restrictions     179
Example: Questions and Answers     180
Adding "Restrictions"     183
Kinds of Restrictions     184
Challenge Problems     196
Challenge: Local Restriction of Ranges     196
Challenge: Filtering Data Based on Explicit Type     198
Challenge: Relationship Transfer in SKOS     202
Relationship Transfer in FOAF     204
Alternative Descriptions of Restrictions     209
Summary     210
Fundamental Concepts     211
Counting and Sets in OWL     213
Unions and Intersections     214
Closing the World     216
Enumerating Sets with owl:oneOf     216
Differentiating Individuals with owl:differentFrom     218
Differentiating Multiple Individuals     219
Cardinality     222
Small Cardinality Limits     225
Set Complement     226
Disjoint Sets     228
Prerequisites Revisited     231
No Prerequisites     232
Counting Prerequisites     233
Guarantees of Existence     234
Contradictions     235
Unsatisfiable Classes     237
Propagation of Unsatisfiable Classes     237
Inferring Class Relationships     238
Reasoning with Individuals and with Classes     243
Summary     244
Fundamental Concepts     245
Using OWL in the Wild     247
The Federal Enterprise Architecture Reference Model Ontology     248
Reference Models and Composability     249
Resolving Ambiguity in the Model: Sets versus Individuals      251
Constraints between Models     253
OWL and Composition     255
owl:Ontology     255
owl:imports     256
Advantages of the Modeling Approach     257
The National Cancer Institute Ontology     258
Requirements of the NCI Ontology     259
Upper-Level Classes     261
Describing Classes in the NCI Ontology     266
Instance-Level Inferencing in the NCI Ontology     267
Summary     269
Fundamental Concepts     270
Good and Bad Modeling Practices     271
Getting Started     271
Know What You Want     272
Inference Is Key     273
Modeling for Reuse     274
Insightful Names versus Wishful Names     274
Keeping Track of Classes and Individuals     275
Model Testing     277
Common Modeling Errors     277
Rampant Classism (Antipattern)     277
Exclusivity (Antipattern)     282
Objectification (Antipattern)     285
Managing Identifiers for Classes (Antipattern)     288
Creeping Conceptualization (Antipattern)     289
Summary     290
Fundamental Concepts     291
OWL Levels and Logic     293
OWL Dialects and Modeling Philosophy     294
Provable Models     294
Executable Models     296
OWL Full versus OWL DL     297
Class/Individual Separation     298
InverseFunctional Datatypes     298
OWL Lite     299
Other Subsets of OWL     299
Beyond OWL 1.0     300
Metamodeling     300
Multipart Properties     301
Qualified Cardinality     302
Multiple Inverse Functional Properties     302
Rules     303
Summary     304
Fundamental Concepts     304
Conclusions     307
Frequently Asked Questions     313
Further Reading     317
Index     321

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Semantic Web for the Working Ontologist: Effective Modeling in RDFS and OWL 5 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 1 reviews.
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
No one is coming because they thing you are bozos. LOL