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Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology / Edition 1

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Overview

In this book, Quirk and Serda introduce the terminology, concepts, processes, products, and equipment commonly used in the manufacture of ultra large scale integrated (ULSI) semiconductors. The book provides helpful, up-to-date technical information about semiconductor manufacturing and strikes an effective balance between the process and equipment technology found in wafer fabrications. Topics include copper interconnect; dual damascene additive process for metallization; deep UV sub-micron photolithography (.18 micron and below); low-k dielectric processing; chemical mechanical planarization; a comprehensive model of manufacturing process; chemical-mechanical polish (CMP); and maintenance and troubleshooting. For practicing semiconductor manufacturing technicians or those interested in semiconductor manufacturing technology and processes.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780130815200
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 11/9/2000
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 666
  • Sales rank: 1,095,184
  • Product dimensions: 8.30 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 1.50 (d)

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE

This text started with a simple premise: as instructors, we need to teach relevant microchip technology to students and employees in semiconductor manufacturing. Unfortunately, in the semiconductor industry, changes in technology are measured in months, not years. Our challenge was to write a relevant book that would not be outdated by the time it was published. With that in mind, we researched the material and applied ourselves to writing the chapters and creating the artwork. Following the aggressive pace of Moore's law, the technical material in our book is at most only 18 to 24 months old. This permits us to keep abreast of the changing technology nodes swirling through the semiconductor industry.

This text is written for students in two-year and four-year technology programs at community colleges and universities. The text will also be a practical reference as well as a standard text in corporate and technical training classes. Students are expected to have an understanding of high school chemistry, physics, and math. Chapters are organized around the broad technologies applicable to semiconductor manufacturing.

ORGANIZATION OF THE TEXT

Our goal is to accomplish three objectives:

  1. Help technology students grasp the fundamental technologies used in manufacturing semi conductor devices.
  2. Present some of the many challenges in microchip fabrication.
  3. Instill in the reader an appreciation of the conceptual simplicity of semiconductor manufacturing.

All fundamental technical information relevant to semiconductor manufacturing is first presented in Chapters 1 to 8. Chapter 9 presents a process model overview with a general flowchart that links the major areas in a wafer fab. Chapters 10 to 19 cover each of the major processes in the fab. Finally, Chapter 20 provides an overview of the back-end process for IC assembly and packaging. The content in the process chapters (Chapters 10 to 20) addresses critical process technology, followed by the various equipment designs needed to support this technology. Each process chapter concludes with a summary of quality measures and troubleshooting issues to familiarize the student with the practical, day-to-day challenges encountered during wafer fabrication.

The latest technologies for sub-0.25 um processing are covered in detail. This includes chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), shallow trench isolation (STI), chemically amplified deep UV photoresists, step-and-scan systems, copper metallization with dual damascene, and the widespread move to process integration with cluster tools. Throughout the text, we explain all process and equipment technology in light of the long history of change in the industry. Early tools and processes are described to clarify the development of current technology. In some cases, the linkage between the latest equipment and earlier tools is obvious, while in other instances the change is dramatic.

Professors, students, and other readers of this book can send comments or questions about this text to the authors at the following website: http://www.smtbook.com. We look forward to any exchange of information that can help advance semiconductor manufacturing education.

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Table of Contents

1. Introduction to the Semiconductor Industry.

2. Characteristics of Semiconductor Materials.

3. Device Technologies.

4. Silicon and Wafer Preparation.

5. Chemicals in Semiconductor Fabrication.

6. Contamination Controls in Wafer Fabs.

7. Metrology and Defect Inspection.

8. Gas Control in Process Chambers.

9. IC Fabrication Process Overview.

10. Oxidation.

11. Deposition.

12. Metallization.

13. Photolithography: Vapor Prime to Soft Bake.

14. Photolithography: Alignment and Exposure.

15. Photolithography: Photoresist Development and Advanced Lithography.

16. Etch.

17. Ion Implant.

18. Chemical Mechanical Planarization.

19. Wafer Test.

20. Assembly and Packaging.

Appendices.

Glossary.

Index.

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Preface

PREFACE

This text started with a simple premise: as instructors, we need to teach relevant microchip technology to students and employees in semiconductor manufacturing. Unfortunately, in the semiconductor industry, changes in technology are measured in months, not years. Our challenge was to write a relevant book that would not be outdated by the time it was published. With that in mind, we researched the material and applied ourselves to writing the chapters and creating the artwork. Following the aggressive pace of Moore's law, the technical material in our book is at most only 18 to 24 months old. This permits us to keep abreast of the changing technology nodes swirling through the semiconductor industry.

This text is written for students in two-year and four-year technology programs at community colleges and universities. The text will also be a practical reference as well as a standard text in corporate and technical training classes. Students are expected to have an understanding of high school chemistry, physics, and math. Chapters are organized around the broad technologies applicable to semiconductor manufacturing.

ORGANIZATION OF THE TEXT

Our goal is to accomplish three objectives:

  1. Help technology students grasp the fundamental technologies used in manufacturing semi conductor devices.
  2. Present some of the many challenges in microchip fabrication.
  3. Instill in the reader an appreciation of the conceptual simplicity of semiconductor manufacturing.

All fundamental technical information relevant to semiconductor manufacturing is first presented in Chapters 1 to 8. Chapter 9 presents a process model overview with a general flowchart that links the major areas in a wafer fab. Chapters 10 to 19 cover each of the major processes in the fab. Finally, Chapter 20 provides an overview of the back-end process for IC assembly and packaging. The content in the process chapters (Chapters 10 to 20) addresses critical process technology, followed by the various equipment designs needed to support this technology. Each process chapter concludes with a summary of quality measures and troubleshooting issues to familiarize the student with the practical, day-to-day challenges encountered during wafer fabrication.

The latest technologies for sub-0.25 um processing are covered in detail. This includes chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), shallow trench isolation (STI), chemically amplified deep UV photoresists, step-and-scan systems, copper metallization with dual damascene, and the widespread move to process integration with cluster tools. Throughout the text, we explain all process and equipment technology in light of the long history of change in the industry. Early tools and processes are described to clarify the development of current technology. In some cases, the linkage between the latest equipment and earlier tools is obvious, while in other instances the change is dramatic.

Professors, students, and other readers of this book can send comments or questions about this text to the authors at the following website: http://www.smtbook.com. We look forward to any exchange of information that can help advance semiconductor manufacturing education.

Read More Show Less

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