Sensation and Perception - Media Edition - With CD / Edition 6

Sensation and Perception - Media Edition - With CD / Edition 6

by E. Bruce Goldstein

ISBN-10: 0534639917

ISBN-13: 9780534639914

Pub. Date: 07/22/2003

Publisher: Cengage Learning

Long regarded as the gold standard in sensation and perception texts, E. Bruce Goldstein's SENSATION AND PERCEPTION has helped more than 100,000 students make the connection between perception and physiology. Goldstein has crafted an easier-to-understand, and more student-friendly book, without sacrificing the text's comprehensive examination of sensation and

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Long regarded as the gold standard in sensation and perception texts, E. Bruce Goldstein's SENSATION AND PERCEPTION has helped more than 100,000 students make the connection between perception and physiology. Goldstein has crafted an easier-to-understand, and more student-friendly book, without sacrificing the text's comprehensive examination of sensation and perception. Goldstein takes readers on an intriguing journey through their senses, and chronicles scientists' efforts to understand the fascinating behind the scenes activity that allows us to perceive. With balanced coverage of all senses, this book offers an integrated examination of how the senses work together. Goldstein shows readers how seemingly simple experiences are actually extremely complex mechanisms and examines both the psychophysical and physiological underpinnings of perception. All material is presented in a way students find interesting and easy to follow. The book's visually dynamic presentation includes numerous color plates that are presented as visual topic essays. In addition, more than 50 hands-on demonstrations illustrate perceptual experiences. All are simple enough for students to do and are seamlessly integrated into the flow of the text.

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Product Details

Cengage Learning
Publication date:
Edition description:
Book with CD-ROM
Product dimensions:
8.20(w) x 9.22(h) x 1.02(d)

Table of Contents

Part 1: INTRODUCTION TO PERCEPTION. 1. The Psychophysical Approach: Linking Stimulation and Perception. Method of limits. Demonstration, Trial-by-trial method of limits. DL by method of limits, Experiment: Judging differences in size. Measurement Fluctuation and error, Experiment: How accurately can you match size? Adjustment and PSE, Experiment: Length matching. Constant stimuli, Experiment: Judging length. Just noticeable difference, Experiment: Adjust length so just noticeably different. DL vs. Weight, Plot a graph of difference threshold vs. standard stimulus. Weber's law and Weber fraction, Plot a graph demonstrating Weber's law. Response compression and expansion, Review different types of magnitude estimation functions. Experiment: Scaling Vision, Magnitude estimation of line length and brightness. 2. The Physiological Approach: Linking Stimulation and Neural Firing. Structure of neuron, Identify parts of a neuron. Oscilloscopes and intracellular recording, Demonstrates oscilloscope measuring resting potential. Phases of action potential, Slide a slider and watch sodium and potassium flow. Nerve impulse coding and stimulus strength, Vary pressure and watch firing rate increase. Synaptic transmission, Identify pre- and post-synaptic neurons and watch nerve firing. Lock and key neurotransmitter action, Drag neurotransmitters to correct sites on membrane. Excitation and inhibition, Vary excitation and inhibition and watch effect on firing rate. Cortical areas, Review location of cortical receiving areas. Part 2: RECEPTORS AND NEURAL PROCESSING. 1. The Stimulus for Vision and the Structure of the Visual System. The Visual Pathways, Identify visual system structures and see animation of signal's journey from eye to brain. The Human Eye, Identify components of the eye. Cross section of the retina, Identify types of neurons in the retina. 2. The First Transformations: Light, Receptors and Electricity. Visual path within the eyeball, Animation showing electrical signals traveling through the retina and into the optic nerve. 3. Visual Pigments and Perception. Dark adaptation of the rods and cones, Animation of rod and cone adaptation curves. Types of cones, Review cone absorption spectra. 4. Neural Processing by Convergence. Receptor wiring and sensitivity, Demonstrates why rods are more sensitive than cones. Receptor wiring and acuity, Demonstrates why cones have better acuity than rods. 5. Neural Processing By Excitation and Inhibition. Simple neural circuits, Stimulate receptors and notice how different types of circuits work. Mapping receptive fields, Demonstration of center-surround receptive field mapping. Stimulus size and receptive fields, Vary spot size and see how firing rate changes. Receptive fields and stimulus size and shape, Vary bar width and see how firing rate changes. Lateral inhibition, See how increasing lateral inhibition decreases firing rate. Demonstration: Receptive field mapping, Map receptive fields of ganglion cells. 6. Neural Processing and Perception. Lateral inhibition in the Hermann grid, See how lateral inhibition explains the dark spots on the grid. Intensity and brightness, Move slider to see difference between intensity and brightness distributions. Mach bands, See how Mach bands can be explained by receptive fields. Simultaneous contrast, Vary intensities and see how brightness changes in a contrast display. Demonstration: Mach bands - You create intensity distributions. The program calculates perceptual response functions. (Baro InSight demonstration). Part 3: THE LATERAL GENICULATE NUCLEUS AND STRIATE CORTEX. 1. Information Processing in the Striate Cortex (V1). Simple cells in the cortex, See how simple cell firing depends on orientation of a bar. Complex cells in the cortex, See how complex cell firing depends on orientation and direction of movement. Calculating grating contrast, Vary intensities of light and dark bars of a grating. Demonstration: Receptive field mapping - Map receptive fields of LGN and cortical neurons (Baro InSight demonstration). Demonstration: Spatial Vision - Enables user to vary spectral composition of 20 different images using low pass, high pass, band pass and notch filters. Also demonstrates constructing waveforms using Fourier synthesis. (Also applies to Appendix B) (Baro InSight Demonstration). Experiment: Contrast Sensitivity. Measure contrast sensitivity using forced choice or method of adjustment for 1, 2, 4, and 8 cycles per second. Part 4: HIGHER-LEVEL VISUAL PROCESSING. 1. Processing Streams in the Extrastriate Cortex. What and Where streams, Identify components of ventral and dorsal pathways. 2. Modularity in the Extrastriate Cortex. Newsome movement stimuli, Observe the moving dot stimuli used in Newsome's experiments. 3. Visual Attention: Visual and Neural Selectivity. Inattentional blindness stimuli, Observe the stimuli used in an inattentional blindness experiment. 4. Across the Senses: Neurons that respond to Vision and Touch. Bimodal cell responding, Demonstration of how light and touch cause a bimodal cell to fire. Part 5: PERCEIVING OBJECTS. 1. The Gestalt Approach to Perceptual Organization: How Elements are Grouped. Linear and curved illusory contours, Demonstrates stimuli that cause illusory contours. Enhancing illusory contours, Shows how changing one part of a display affects perception. Law of similarity, Vary color of spheres and see how grouping changes. Law of good continuation, Move slider to see how good continuation affects perception. Law of closure, Click to delete parts of figures and see if perception changes. Law of proximity, Vary spacing of spheres and see how grouping changes. Law of common fate, The amazing moving strawberries illustrate common fate. Law of simplicity or good figure, Move shapes to investigate law of good figure. 2. Perceptual Segregation: How Objects are Separated. Figure-ground ambiguity, Move slider to investigate effect on contrast on figure-ground segmentation. Real-world figure-ground ambiguity, Move the slider to see two faces turn into a vase. 3. How Objects are Constructed. Factors in textual segregation, Demonstrates how shape and orientation affect texture boundaries 64. Experiment: Feature Analysis (Baro InSight experiment). Visual search experiment with 18 different target-distractor pairs (you choose). Number of distractors varied on each trial (Baro InSight experiment). Experiment: Global Precedence. Navon experiment. Make judgement based on small units or large pattern (Baro InSight experiment). Part 6: PERCEIVING COLOR. 1. The Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision. Cone response profiles and hue, Move slider to see how cone responding changes with wavelength. Cone response profiles and perceived color, Click on color circle to see cone response profiles for different colors. 2. Opponent-Process Theory. Oh say can you see" afterimage demonstration, A patriotic afterimage demonstration. Mixing complimentary colors, Move slider to vary mixtures of blue and yellow, red and green. Red-green opponent cells, Demonstration of opponent cell firing to different amounts of red and green. Strength of blue-yellow mechanisms, Move slider to see strength of B and Y mechanisms at different wavelengths. Strength of red-green mechanism, Move slider to see strength of R and G mechanisms at different wavelengths. Opponent-process coding of hue, Move slider to see how opponent cells fire to different wavelengths. 3. Color Deficiency. Rod monochromacy, What the spectrum looks like to a rod monochromat. Dichromacy, What the spectrum looks like to different types of dichromats . Dichromats and monochromats, How dichromats and monochromats perceive a scene. What dichromats see, How dichromats perceive crayons, food and color-test plates. Neutral points in dichromats, Shows how neutral points depend on opponent response. Missing blue-yellow channel, Test your ability to predict colors a tritanope would confuse. Demonstration: Color Mixing - Demonstrates additive and subtractive color mixing (Goes with Color Essay 3) (Baro InSight demonstration). Demonstration: Color Arrangement Test- Subject arranges colors is correct order (Baro InSight demonstration). Part 7: PERCEIVING DEPTH AND SIZE. 1. Oculomotor Cues. Convergence as a depth cue, Move an object back and forth to vary convergence angle. 2. Binocular Depth Cues. The horopter and corresponding points, Explore the horopter and corresponding points. Disparity and retinal location, See how images on the retinas change for differences in depth. Demonstration: Three-Dimensional Pictures - 12 stereograms, 5 random-dot stereograms and a dynamic random dot stereogram (colored glasses required). Experiment: Depth Perception - Test binocular depth perception using crossed or uncrossed disparity (colored glasses required) (Baro InSight experiment). 3. Visual Illusions. The Muller-Lyer illusion, Experiment: Measure the Muller-Lyer illusion. Dumbbell Muller-Lyer illusion, Experiment: Measure the dumbbell version of Muller-Lyer. Ponzo illusion, Experiment: Measure the Ponzo illusion. Size perception and depth, Demonstration of size perception illusion in a corridor. Poggendorf illusion, Experiment: Measure the Poggendorf illusion. Zollner illusion, Experiment: Measure the Zollner illusion. Horizontal-Vertical illusion, Experiment: Measure the horizontal-vertical illusion. Demonstration: Illusions and Aftereffects. Demonstrates 28 stationary illusions and 6 animated aftereffects. (Baro InSight demonstration). Experiments: Measuring Illusions. Measure the sizes of the Muller-Lyer and Horizontal-Vertical illusions and the magnitude of the simultaneous contrast effect. (Baro experiment). Part 8: PERCEIVING MOVEMENT. 1. Four Ways That Movement Perception can Occur. Context and apparent speed, A bouncing soccer ball appears to speed up near a contour. The Phi phenomenon, space, and time, Vary distance and timing of two spheres and observe apparent movement. Induced movement, See how moving clouds makes an airplane appear to move. The waterfall illusion, View the moving bars and see what happens when they stop. The spiral motion aftereffect, View the rotating spiral and see what happens when it stops. 2. Corollary Discharge Theory: Taking Eye Movements into Account. Corollary discharge model, See how different movement scenarios affect firing of the corollary discharge circuit. 3. Perceptual Organization and Movement Perception. Kinetic depth effect, See object shapes based on their rotating shadows. Motion parallax and object form, Guess the shape of a mystery object based on views of its shadow. Motion capture, See how dots in the background are captured by apparent movement. Demonstration: Form and Motion - Shows how movement of dot arrays creates perception of three-dimensional objects that pops out of various backgrounds. (Baro InSight demonstration). 4. The Intelligence of Movement Perception. Apparent movement and figural selection, See how speed, separation, and types of figures affect apparent movement. Motion and introduced occlusion, See how the occlusion heuristic influences apparent movement. Field effects and apparent movement, See the occlusion heuristic make a blinking duck disappear behind a sign. Meaning and movement perception, The stimuli used in Ramachandran's experiment. Possible and impossible movements, The stimuli used in Shiffrar's apparent movement experiment. Part 9: PERCEPTION AND ACTION. 1. Perception and the Moving Observer. Flow from walking down a hallway, Demonstration of the optic flow field as a person walks down a corridor. 2. Visual Control of Action. Stimuli used in Warren experiment, Watch a subject's response in Warren's optic flow experiment. Braking, See the optical expansion that occurs before a collision and braking to avoid collision. Part 10: SOUND, THE AUDITORY SYSTEM, AND PITCH PERCEPTION. 1. The Sound Stimulus: Pressure Changes in the Air. Decibel scale, Listen to how the loudness of tones decrease as decibels decrease. Harmonics of a chime, A way to hear individual harmonics of a chime. 2. Sound as a Perceptual Response: The Experience of Hearing. Frequency response of the ear, Experiment: Measure sensitivity to different frequencies. Loudness scaling, Experiment: Magnitude estimation of the loudness of tones. Circularity pitch illusion, Roger Shepard's auditory staircase illusion. 3. Auditory System: Structure and Function. Anatomy of the Ear, Identify structures of the ear. 4. Frequency Analysis in the Cochlea and Auditory Nerve. Masking high and low frequencies, Observe how low and high frequencies mask each other. 5. Frequency Analysis in the Cortex. Periodicity pitch: eliminating the fundamental and lower harmonics, Listen to what happens to a tone's Periodicity pitch: Westminster chimes with harmonics removed, Listen to a familiar sequence of chimes with various harmonics removed. Part 11: AUDITORY LOCALIZATION, SOUND QUALITY, AND THE AUDITORY SCENE. 1. Auditory Localization: Locating Single Sounds in Space. Interaural time difference as a cue for sound localization, Animation showing how time difference varies with position of a sound source. Interaural level difference as a cue for sound localization, Animation showing how level difference works for high but not low frequencies. Sound level as a cue to distance, How loudness decreases as a person moves away from a microphone. 2. Sound Quality: What a Stimulus Sounds Like - Effect of harmonics on timbre, Hear how adding harmonics changes a tone. Timbre of a piano tone played backwards, How playing piano tones backwards changes their timbre. Echoes, How the room in which a sound is produced changes the quality of the sound. 3. Auditory Scene Analysis: Identifying Sound Sources - Grouping by similarity of pitch: Effect of changing pitch difference, How perceptual grouping occurs as two streams of tones become similar in pitch. Segregation of high notes in a Telleman sonata, High-pitched tones pop out" of a rapidly played melody. Effect of temporal proximity on stream segregation, Playing high- and low-pitched tones rapidly causes them to separate into two streams. Grouping by similarity of pitch: Bregman and Rudnicky captor tone" experiment, The stimuli used in the Bregman and Rudnicky experiment described in the text. Grouping by pitch and temporal closeness, Another demonstration of how speeding up alternating tones causes separate streams. Effect of repetition on grouping by pitch, As a string of tones gets longer, perceptual grouping changes. Grouping of noise pitch and temporal closeness, Like Grouping of pitch by temporal closeness, but with noise stimuli. Auditory good continuation, When silent gaps in a gliding tone are filled in by noise, the tone sounds continuous. Auditory good continuation for speech, When silent gaps in speech are filled in by noise, it becomes easier to understand. Perceiving a melody obscured by noise, An example of how knowing the identity of a melody can help separate it from noise. Part 12: SPEECH PERCEPTION. 1. Stimulus Dimensions of Speech Perception. Categorical Perception, Experience categorical perception. McGurk Effect, Experience the McGurk effect. Part 13: THE CUTANEOUS SENSES. 1. The Skin and its Receptors. Anatomy of skin, Identify parts of the skin and the mechanoreceptors. 2. Pain Perception: Neural Firing and Cognitive Influences. The gate control system, See how signals from nociceptors, skin vibration and the brain interact in the gate control circuit. Part 14: THE CHEMICAL SENSES. 1. The Olfactory System. Olfactory system, Identify structures in the peripheral olfactory system. 2. The Taste System. Taste system, Identify structures in the peripheral taste system. Appendix A: Signal Detection Theory. Experiment: Signal Detection - Sensitivity to gap detection determined using SDT procedures and analysis. (Baro InSight experiment).

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