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The motivation behind this volume is to provide the reader with some coherence in the widely scattered literature on motor impairments in the elderly. The volume appraises the main theoretical ideas which currently characterize sensorimotor research on the older adult.
The book is organized around five topic themes: sensorimotor integration, age changes in muscle, posture and locomotion, neurological diseases, and effects of retraining. The chapters in each of the theme topics discuss many of the currently debated questions on the sensorimotor mechanisms, and how they are altered by aging processes. Many disciplines have interest in how such mechanisms change with age - kinesiologists, physiologists, psychologists, physical therapists and clinicians, be they working in academe, physical medicine, or rehabilitation. All should find the proceedings from this ARW valuable.
Preface. 1: Sensorimotor Integration. Nordic comparison of 75-year-olds - sensory and psychomotor functions; P. Era, M. Schroll, S. Berg. Motor performance as a paradigm reflecting the aging process; B. Jänicke, H. Coper. Decline of psychomotor performance: calender or health? P.J. Houx, F.W. Vreeling, J. Jolles. The influence of aging on motor skill learning; H. Carnahan, A.A. Vandervoort, L.R. Swanson. The declines of spatial and temporal abilities with age; A.G.M. Canavan, N. Bayer, W. Lutzenberger. Age-related slowing; V.D. Buckles. Aging and plasticity of the human motor system: evidence from positron emission tomography (PET); R.J. Seitz. 2: Age Changes in Muscle. Myoelectric signs of muscle fatigue and physiological tremor from childhood to seniority; W.N. Löscher, E. Gallasch. Muscle force generation and age: the role of sex hormones; S.K. Phillips, J.L. Rowbury, S.A. Bruce, R.C. Woledge. What is the cause of the ageing atrophy? Assessment of the fiber type composition in whole human muscles; J. Lexell. 3: Posture and Locomotion. Cognitive process involved for maintaining postural stability while standing and walking; N. Teasdale, Y. Lajoie, C. BArd, M. Fleury, R. Courtemanche. Mobility biomechanics in young and old healthy adults: A.B. Schultz, N.B. Alexander, J.A. Ashton-Miller. Postural control in normal subjects and older women who have fallen; M.B. Hawken, P. Jäntti, C. Kennard. Postural responses of the elderly: comparisons with vestibular-deficit subjects; J.H.J. Allum, F. Honegger, E.A. Keshner. Modulations of gait in normal aging and in Parkinson's disease; A.M. Ferrandez. Age-related changes in visually guided locomotion over different terrains: major issues; A.E. Patla. Optical flow as a factor in falling: the case for more research; M.G. Wade, T. Roehrs, J. Yi. 4: Neurological Diseases. Motor slowness in Parkinson's disease; M. Jahanshahi, R.G. Brown, C.D. Marsden. Timing in perceptual and motor tasks in Parkinson's disease; M.A. Pastor, J. Artieda, J.M. Martinez-Lage. Signal-to-noise ratio of handwriting size, force, and time: cues to early markers of Parkinson's disease? H.L. Teulings, G.E. Stelmach. Procedural memory, motor skill and degenerative neurological disease; R.G. Brown, P. Soliveri, M. Jahanshahi, C.D. Marsden. Effect of age, chronic diseases and Parkinsonism on postural control; M. Schieppati, M. Grasso, R. Siliotto, A. Nardone. 5: Effects of Training. Improvements in balance in the elderly through training in sensory organization abilities; M.H. Woollacott, S. Moore, M.H. Hu. Age and practice effects on force control of the thumb and index fingers in precision pinching and bilateral coordination; W.W. Spirduso, J.H. Choi. Sensorimotor adaptability in the elderly and disabled; T. Mulder, H. Berndt, J. Pauwels, B. Nienhuis. Years of physical activity can affect simple and complex cognitive/motor speed in older adults; T. Toole, S. Park, H. Al-Ameer. Author Index. Subject Index.