Sentencing Reform in Overcrowded Times: A Comparative Perspective / Edition 1

Sentencing Reform in Overcrowded Times: A Comparative Perspective / Edition 1

by Michael Tonry
     
 

ISBN-10: 019510787X

ISBN-13: 9780195107876

Pub. Date: 04/28/1997

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

Sentencing and corrections issues are much the same in every Western nation. Increasingly, countries are importing policies and practices that have succeeded elsewhere. In that spirit, this volume brings together articles on sentencing reform in the United States, other English-speaking countries, and Western Europe, all written by leading national and

Overview

Sentencing and corrections issues are much the same in every Western nation. Increasingly, countries are importing policies and practices that have succeeded elsewhere. In that spirit, this volume brings together articles on sentencing reform in the United States, other English-speaking countries, and Western Europe, all written by leading national and international authorities on sentencing and punishment policy, practices, and institutions.

Timely and readable, many of these essays provide brief yet detailed sentencing policy histories for countries and states. Others offer concise overviews of research on racial disparities, public opinion, and evaluation of the effects of new policies. Together, they illustrate the radical, precipitate, and hyperpoliticized nature of American sentencing reform in the last twenty-five years. Sentencing Reform in Overcrowded Times: A Comparative Perspective fills a major gap in the academic and policy literatures on this subject, and will be essential reading for students, scholars, and practitioners.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780195107876
Publisher:
Oxford University Press, USA
Publication date:
04/28/1997
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
304
Product dimensions:
6.06(w) x 9.12(h) x 0.93(d)

Table of Contents

Contributorsxiii
1Sentencing Reform3
Sentencing Reform in the United States6
Sentencing Reform outside the United States8
2Sentencing Reform in the United States11
National Developments12
Sentencing Guidelines Are "Alive and Well" in the United States12
American Bar Association Adopts New Sentencing Standards17
Washington State20
Washington State: A Decade of Sentencing Reform20
Washington Prison Population Growth Out of Control26
Sentencing Policy in Washington, 1992-199530
Minnesota35
Minnesota's Sentencing Guidelines--Past and Future35
Prison Population Growing under Minnesota Guidelines40
Minnesota's Sentencing Guidelines--1995 Update45
Oregon49
Sentencing Reform in Oregon49
Oregon Guidelines, 1989-199453
Pennsylvania57
The Evolution of Pennsylvania's Sentencing Guidelines57
Pennsylvania's Sentencing Guidelines--The Process of Assessment and Revision62
North Carolina69
North Carolina Prisons Are Growing69
North Carolina Legislature Considers Sentencing Change74
North Carolina Legislature Adopts Guidelines77
North Carolina Prepares for Guidelines Sentencing79
North Carolina Avoids Early Trouble with Guidelines84
Delaware88
Sentencing Reform in Delaware88
Voluntary Guidelines Effective in Delaware92
Other States94
Sentencing Reform in Colorado--Many Changes, Little Progress94
Utah's Conjoint Guidelines for Sentencing and Parole101
Kansas Adopts Sentencing Guidelines106
Ohio Adopts Determinate Sentencing110
Massachusetts, Missouri, and Oklahoma Establish Sentencing Commissions114
3Sentencing Reform outside the United States122
Prison Populations in Western Europe124
England133
New Sentencing Laws Take Effect in England133
England Repeals Key 1991 Sentencing Reforms136
England Abandons Unit Fines139
Punitive Policies and Politics Crowding English Prisons143
English Sentencing since the Criminal Justice Act 1991146
Australia148
Sentencing Reform in Victoria148
Truth in Sentencing in New South Wales152
Sentencing and Punishment in Australia in the 1990s156
Other English-Speaking Countries163
Sentencing and Punishment in New Zealand, 1981-1993163
Sentencing Reform in Canada168
Sentencing in South Africa172
Germany177
Germany Reduces Use of Prison Sentences177
Sentencing and Punishment in Germany181
Finland187
Success in Finland in Reducing Prison Use187
Sentencing and Punishment in Finland189
The Netherlands194
Sentencing and Punishment in the Netherlands194
Netherlands Successfully Implements Community Service Orders200
Other European Countries203
Sentencing in Switzerland203
Sentencing Reform in Sweden211
4Race and Sentencing217
Young Black Men and the Criminal Justice System219
Racial Disparities Getting Worse in U.S. Prisons and Jails220
Forty-Two Percent of Black D.C. Males, Ages Eighteen to Thirty-Five, under Criminal Justice System Control225
Fifty-Six Percent of Young Black Males in Baltimore Under Justice System Control227
Drug Policies Increasing Racial Disparities in U.S. Prisons230
Drug Policies Causing Racial and Ethnic Differences in Federal Sentencing236
Racial Disparities in the Juvenile Justice System240
One in Three Young Black Men Is Ensnared in the Justice System244
5Public Opinion and Sentencing249
American Attitudes about Punishment: Myth and Reality250
Survey Shows Alabamians Support Alternatives255
Delawareans Favor Prison Alternatives259
Pennsylvanians Prefer Alternatives to Prison265
Oregonians Support Alternatives for Nonviolent Offenders270
References277
Acknowledgments286

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