Separate Roads to Feminism: Black, Chicana, and White Feminist Movements in America's Second Wave / Edition 1

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This book is about the development of white women's liberation, black feminism and Chicana feminism in the 1960s and 1970s, the era known as the "second wave" of U.S. feminist protest. Benita Roth explores the ways that feminist movements emerged from the Civil Rights/Black Liberation movement, the Chicano movement, and the white left, and the processes that supported political organizing decisions made by feminists. She traces the effects that inequality had on the possibilities for feminist unity and explores how ideas common to the left influenced feminist organizing.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"Her capacity to problematize widely accepted approaches to the study of the second wave enables us to see that field anew." Tim Hodgdon, Duke University, H-Net

“Roth has written an impressive book that makes a strong contribution to the growing literature on U.S. feminism.” -Lisa Sun-Hee Park, UC San Diego

“In Separate Roads to Feminism: Black, Chicana, and White Feminist Movements in American's Second Wave, Benita Roth performs the important task of rereading second-wave feminism from an intersectional (race-class-gender) perspective… I highly recommend Separate Roads to Feminism.” -Patricia Richards, University of Georgia

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780521529723
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • Publication date: 12/31/2003
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 288
  • Sales rank: 727,938
  • Product dimensions: 5.98 (w) x 8.98 (h) x 0.63 (d)

Table of Contents

List of Tables
Introduction: The Emergence and Development of Racial/Ethnic Feminism in the 1960s and 1970s 1
1 To Whom Do You Refer? Structure and the Situated Feminist 24
Structure in Accounts of Feminist Emergence 24
How Much Is Enough? The Relatively Deprived as Challengers 25
Inequality and the Positing of a Postwar Transracial/Ethnic Middle Class 31
To Whom Do You Compare? The Salience of Race/Ethnicity plus Class 42
Conclusion: Structure, Awareness, and the Background to the Making of Organizationally Distinct Racial/Ethnic Feminisms 45
2 The "Fourth World" Is Born: Intramovement Experience, Oppositional Political Communities, and the Emergence of the White Women's Liberation Movement 47
Introduction: The Movement Level 47
Dynamics of Facilitation and Constraint 49
Redefining Liberation 52
The Debate over Separation and Autonomy 56
New Left Hostility to a New Feminist Movement 62
Feminist Responses to Hostility: A New Audience for Organizing 67
Organizing by Women's Liberationists: Creating an Autonomous Movement 70
Conclusion: Reforming a Community Versus Forming One 73
3 The Vanguard Center: Intramovement Experience and the Emergence of Black Feminism 76
Introduction: Black Feminism as the "Vanguard Center" 76
Where Were the Black Feminists? Looking in the Wrong Places 77
Black Women and Changes in the Civil Rights Movement 80
Black Feminists Respond: Early Organizations 86
The Black Woman, Black Liberation, and Middle-Class Style 94
Responses to White Women's Liberation 98
Black Feminist Organizing Within/Outside the Black Movement: Questions of Autonomy 103
Conclusion: The Influence of the Vanguard Center 127
4 "We Called Ourselves 'Feministas'": Intramovement Experience and the Emergence of Chicana Feminism 129
Introduction: "Feministas," Not "Feminists" 129
Chicanas in the Chicano Movement of the 1960s and 1970s 132
Early Organizing by Chicana Feminists 138
The 1971 Houston Conferencia de Mujeres por la Raza/First National Chicana Conference 145
Challenging the Machismo in Chicanismo, and Other Chicana Feminist Concerns 150
Chicana Feminist Organizations in the 1970s and the Problem of Backlash 154
Counterarguments: The Historical Chicana Feminist and the Need to Remake the Political Family 159
Chicana Feminism's Relationship with White Women's Liberation: Sympathies Versus Sisterhood 166
Fitting into the Struggle: Chicana Feminist Organizing through the 1970s 172
Conclusion: Organizationally Distinct Chicana Feminism in the Second Wave 175
5 Organizing One's Own: The Competitive Social Movement Sector and the Rise of Organizationally Distinct Feminist Movements 178
Introduction: The Intermovement Level and Feminist Emergences 178
The Competitive Social Movement Sector 181
The Social Movement Economy and the Feminist Threat 183
White Women's Liberation and Universal Sisterhood 188
"Either/Or" from Everywhere: African American and Chicana Feminist Responses 195
Organizing One's Own: An Ethos and Its Origins 200
Conclusion: The Legacy of Intermovement Politics and Possibilities for Feminist Organizing 211
Conclusion: Feminists on Their Own and for Their Own: Revisiting and "Re-Visioning" Second-Wave Feminisms 214
Second-Wave Feminisms, Plural 214
Second-Wave Feminisms and Theoretical Considerations 216
Bridging Divisions: The Legacy of Second-Wave Feminisms and Coalition Making 219
Last Words 225
App The Interviews/Living After the Second Wave 227
References 231
Index 261
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