Separate Roads to Feminism: Black, Chicana, and White Feminist Movements in America's Second Wave

Separate Roads to Feminism: Black, Chicana, and White Feminist Movements in America's Second Wave

by Benita Roth
     
 

ISBN-10: 0521822602

ISBN-13: 9780521822602

Pub. Date: 12/28/2003

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

This book is about the development of white women's liberation, black feminism and Chicana feminism in the 1960s and 1970s, the era known as the "second wave" of U.S. feminist protest. Benita Roth explores the ways that feminist movements emerged from the Civil Rights/Black Liberation movement, the Chicano movement, and the white left, and the processes that

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Overview

This book is about the development of white women's liberation, black feminism and Chicana feminism in the 1960s and 1970s, the era known as the "second wave" of U.S. feminist protest. Benita Roth explores the ways that feminist movements emerged from the Civil Rights/Black Liberation movement, the Chicano movement, and the white left, and the processes that supported political organizing decisions made by feminists. She traces the effects that inequality had on the possibilities for feminist unity and explores how ideas common to the left influenced feminist organizing.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780521822602
Publisher:
Cambridge University Press
Publication date:
12/28/2003
Pages:
288
Product dimensions:
5.98(w) x 9.02(h) x 0.83(d)

Table of Contents

List of Tables
Preface/Acknowledgments
Introduction: The Emergence and Development of Racial/Ethnic Feminism in the 1960s and 1970s1
1To Whom Do You Refer? Structure and the Situated Feminist24
Structure in Accounts of Feminist Emergence24
How Much Is Enough? The Relatively Deprived as Challengers25
Inequality and the Positing of a Postwar Transracial/Ethnic Middle Class31
To Whom Do You Compare? The Salience of Race/Ethnicity plus Class42
Conclusion: Structure, Awareness, and the Background to the Making of Organizationally Distinct Racial/Ethnic Feminisms45
2The "Fourth World" Is Born: Intramovement Experience, Oppositional Political Communities, and the Emergence of the White Women's Liberation Movement47
Introduction: The Movement Level47
Dynamics of Facilitation and Constraint49
Redefining Liberation52
The Debate over Separation and Autonomy56
New Left Hostility to a New Feminist Movement62
Feminist Responses to Hostility: A New Audience for Organizing67
Organizing by Women's Liberationists: Creating an Autonomous Movement70
Conclusion: Reforming a Community Versus Forming One73
3The Vanguard Center: Intramovement Experience and the Emergence of Black Feminism76
Introduction: Black Feminism as the "Vanguard Center"76
Where Were the Black Feminists? Looking in the Wrong Places77
Black Women and Changes in the Civil Rights Movement80
Black Feminists Respond: Early Organizations86
The Black Woman, Black Liberation, and Middle-Class Style94
Responses to White Women's Liberation98
Black Feminist Organizing Within/Outside the Black Movement: Questions of Autonomy103
Conclusion: The Influence of the Vanguard Center127
4"We Called Ourselves 'Feministas'": Intramovement Experience and the Emergence of Chicana Feminism129
Introduction: "Feministas," Not "Feminists"129
Chicanas in the Chicano Movement of the 1960s and 1970s132
Early Organizing by Chicana Feminists138
The 1971 Houston Conferencia de Mujeres por la Raza/First National Chicana Conference145
Challenging the Machismo in Chicanismo, and Other Chicana Feminist Concerns150
Chicana Feminist Organizations in the 1970s and the Problem of Backlash154
Counterarguments: The Historical Chicana Feminist and the Need to Remake the Political Family159
Chicana Feminism's Relationship with White Women's Liberation: Sympathies Versus Sisterhood166
Fitting into the Struggle: Chicana Feminist Organizing through the 1970s172
Conclusion: Organizationally Distinct Chicana Feminism in the Second Wave175
5Organizing One's Own: The Competitive Social Movement Sector and the Rise of Organizationally Distinct Feminist Movements178
Introduction: The Intermovement Level and Feminist Emergences178
The Competitive Social Movement Sector181
The Social Movement Economy and the Feminist Threat183
White Women's Liberation and Universal Sisterhood188
"Either/Or" from Everywhere: African American and Chicana Feminist Responses195
Organizing One's Own: An Ethos and Its Origins200
Conclusion: The Legacy of Intermovement Politics and Possibilities for Feminist Organizing211
Conclusion: Feminists on Their Own and for Their Own: Revisiting and "Re-Visioning" Second-Wave Feminisms214
Second-Wave Feminisms, Plural214
Second-Wave Feminisms and Theoretical Considerations216
Bridging Divisions: The Legacy of Second-Wave Feminisms and Coalition Making219
Last Words225
AppThe Interviews/Living After the Second Wave227
References231
Index261

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