Separation Anxiety and Anger

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The experience of separation and the ensuing susceptibility to anxiety, anger, and fear constitute the flip side of the attachment phenomenon. In an authoritative new foreword to Bowlby’s classic study, Stephen Mitchell (who gives resonant voice to the relational perspective in psychoanalysis) bridges the distance between attachment theory and the psychoanalytic tradition.

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What People Are Saying

Anthony Storr
"It is difficult to exaggerate the importance of Bowlby's work...His ideas have modified and will continue to influence the rearing of children and the treatment of those who are disturbed."
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780465097166
  • Publisher: Basic Books
  • Publication date: 1/28/1973
  • Series: Basic Books Classics Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Pages: 456
  • Sales rank: 428,695
  • Lexile: 1430L (what's this?)
  • Product dimensions: 5.32 (w) x 8.02 (h) x 1.23 (d)

Meet the Author

John Bowlby is honorary staff member of the Tavistock Clinic in London.

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Table of Contents

Foreword vii
Preface xi
Acknowledgements xvii
Part I Security, Anxiety, and Distress
1 Prototypes of Human Sorrow 3
Responses of young children to separation from mother 3
Conditions leading to intense responses 6
Conditions mitigating the intensity of responses 16
Presence or absence of mother figure: a key variable 22
2 The Place of Separation and Loss in Psychopathology 25
Problem and perspective 25
Separation anxiety and other forms of anxiety 30
A challenge for theory 30
3 Behaviour with and without Mother: Humans 33
Naturalistic observations 33
Experimental Studies 39
Ontogeny of responses to separation 52
4 Behaviour with and without Mother: Non-human Primates 57
Naturalistic observations 57
Early experimental studies 60
Further studies by Hinde and Spencer-Booth 69
Part II An Ethological Approach to Human Fear
5 Basic Postulates in Theories of Anxiety and Fear 77
Anxiety allied to fear 77
Models of motivation and their effects on theory 79
Puzzling phobia or natural fear 83
6 Forms of Behaviour Indicative of Fear 87
An empirical approach 87
Withdrawal behaviour and attachment behaviour 89
Feeling afraid and its variants: feeling alarmed and feeling anxious 92
7 Situations that Arouse Fear in Humans 96
A difficult field of study 96
Fear-arousing situations: the first year 99
Fear-arousing situations: the second and later years 105
Compound situations 118
Fear behaviour and the development of attachment 119
8 Situations that Arouse Fear in Animals 124
Natural clues to potential danger 124
Fear behaviour of non-human primates 127
Compound situations 134
Fear, attack, and exploration 136
9 Natural Clues to Danger and Safety 138
Better safe than sorry 138
Potential danger of being alone 142
Potential safety of familiar companions and environment 146
Maintaining a stable relationship with the familiar environment: a form of homeostasis 148
10 Natural Clues, Cultural Clues, and the Assessment of Danger 151
Clues of three kinds 151
Real danger: difficulties of assessment 153
'Imaginary' dangers 156
Cultural clues learnt from others 158
Continuing role of the natural clues 161
Behaviour in disaster 166
11 Rationalization, Misattribution, and Projection 169
Difficulties in identifying situations that arouse fear 169
Misattribution and the role of projection 172
The case of Schreber: a re-examination 174
12 Fear of Separation 178
Hypotheses regarding its development 178
Need for two terminologies 182
Part III Individual Differences in Susceptibility to Fear: Anxious Attachment
13 Some Variables responsible for Individual Differences 187
Constitutional variables 187
Experiences and processes that reduce susceptibility to fear 191
Experiences and processes that increase susceptibility to fear 196
14 Susceptibility to Fear and the Availability of Attachment Figures 201
Forecasting the availability of an attachment figure 201
Working models of attachment figures and of self 203
The role of experience in determining working models 207
A note on use of the terms 'mature' and 'immature' 209
15 Anxious Attachment and Some Conditions that Promote it 211
'Overdependency' or anxious attachment 211
Anxious attachment of children reared without a permanent mother figure 215
Anxious attachment after a period of separation or of daily substitute care 220
Anxious attachment following threats of abandonment or suicide 226
16 'Overdependency' and the Theory of Spoiling 237
Some contrasting theories 237
Studies of 'overdependency' and its antecedents 240
17 Anger, Anxiety, and Attachment 245
Anger: a response to separation 245
Anger: functional and dysfunctional 246
Anger, ambivalence, and anxiety 253
18 Anxious Attachment and the 'Phobias' of Childhood 258
Phobia, pseudophobia, and anxiety state 258
'School phobia' or school refusal 261
Two classical cases of childhood phobia: a reappraisal 283
Animal phobias in childhood 289
19 Anxious Attachment and 'Agoraphobia' 292
Symptomatology and theories of 'agoraphobia' 292
Pathogenic patterns of family interaction 299
'Agoraphobia', bereavement, and depression 309
A note on response to treatment 310
20 Omission, Suppression, and Falsification of Family Context 313
21 Secure Attachment and the Growth of Self-reliance 322
Personality development and family experience 322
Studies of adolescents and young adults 328
Studies of young children 350
Self-reliance and reliance on others 359
22 Pathways for the Growth of Personality 363
The nature of individual variation: alternative models 363
Developmental pathways and homeorhesis 366
One person's pathway: some determinants 369
I Separation Anxiety: Review of Literature 375
II Psychoanalysis and Evolution Theory 399
III Problems of Terminology 404
Additional Notes 409
References 415
Additional References 436
Index 439
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