Separation Anxiety and Anger

Separation Anxiety and Anger

by John Bowlby
     
 

ISBN-10: 0465097162

ISBN-13: 9780465097166

Pub. Date: 01/28/1973

Publisher: Basic Books

The experience of separation and the ensuing susceptibility to anxiety, anger, and fear constitute the flip side of the attachment phenomenon. In an authoritative new foreword to Bowlby’s classic study, Stephen Mitchell (who gives resonant voice to the relational perspective in psychoanalysis) bridges the distance between attachment theory and the

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Overview

The experience of separation and the ensuing susceptibility to anxiety, anger, and fear constitute the flip side of the attachment phenomenon. In an authoritative new foreword to Bowlby’s classic study, Stephen Mitchell (who gives resonant voice to the relational perspective in psychoanalysis) bridges the distance between attachment theory and the psychoanalytic tradition.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780465097166
Publisher:
Basic Books
Publication date:
01/28/1973
Series:
Basic Books Classics Series
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
456
Sales rank:
377,680
Product dimensions:
5.32(w) x 8.02(h) x 1.23(d)
Lexile:
1430L (what's this?)

Table of Contents

Forewordvii
Prefacexi
Acknowledgementsxvii
Part ISecurity, Anxiety, and Distress
1Prototypes of Human Sorrow3
Responses of young children to separation from mother3
Conditions leading to intense responses6
Conditions mitigating the intensity of responses16
Presence or absence of mother figure: a key variable22
2The Place of Separation and Loss in Psychopathology25
Problem and perspective25
Separation anxiety and other forms of anxiety30
A challenge for theory30
3Behaviour with and without Mother: Humans33
Naturalistic observations33
Experimental Studies39
Ontogeny of responses to separation52
4Behaviour with and without Mother: Non-human Primates57
Naturalistic observations57
Early experimental studies60
Further studies by Hinde and Spencer-Booth69
Part IIAn Ethological Approach to Human Fear
5Basic Postulates in Theories of Anxiety and Fear77
Anxiety allied to fear77
Models of motivation and their effects on theory79
Puzzling phobia or natural fear83
6Forms of Behaviour Indicative of Fear87
An empirical approach87
Withdrawal behaviour and attachment behaviour89
Feeling afraid and its variants: feeling alarmed and feeling anxious92
7Situations that Arouse Fear in Humans96
A difficult field of study96
Fear-arousing situations: the first year99
Fear-arousing situations: the second and later years105
Compound situations118
Fear behaviour and the development of attachment119
8Situations that Arouse Fear in Animals124
Natural clues to potential danger124
Fear behaviour of non-human primates127
Compound situations134
Fear, attack, and exploration136
9Natural Clues to Danger and Safety138
Better safe than sorry138
Potential danger of being alone142
Potential safety of familiar companions and environment146
Maintaining a stable relationship with the familiar environment: a form of homeostasis148
10Natural Clues, Cultural Clues, and the Assessment of Danger151
Clues of three kinds151
Real danger: difficulties of assessment153
'Imaginary' dangers156
Cultural clues learnt from others158
Continuing role of the natural clues161
Behaviour in disaster166
11Rationalization, Misattribution, and Projection169
Difficulties in identifying situations that arouse fear169
Misattribution and the role of projection172
The case of Schreber: a re-examination174
12Fear of Separation178
Hypotheses regarding its development178
Need for two terminologies182
Part IIIIndividual Differences in Susceptibility to Fear: Anxious Attachment
13Some Variables responsible for Individual Differences187
Constitutional variables187
Experiences and processes that reduce susceptibility to fear191
Experiences and processes that increase susceptibility to fear196
14Susceptibility to Fear and the Availability of Attachment Figures201
Forecasting the availability of an attachment figure201
Working models of attachment figures and of self203
The role of experience in determining working models207
A note on use of the terms 'mature' and 'immature'209
15Anxious Attachment and Some Conditions that Promote it211
'Overdependency' or anxious attachment211
Anxious attachment of children reared without a permanent mother figure215
Anxious attachment after a period of separation or of daily substitute care220
Anxious attachment following threats of abandonment or suicide226
16'Overdependency' and the Theory of Spoiling237
Some contrasting theories237
Studies of 'overdependency' and its antecedents240
17Anger, Anxiety, and Attachment245
Anger: a response to separation245
Anger: functional and dysfunctional246
Anger, ambivalence, and anxiety253
18Anxious Attachment and the 'Phobias' of Childhood258
Phobia, pseudophobia, and anxiety state258
'School phobia' or school refusal261
Two classical cases of childhood phobia: a reappraisal283
Animal phobias in childhood289
19Anxious Attachment and 'Agoraphobia'292
Symptomatology and theories of 'agoraphobia'292
Pathogenic patterns of family interaction299
'Agoraphobia', bereavement, and depression309
A note on response to treatment310
20Omission, Suppression, and Falsification of Family Context313
21Secure Attachment and the Growth of Self-reliance322
Personality development and family experience322
Studies of adolescents and young adults328
Studies of young children350
Self-reliance and reliance on others359
22Pathways for the Growth of Personality363
The nature of individual variation: alternative models363
Developmental pathways and homeorhesis366
One person's pathway: some determinants369
Appendices
ISeparation Anxiety: Review of Literature375
IIPsychoanalysis and Evolution Theory399
IIIProblems of Terminology404
Additional Notes409
References415
Additional References436
Index439

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