Sex and Gender / Edition 2

Sex and Gender / Edition 2

by John Archer, Barbara Lloyd, Barbara B. Lloyd
     
 

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ISBN-10: 0521635330

ISBN-13: 9780521635332

Pub. Date: 01/28/2011

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

Examines the extent to which men and women actually differ, and the origins and implications of the differences. Considers variations in physical development, sexual experience, emotional expression, mental health, aggression, family life and so on.

Overview

Examines the extent to which men and women actually differ, and the origins and implications of the differences. Considers variations in physical development, sexual experience, emotional expression, mental health, aggression, family life and so on.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780521635332
Publisher:
Cambridge University Press
Publication date:
01/28/2011
Edition description:
REV
Pages:
298
Product dimensions:
6.85(w) x 9.72(h) x 0.63(d)

Table of Contents

List of figuresx
List of tablesxi
Prefacexiii
1Commonsense beliefs and psychological research strategies1
Commonsense beliefs1
Commonsense influences on psychological research6
Scientific research and commonsense beliefs6
Similarities and differences8
The nature of explanations12
Research strategies14
Nomothetic versus ideographic approaches14
Levels of explanation15
Sex or gender?17
Further reading18
2Stereotypes, attitudes, and personal attributes19
Introduction19
The content of gender stereotypes20
Stereotypes and roles23
Do stereotypes reflect prejudice or reality?26
Attitudes towards women and men28
Individual differences in stereotypic traits31
Gender schema33
Masculinity and femininity35
Conclusions37
Further reading38
3Origins39
Introduction39
The origins of sexual reproduction40
Why two sexes?42
Sexual dimorphism and sexual selection43
The sexual natures of men and women46
Sexual selection and psychological sex differences48
The hunter--gatherer way of life51
Gender roles52
The origin of patriarchy54
Conclusions56
Further reading57
4Developmental influences59
Introduction59
Socialisation: the information potentially transmitted to boys and girls60
Routes of cultural transmission60
Parents' responses to infants60
Parents' treatment of of boys and girls61
The social environment outside the family63
Socialisation: transmission through social learning64
Imitation of role models64
The learning of gender-appropriate behaviour65
Socialisation: acquisition through cognitive processes66
Gender identity66
Gender constancy and stability67
Cues for identifying sex69
Socialisation from a cognitive developmental perspective70
Does biological development influence behaviour?71
General issues71
The role of sex hormones in development72
Rough-and-tumble play73
Activity levels74
A biosocial approach to gender development75
Sex-segregation in childhood77
Sex-segregated groups as the context for socialisation influences79
The boundaries of childhood gender roles80
Conclusions: why socialisation and biology are not independent of one another81
Further reading83
5Sexuality: psychophysiology, psychoanalysis, and social construction84
Introduction84
The physiological measurement of sexual behaviour85
The human orgasm85
Sources of sexual satisfaction88
Recording and reporting physiological arousal90
Questionnaire reports of sexual experience91
Psychoanalytic explanations of sexuality92
The unconscious93
Psychosexual development94
The social construction of sexuality100
In the beginning there was man100
From two to many101
The xanith of Oman: a third gender role?102
Native North American genders103
Beyond two gender roles105
Conclusions107
Further reading107
6Aggression, violence, and power109
Introduction109
Aggression and violence between members of the same sex110
Are men really more aggressive than women?110
Which men are likely to be violent?112
Women's aggression114
Why is there a sex difference in same-sex violence?116
Masculine values and their evolutionary underpinning116
The proximate cause of male aggression and violence: is testosterone involved?119
Socialisation explanations of men's aggression121
Women's aggression from an evolutionary perspective122
Violence in heterosexual relationships123
Sexual aggression126
Power, aggression, and violence130
Conclusions133
Further reading133
7Fear, anxiety, and mental health135
Introduction135
Do women experience more negative emotions?135
Do women's emotions fluctuate more than those of men?137
Are there sex differences in mental health?143
Diagnosing mental disorders143
Sex differences in specific disorders147
Mood disorders147
Anxiety disorders149
Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders151
Eating disorders151
Substance-related disorders152
Personality disorders152
How are sex differences explained?153
Conclusions158
Further reading159
8The domestic sphere160
Introduction160
The family and marriage162
The changing family163
Women and marriage164
The family in history167
Mothering and attachment170
Attachment theory170
Gender-related issues in the development of attachment bonds: caregivers172
Gender issues in the development of attachment bonds: infants and children174
Developmental hazards174
Attachment and social development176
Fathers and mothers177
One-parent families177
Mothers' reports of fathers' caregiving179
Personality differences among fathers180
Conclusions181
Further reading181
9Work, education, and occupational achievement182
Introduction182
Do men get better jobs and earn more money than women?182
Are there more men with high intellectual ability?185
Specific cognitive abilities188
Gender stereotypes in occupations and training191
Male chauvinism or masculine chauvinism?192
Does sex bias operate in occupational decisions?194
Self-stereotyping201
Social dominance orientation203
Conclusions205
Further reading206
10Looking back and looking ahead207
Introduction207
The limitations of existing meta-analyses208
Age range208
National and cultural representation210
Historical context213
Major theoretical developments215
Beyond sex differences218
Postscript223
Further reading223
References225
Index268

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