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Sexuality / Edition 1

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Overview


Sexuality has always been a rather obsessive human concern. Although it has been the true subject of countless past cultural, religious, and political discourses that did not dare to mention it directly--or even indirectly--today we possess both the language and the cultural gusto to discuss it as straightforwardly as we like. Indeed, we sometimes do so with a frankness that would have shocked people only a few decades ago. For now it seems impossible to contemplate human happiness without some measure of sexual fulfillment, although this topic remains a notoriously elusive and negotiable ideal. Furthermore, we are unlikely to understand the promise or the limits of our contemporary sexualities unless we understand those of the past.
Sexuality offers a fascinating look at this controversial subject, collecting texts ranging from antiquity to the present. It is the only reader of its kind that organizes material chronologically and covers such a long period. Part I forms a chronological narrative of the development of thinking about sexuality from the ancient Greeks to the present. Part II discusses nineteenth-century investigation of phenomena such as hysteria. prostitution, and fetishism. Part III brings together contermporary conceptions of the sexual body, and Part IV addresses the issue of whether the sexual revolution of the late sixties and seventies has brought about a permanent change in the sexual landscape of western civilization.
Sexuality is ideal for use in undergraduate courses in a variety of disciplines including history, women's studies, medical history, sociology, gay and lesbian studies, anthropology, religion, and literary studies.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780192880192
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
  • Publication date: 4/1/1999
  • Series: Oxford Readers Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 528
  • Product dimensions: 9.10 (w) x 6.10 (h) x 1.20 (d)

Meet the Author

Robert A. Nye is the Thomas Hart and Mary Jones Horning Professor of the Humanities and Professor of History at Oregon State University. For previous and forthcoming publications, see below.

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Table of Contents

Introduction: Historicizing Sexuality 3
I Before 'Sexuality'
I.a The Ancient World 17
1 Inanna Rejoicing in her Vulva 19
2 Festivals of Licence 21
3 Sowing the Field 22
4 Active and Passive Sexuality 23
5 The Speech of Pausanias 26
6 Were the Greeks Bisexual? 28
7 Honourable Sexuality 29
I.b Early Christianity 31
8 Non-Christian Roots of Christian Sexual Pessimism 33
9 Paul and Christian Marriage 34
10 The Earliest Christian Ascetics 35
11 Celibacy vs. the Family 37
12 The Six Degrees of Chastity 38
I.c The Middle Ages 40
13 Do Women Produce 'Seed'? 42
14 Sex and Pleasure 44
15 Is Female Pleasure Necessary for Conception? 45
16 The Dangers of Female Lust 46
17 The Manner of Intercourse 48
I.d The Renaissance and Religious Reform 51
18 Fornication and then Marriage 54
19 Uncontrollable Love 55
20 Protestant Sexual Discipline 56
21 Catholic Sexual Discipline 58
22 Sexuality in the Confessional 59
23 Trial by Sexual Congress 61
24 Sodomy and its Punishment 63
25 Sodomy and Sin in New England 64
26 Sodomy and Moral Panic in the Low Countries 65
I.e Enlightenment and Revolution 67
27 Sexual Self-Discipline: The Princess of Cleves 70
28 Civility and Self-Discipline 70
29 Sexuality and Identity 71
30 Exception and Norm 73
31 Sex under the Skin 74
32 'Deep Sex' in the Skeleton 75
33 Sexual Complementarity 78
34 Romantic Marriage, Women, and Fertility 78
35 The Use of Female Orgasm 80
36 The Sexuality of the Queen 81
37 The Sexual Contract 82
I.f Up from the Beast: The Triumph of Middle-Class Sexuality 84
38 Bourgeois Sex 87
39 The Middle Class and the State 89
40 Peasant Sexuality 91
41 From Peasant to Bourgeois 93
42 Middle-Class Views of Working-Class Sexuality 95
43 Hygiene, Morality, and Class 96
44 Sexual Respectability in the Working Class 98
45 The Ideal of Transcendent Love 99
46 Spirituality and Sexual Pleasure 101
47 Passion amidst Propriety 104
48 Sexual Segregation 106
49 Intimacy between Women 107
50 Intimacy between Men 109
II The Discovery of 'Sexuality' at the Turn of the Century
II.a Doctors and Sexual Disorders 115
II.a.i Experts 115
51 Professionalization and Medical Problems 116
52 Degeneration 117
53 The Priest and the Doctor 118
54 Degenerate Sexuality 120
II.a.ii Hysteria 122
55 Hysteria and Repression 123
56 Hysteria and the Prostitute 124
57 Sexual Hysteria 125
58 Prostitute and Saint 126
II.a.iii Prostitution 128
59 Stigmatization and the Contagious Diseases Act 129
60 Stigmatization of Prostitutes 131
61 Prostitution and New Forms of Desire 132
62 The Need for Chastity in Males 134
II.a.iv Masturbation 137
63 Sexual Self-Observation 138
64 Masturbation and Degeneracy 139
65 Between Abstinence and Masturbation 141
II.b The Perversions 143
66 Individualism and Sexuality 145
67 Biological Foundations 146
68 Pathology and Norm 147
69 Perversity and Perversion 149
II.b.i Inversion 150
70 Biological and Social Causation 152
71 Hegemony of the Two-Sex Model: Males 153
72 Hegemony of the Two-Sex Model: Females 154
73 The Medicalization of 'Inverted' Sexuality 157
II.b.ii Sadism 161
74 Sadism as an Exaggeration of Heterosexual Love 162
II.b.iii Masochism 165
75 The Origins of Masochism 166
76 Masochism in Women 168
77 Christian Masochism? 169
II.b.iv Fetishism 172
78 Fetishism and Modern Civilization 173
79 Fetishism and Impotence 175
80 Impotence and the Idealization of Women 176
II.b.v Exhibitionism 179
81 Exhibitionism and Deviance 180
II.b.vi Freud and Psychoanalysis 184
82 The Sexual Aberrations 185
83 A New Style of Psychiatric Reasoning 192
II.b.vii Heterosexuality 196
84 Heterosexuality as a Perversion 197
85 The Invention of Heterosexuality 198
III The Twentieth-Century Sexual Body
III.a The Evolution of Sex 205
86 Sexual Selection 208
87 Sexual Difference 209
88 Variation and Evolution 214
89 The Origins of Sexual Reproduction 215
90 Sperm Competition Theory 218
91 Female Adultery 221
III.b Hermaphroditism/Intersexuality 224
92 Hermaphroditism and the Orders of Nature 225
93 Gonadal Sex 227
94 The Developmental Etiology of Hermaphroditism 230
95 The Kinds of Sex 231
96 How to Build a Man 233
III.c The Discovery of Hormones 239
97 Testicular Rejuvenation 242
98 The Monkey Gland Affair 246
99 Hormones and Sex Difference 247
100 Masculine and Feminine Hormones 250
III.d Developmental Biology and Psychology 253
101 The Sexual Enlightenment of Children 255
102 The Invention of Adolescence 256
103 Changing Meanings of Menarche 259
104 How Play Reveals Sexual Difference 261
III.e The Physiology of Sexual Function 265
105 The Female Orgasm 267
106 Psychology is Physiology 269
107 The Human Sexual Response Cycle 270
III.f Transsexuality 276
108 The First Sex Change Operation 278
109 The Truth of Sexual Desire 279
110 The Truth of Anatomy 281
111 The Reassertion of Gender 282
III.g The Gay Gene and the Sexual Brain 285
112 The Gay Gene 287
113 The Sexual Brain 290
114 The Biological Evidence Challenged 293
115 Male Homosexual Desire 302
IV Sexual Revolution?
IV.a Pioneers of Sex Reform 309
116 The Origins of the Birth Control Movement 312
117 The Deconstruction of Victorian Sexuality 314
118 Sexual Radicalism 317
119 The Ironies of State Promotion of Births: The Italian Case 320
120 The Ironies of Sex Education: The French Case 322
121 More Rational Sex: The German Case 324
IV.b Second Wave Sexology 329
122 The Sexual Misery of Modern Man 332
123 The Limitations of Sexual Enlightenment in Marriage 334
124 New Male Responsibilities 338
125 The Radical Motives of Kinsey's Sex Research 341
126 Kinsey's Seven-Point Scale of Sexual Identity 345
IV.c Stripping Off
127 Eros and Human Emancipation 351
128 Women's Sexual Liberation 354
129 Sexual Utopias 356
130 Public Celebrations 358
131 What Sexual Revolution? 360
132 The Sexual Revolution Was for Men 361
IV.d Coming Out 364
133 Political Reform in Britain 366
134 Lesbian Generations 369
135 'Coming out' as a Rite of Passage 373
136 The Gay Clone 376
IV.e A Golden Age for Pornography? 381
137 The Cruelty of the Inner Self 383
138 Why Men Like Porn 385
139 Feminist Puritanism 388
140 Female-Friendly Porn 389
141 Taming the Perversion 392
IV.f AIDS 395
142 The Origins of the Epidemic 397
143 Shilts's Miserable Failure 399
144 The Sexual Ecology of HIV 402
145 Media Fabrications 405
IV.g Sex Surveys: Have We Returned to Normal? 409
146 The Evolution of Sexual Practices 411
147 Homosexuality in America 412
148 A Gendered Interpretation of Orgasm 414
149 The Cultural Bias of Sex Surveys 415
150 Sex and the Single College Student 419
Notes 427
Select Bibliography 472
Biographical Notes 475
Source Acknowledgements 485
Index 495
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