Shakespeare and Modern Culture [NOOK Book]


From one of the world's premier Shakespeare scholars comes a magisterial new study whose premise is "that Shakespeare makes modern culture and that modern culture makes Shakespeare."

        Shakespeare has determined many of the ideas that we think of as "naturally" true: ideas about human character, individuality and selfhood, government, leadership, love and jealousy, men and women, youth and age. Marjorie...
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Shakespeare and Modern Culture

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From one of the world's premier Shakespeare scholars comes a magisterial new study whose premise is "that Shakespeare makes modern culture and that modern culture makes Shakespeare."

        Shakespeare has determined many of the ideas that we think of as "naturally" true: ideas about human character, individuality and selfhood, government, leadership, love and jealousy, men and women, youth and age. Marjorie Garber delves into ten plays to explore the interrelationships between Shakespeare and contemporary culture, from James Joyce's Ulysses to George W. Bush's reading list. From the persistence of difference in Othello to the matter of character in Hamlet to the untimeliness of youth in Romeo and Juliet, Garber discusses how these ideas have been re-imagined in modern fiction, theater, film, and the news, and in the literature of psychology, sociology, political theory, business, medicine, and law. Shakespeare and Modern Culture is a brilliant recasting of our own mental and emotional landscape as refracted through the prism of the protean Shakespeare.


From the Trade Paperback edition.

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Editorial Reviews

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Too refreshing to be restricted to an academic audience, this sprightly romp uses dozens of examples to show us that Shakespeare still lives.

"The premise of this book is simple and direct: Shakespeare makes modern culture and that modern culture makes Shakespeare." Award-winning Shakespeare scholar Marjorie Garber demonstrates her thesis with an often astonishing array of contemporary appropriations, including Shakespeare-influenced rock lyrics, advertisement campaigns, and management primers as well as more respectable plays, novels, and ballets. Her trenchant examination of ten major Shakespearean dramas shows how each has been not only mined for its archetypal messages but also reshaped to reflect more modern preoccupations.
Library Journal

The pervasive influence of Shakespeare on modern culture cannot be overstated. Garber argues that we should not merely consider how culture has appropriated and interpreted Shakespeare but how Shakespeare "writes" the modern. Thus, for instance, Freud does not so much interpret Hamlet as interpret himself through Hamlet. Romeo and Juliet define our conception of lovers, and Prospero, Caliban, and Ariel inscribe the colonial and postcolonial discourse. Garber (William R. Kenan, Jr. Professor of English and American Literature and Language, Harvard Univ.) has written extensively on Shakespeare, including the award-winning Shakespeare After All. She covers ten major plays, examining their role in literature, performance, film, politics, theory, and popular culture. Though Garber assumes familiarity with the plays and some theoretical sophistication, her treatment is thorough, witty, fluent, and accessible. An important contribution for both the serious reader and the specialist; recommended for public and academic libraries.
—T.L. Cooksey

The Barnes & Noble Review
Shakespeare and Modern Culture. That's quite a title. A touch monumental, perhaps, for the mass market -- the publishers might have preferred something along the lines of Desdemona's Girdle: Why Shakespeare Will Never Go Out of Style -- but then Marjorie Garber is a heavyweight (see below). More to the point, Shakespeare and modern culture happens to be exactly what she is writing about: how the complexes of modernity, the layers of self-awareness stacked wobblingly up and down like the turtles in the Dr. Seuss story, are addressed and illuminated by Shakespeare's plays. The book's title, in other words, honestly proclaims its theme: an event in publishing much rarer than the layman might imagine.

Garber, a Harvard professor whose Shakespeare After All (2004) was generally hailed as a triumph of accessible scholarship, sets out her stall in a businesslike manner with an examination of the word "Shakespearean" -- swiftly revealed to be a cliché of our time, albeit a very versatile one. Picking with Garber over hasty heaps of journalism, we see that a thing is commonly deemed to be "Shakespearean" or "of Shakespearean proportions" if it is dramatic, romantic, ironic, long-winded, tinted with bombast, or simply complicated -- if it is, as Polonius says in Hamlet, in his burbling encomium to the actors who have visited Elsinore, "historical-pastoral, tragical-historical, tragical-comical-historical-pastoral, scene individable or poem unlimited." "Over time," decides Garber simply, "the adjectival form of the playwright's name has become an intensifier," (a designation sure to tickle the bones of that eminent Shakespearean Samuel Taylor Coleridge, who invented the verb to intensify). Human experience cranked up: that's Shakespeare, as we currently perceive him.

But how does he perceive us? is Garber's question. Or perhaps I should call it her argument, the idea being that the Bard is squinting back at us through the prism of his plays, interrogating us, anatomizing us, and so on. Garber zooms in on Megan Fox's shoulder -- or rather, on some words that the young actress has tattooed there: We will all laugh at gilded butterflies It's a half quote from King Lear. The original line, Lear's desperate fantasy of an idyll of confinement with Cordelia, is ?So we'll live / And pray, and sing, and tell old tales, and laugh / At gilded butterflies.? Fox's version transforms it into...something else, something hazily erotic and ambiguously collective and oddly consumerist and faintly religious, something modern: the distance between the two lines is revelatory. Thus is Shakespeare honored equally in the breach, ladies and gentlemen, as in the observance! (Storms of applause.) He watches us, the old wizard: that face, half Gioconda and half turnip, narrows its eyes.

If it were nothing else, Garber's book would still be a compendious anthology of modern responses to Shakespeare. She begins her discussion of The Tempest with a reference to the extraordinary 2006 documentary Shakespeare Behind Bars -- a chronicle of the play's staging at the Luther Luckett Correctional Complex in Kentucky, in which Caliban is played by a cop killer and Prospero by a man who murdered his wife by tossing a hairdryer into her bath. In the chapter on Hamlet we watch as the melancholy prince, hailed by Freud and his psychoanalytic apostles as ?the first neurotic,? becomes a cornerstone of the theory of the Oedipus Complex. Bertolt Brecht, meanwhile, used Coriolanus as a workshop for his ideas on epic theater and the dialectic. (The play itself was by no means inert in this process: Garber makes sure to remind us that ?Shakespeare revises Brecht just as Brecht revises Shakespeare?). And the crooked figure of Richard III retains ?a peculiarly insistent contemporaneity? -- a fact that will be eagerly attested to by any journalist who ever interviewed Jello Biafra, lead singer of the Dead Kennedys. (The assassination of JFK, I should add, forms a large part of Garber's take on regicide, modernity, and Macbeth. )

Garber does considerably more, however, than simply list the many ways in which we have tangled with Shakespeare. Her method is to look through the different readings and misreadings at "the imminent, all-pervasive, numinous play" that sustains and supplies them, considering then the refracted light it sheds upon we tricky moderns. Tracking the popularity of King Lear across the centuries, for instance, the varying estimations accorded it by Samuel Johnson ("I was many years ago so shocked by Cordelia's death, that I know not whether I ever endured to read again the last scenes of the play..."), by William Hazlitt, and then by the Victorians, she concludes that the '50s and '60s were "King Lear time," when the play's "bleak, bombed-out landscape of nihilism" and "Beckettian encounters" achieved their most profound cultural resonance. She is using, in effect, the X-ray of Shakespeare to write an interior history of modernity.

I'll carp at one thing. Actually, I'll carp at two. Garber's tendency to dwell excessively on the adaptation under discussion slows the book down (five pages on MacBird?), and there's also an occasional disunity of tone in Shakespeare and Modern Culture, betraying perhaps an uncertainty as to its intended readership: one minute we are muttering on in professorial code ("adequation," "supplementarity," things getting "mapped onto" other things), the next we are being loudly introduced, as if over a cocktail din, to "the romantic poet Percy Bysshe Shelley, who thought that poets were the unacknowledged legislators of the world." Later, we learn of Macbeth that "actors call it 'the Scottish play,' refusing to mention its name." Can it not be assumed that the purchaser of a book called Shakespeare and Modern Culture will have a clue about this stuff, some prior knowledge, if only a tiny bit? Perhaps it can't. Perhaps, oh dear oh dear, that's the problem with modern culture. --James Parker

James Parker is the author of Turned On: A Biography of Henry Rollins (Cooper Square Press) and a correspondent for The Atlantic.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780307377951
  • Publisher: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group
  • Publication date: 12/9/2008
  • Sold by: Random House
  • Format: eBook
  • Sales rank: 768,430
  • File size: 4 MB

Meet the Author

Marjorie Garber is William R. Kenan, Jr., Professor of English and American Literature and Language and chair of the Department of Visual and Environmental Studies at Harvard University. She lives in Cambridge and Nantucket, Massachusetts.

From the Trade Paperback edition.

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Read an Excerpt

The premise of this book is simple and direct: Shakespeare makes modern culture and modern culture makes Shakespeare. I could perhaps put the second “Shakespeare” in quotation marks, so as to indicate that what I have in mind is our idea of Shakespeare and of what is Shakespearean. But in fact it will be my claim that Shakespeare and “Shakespeare” are perceptually and conceptually the same from the viewpoint of any modern observer.

Characters like Romeo, Hamlet, or Lady Macbeth have become cultural types, instantly recognizable when their names are invoked. As will become clear, the modern versions of these figures often differ significantly from their
Shakespearean “originals”: a “Romeo” is a persistent romancer and philanderer rather than a lover faithful unto death, a “Hamlet” is an indecisive overthinker, and a “Lady Macbeth,” in the public press, is an ambitious female politician who will stop at nothing to gain her own ends. But the very changes marked by these appropriations tell a revealing story about modern culture and modern life.

The idea that Shakespeare is modern is, of course, hardly a modern idea. Indeed, it is one of the fascinating effects of Shakespeare's plays that they have almost always seemed to coincide with the times in which they are read, published, produced, and discussed. But the idea that Shakespeare writes us-as if we were Tom Stoppard's Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, constantly encountering our own prescripted identities, proclivities, beliefs, and behaviors-is, if taken seriously, both exciting and disconcerting.

I will suggest in what follows that Shakespeare has scripted many of the ideas that we think of as “naturally” our own and even as “naturally” true: ideas about human character, about individuality and selfhood, about government, about men and women, youth and age, about the qualities that make a strong leader. Such ideas are not necessarily first encountered today in the realm of literature-or even of drama and theater. Psychology, sociology, political theory, business, medicine, and law have all welcomed and recognized Shakespeare as the founder, authorizer, and forerunner of important categories and practices in their fields. Case studies based on Shakespearean characters and events form an important part of education and theory in leadership institutes and business schools as well as in the history of psychoanalysis. In this sense Shakespeare has made modern culture, and modern culture returns the favor.

The word “Shakespearean” today has taken on its own set of connotations, often quite distinct from any reference to Shakespeare or his plays. A cartoon by Bruce Eric Kaplan in The New Yorker shows a man and a woman walking down a city street, perhaps headed for a theater or a movie house. The caption reads, “I don't mind if something's Shakespearean, just as long as it's not Shakespeare.” “Shakespearean” is now an all- purpose adjective, meaning great, tragic, or resonant: it's applied to events, people, and emotions, whether or not they have any real relevance to Shakespeare.

Journalists routinely describe the disgrace of a public leader as a “downfall of Shakespearean proportions”-as for example in the case of Canadian financier Conrad Black, whose plight was also called a “fall from grace of Shakespearean proportions,” and who was described as the victim of a “betrayal of almost Shakespearean proportion.” In a book on the U.S. military involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan, a former CIA officer describes the results as “self- imposed tragedies of unplanned- for length and Shakespearean proportions.” Here the word “tragedies” makes the link between military misadventures and Shakespearean drama. The effect of a series of Danish cartoons that gave offense to Muslims was “Shakespearean in proportions”; the final episodes of The Sopranos were “a bloodbath of Shakespearean proportions”; and the steroid scandal in professional baseball was a plot that had“thickened to Shakespearean proportions.”

Vivid personalities like Lyndon Johnson, Richard Nixon, and William Randolph Hearst have likewise been described as figures of “Shakespearean proportions” or “Shakespearean dimensions.” Nor is it only national or international news that now makes the Shakespeare grade: a headline in the Daily Telegraph of London declared that “throwing a children's party can be a drama of Shakespearean proportions.” And an article in the tabloid New York Post began, “A Shakespearean tragedy played out on a Long Island street where a boozed- up young woman unknowingly dragged her boyfriend under her car for more than a block as he tried to stop her from driving drunk.” “Shakespearean” in these contexts means something like “ironic” or “astonishing” or “uncannily well plotted.” Over time the adjectival form of the playwright's name has become an intensifier, indicating a degree of magnitude, a scale of effect.

Why should this be the case? And what does it say about the interrelationship between Shakespeare and modern culture?

“Shakespeare one gets acquainted with without knowing how,” says one earnest young man in a Jane Austen novel to another. “It is a part of an Englishman's constitution,” his companion is quick to concur. “No doubt one is familiar with Shakespeare in a degree,” he says, “from one's earliest years. His celebrated passages are quoted by every body; they are in half the books we open and we all talk Shakespeare, use his similes, and describe with his descriptions.” This was modern culture, circa 1814. In the view of these disarmingly ordinary, not very bookish observers, Shakespeare was the author of their common language, the poet and playwright who inspired and shaped their thought.

In 1828 Sir Walter Scott, already a celebrated novelist, “visited the tomb of the mighty wizard,” as he wrote. He had a plaster cast made of the Shakespeare portrait bust in Holy Trinity Church, and he designed “a proper shrine for the Bard of Avon” in the library of his home at Abbotsford, making sure that the bust was “fitted with an altar worthy of himself.” Scott noticed that the two of them-Scott and Shakespeare-shared the same initials, W.S. He had their head sizes measured and compared by a German phrenologist. A bust of Scott was designed to resemble that of the other Bard, and after Scott's death the bust of his head replaced that of Shakespeare in the library. Admiration here became identification-or perhaps a kind of rivalry.

Shakespeare's modernity would also be proclaimed in nineteenth- century America. In 1850 Ralph Waldo Emerson announced that, after centuries in which Shakespeare had been inadequately understood, the time was finally right for him: “It was not possible to write the history of Shakespeare till now,” Emerson wrote. The word “now” in his argument becomes the marker of that shifting category of the modern, and it is repeated for emphasis a few lines later. “Now, literature, philosophy, and thought, are Shakespearized. His mind is the horizon beyond which, at present, we do not see. Our ears are educated to music by his rhythm.”13 Thus Emerson could say of Shakespeare, simply and resoundingly, “he wrote the text of modern life.” We live today in a new “now,” a century and a half removed from Emerson's, but this sentiment-“he wrote the text of modern life”-seems as accurate as it did then.

Nor-as we have already noted-is this view the special province of literary authors. The frequency with which practitioners and theorists of many of the “new” modern sciences and social sciences-anthropology, psychology, sociology-have turned to Shakespeare for inspiration is striking, but not surprising. Ernest Jones, Freud's friend and biographer, the first English language practitioner of psychoanalysis, declared straightforwardly (in an essay he began in 1910, revised in 1923, and expanded in the 1940s)that “Shakespeare was the first modern.” Why? Because he understood so well the issues of psychology. “The essential difference between prehistoric and civilized man,” Jones argued, was that “the difficulties with which the former had to contend came from without,” while “those with which the latter have to contend really come from within,”

This inner conflict modern psychologists know as neurosis, and it is only by study of neurosis that one can learn the fundamental motives and instincts that move men. Here, as in so many other respects, Shakespeare was the first modern.

Thus for Jones, Shakespeare's use of the soliloquy, the onstage, interior questioning of a character's conflicted thoughts and motives, anticipated the new science of psychoanalysis and Freud's “talking cure.”

THE “text of modern life” these days is embedded in a network of text messaging, Internet connections, video clips, and file sharing. Shakespeare in our culture is already disseminated, scattered, appropriated, part of the cultural language, high and low. An advertisement for rugged outdoors types advertised a sale: “Now Is the Winter of Our Discount Tents.” This turned out also to be the name of a rock compilation by the label Twisted Nerve. At the same time, in London, the White Cube Gallery presented an exhibition of work by British artist Neal Tait, titled “Now Is the Discount of Our Winter Tents.” Manifestly, none of these tweaked or inverted phrases would offer much in the way of wit or appeal if the cultural consumer did not recognize, or half recognize, the phrase on which each is based: the opening soliloquy of Richard III, in which the envious and aspiring Gloucester observes, in a classic of double- meaning enjambment, that “Now is the winter of our discontent / Made glorious summer by this son of York” (1.1.1-2). So we might say that Shakespeare is already not only modern but postmodern: a simulacrum, a replicant, a montage, a bricolage. A collection of found objects, repurposed as art.

Our Shakespeare is often “sampled” and “texted” in forms from advertising to cartoon captions. Lady Macbeth's exclamation in the sleepwalking scene, “Out, damned spot!” (Macbeth 4.1.33), is so well-known that it has been used to describe stain removers, acne medicine, and cleaning technologies for semiconductors. An ad for Hard Candy cosmetics extends the literary allusion, offering not only the “Out Damn Spot” concealer pencil to cover up blemishes, but also a coordinated line of makeup called “Macbare” and “Macbuff.” I call this a “literary allusion,” but it is a quite different kind from those of an earlier period. Although the writers of copy here assume a recognition of Macbeth as the source, there is no extended expectation of familiarity with the text. The wit inheres in the dislocation from context(“Lay on, Macbuff ”?).

Popular culture examples of this kind are virtually ubiquitous. Hamlet's phrase “The undiscover'd country from whose bourn / No traveller returns” (Hamlet 3.1.79-80) has been used as the subtitle of Star Trek VI, the title of an art exhibition on representational painting at the Hammer Museum in Los Angeles, and the brand name of a company offering bicycle tours in California. The bionic skeleton used for decades by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to demonstrate artificial body parts was named Yorick, after “the exhumed skull in Shakespeare's Hamlet.” Sometimes the Shakespeare quotation has moved so far into the mainstream that there is little or no acknowledgment of any connection with the source. Economist Greg Mankiw chose the phrase “Strange Bedfellows” as the headline of a short piece on Al Gore and supply- side economists of the 1980s. Although there may have been some tacit comparison between these figures and Shakespeare's Caliban and Trinculo, there's no evidence of it in the piece-and really no necessity. Shakespeare sampled, Shakespeare quoted without quotation marks, has become a lingua franca of modern cultural exchange.

The cultural “Q” value of something often goes up when its familiarity and utility go down. An antique shop that specializes in folk art will display objects like churns, crocks, quilts, and spinning wheels-once valued for their use and now many times more valuable, in sheer dollar terms, despite being useless. And the further we get as a society from intimate knowledge of the language and characters of the plays, the more “love” of Shakespeare begins to be expressed as a cultural value. Shakespeare's plays are probably read and studied more, these days, before and after college-in high school and in reading groups, extension courses, lifelong learning and leadership institutes, and in the preparation of audiences attending play productions-than during the four years of traditional undergraduate college education. Preprofessional training starts earlier, college majors are more specialized than once they were, and there is less expectation of a broad general education or liberal arts foundation than was the case a generation or two ago. Shakespeare becomes the treat, as well as the all- purpose cultural upgrade, for which time is found later in life, after more basic, pragmatic skills and knowledge are acquired.

Thus it is not perhaps a surprise to discover that some of the most avid and interested students of Shakespeare today are businesspeople, CEOs and CFOs of major national and international companies. Shakespeare's plays are now being used, regularly and with success, to teach corporate executives lessons about business. A few of the analogies the CEOs and their facilitators make may seem facile (the appearance of the ghost of old Hamlet is like the reminder that executives are accountable to their shareholders; CEOs, like the kings and queens in the plays, have to face the necessity of betraying-or firing-their friends). But the business of teaching Shakespeare- in- business has become popular and lucrative as a sideline for both government officials no longer in power and Shakespeare companies struggling to make a living. The play that has most galvanized business leaders has been Henry V, whose protagonist, the leader of a “band of brothers,” produced unit cohesion and triumphed against apparently insurmountable odds; I use some of the discussions among what might be called “business Shakespeareans” as examples in my chapter on that play.

In these encounters, “Shakespeare” often becomes a standardized plot, a stereotypical character, and, especially, a moral or ethical choice-not to mention the ubiquitous favorite, “a voice of authority,” as if it were possible to locate “his” voice among the mix of Hamlet, Macbeth, Falstaff, Rosalind, Portia, Iago, the Ghost, and the Fool. (The CEOs are not often asked to see the play through the lens of a minor character, an old man, a young woman, an attendant lord, or a common soldier; they are kings and queens, generals, Machiavels, decision makers all.) What may sometimes drop out here, crucially, is the complexity of language and of plotting, the ultimate undecidability or overdetermination of phrases, words, and actions. Reading against the grain-trying to gather a multiplicity of sometimes conflicting meanings from any staged scene or passage-itself cuts against the grain of CEO management and decision- making. Perhaps the key phrase here ought to be, not “Falstaff, c'est moi”-as one executive was quoted as saying-but instead Iago's “I am not what I am.”

From the Hardcover edition.

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Table of Contents

Introduction: Shakespeare and Modern Culture

1. The Tempest, or the Conundrum of Man
2. Romeo and Juliet, or the Untimelieness of Youth
3. Coriolanus, or the Estrangement of Self
4. Macbeth, or the Necessity of Interpretation
5. Richard III, or the Problem of Fact
6. The Merchant of Venice, or the Question of Intention
7. Othello, or the Persistence of Difference
8. Henry V, or the Quest for Exemplarity
9. Hamlet, or the Matter of Character
10. King Lear, or the Dream of Sublimity

Afterword: The Rest Is Shakespeare




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