Shinto and the State, 1868-1988

Shinto and the State, 1868-1988

by Helen Hardacre
     
 

Helen Hardacre, a leading scholar of religious life in modern Japan, examines the Japanese state's involvement in and manipulation of shinto from the Meiji Restoration to the present. Nowhere else in modern history do we find so pronounced an example of government sponsorship of a religion as in Japan's support of shinto. How did that sponsorship come about and how… See more details below

Overview

Helen Hardacre, a leading scholar of religious life in modern Japan, examines the Japanese state's involvement in and manipulation of shinto from the Meiji Restoration to the present. Nowhere else in modern history do we find so pronounced an example of government sponsorship of a religion as in Japan's support of shinto. How did that sponsorship come about and how was it maintained? How was it dismantled after World War II? What attempts are being made today to reconstruct it? In answering these questions, Hardacre shows why State shinto symbols, such as the Yasukuni Shrine and its prefectural branches, are still the focus for bitter struggles over who will have the right to articulate their significance.Where previous studies have emphasized the state bureaucracy responsible for the administration of shinto, Hardacre goes to the periphery of Japanese society. She demonstrates that leaders and adherents of popular religious movements, independent religious entrepreneurs, women seeking to raise the prestige of their households, and men with political ambitions all found an association with shinto useful for self-promotion; local-level civil administrations and parish organizations have consistently patronized shinto as a way to raise the prospects of provincial communities. A conduit for access to the prestige of the state, shinto has increased not only the power of the center of society over the periphery but also the power of the periphery over the center.

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780691020525
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
Publication date:
08/12/1991
Series:
Studies in Church and State Series
Edition description:
REPRINT
Pages:
224
Product dimensions:
6.14(w) x 9.00(h) x 0.53(d)

Table of Contents

List of Tablesxi
Forewordxiii
Acknowledgmentsxv
Introduction3
Studies of State Shinto5
Issues, Themes, and Goals7
Shinto in the Tokugawa Era (1600-1868)9
The Relation between Buddhism and Shinto14
Ise Pilgrimage15
The Influence of National Learning16
Summary18
1.The Modern History of Relations Between Shinto and the State21
Chronological Overview21
The Meiji Restoration and the Beginning of State Shinto27
The Separation of Buddhism from Shinto27
Building Institutions28
Disunity in the Department of Divinity29
Reform of Imperial Ritual31
The Creation of National Rites and Ceremonies32
The Slump of Middle Meiji (1880-1905)33
Is Shinto a Religion?34
The Movement to Reestablish the Department of Divinity36
Shrine Building after the Russo-Japanese War37
Freedom of Religion39
Postwar Shinto40
2.The Great Promulgation Campaign42
The Campaign42
The Pantheon Dispute48
The New Religions in the Great Promulgation Campaign51
Conclusion58
3.The Shinto Priesthood60
The Internal Diversity of the Shinto Priesthood60
The Evolution of a Concept of Religion63
Shrine Administrators65
The Idea of a National Teaching66
Shrine Administrators' Diversity and Influence68
National Teaching in Practice70
Questions of Doctrine and Rites72
The Provincial Priesthood73
Concluding Remarks76
4.Shrines and the Rites of Empire Part I: Shinto Shrines79
The Separation of Buddhism from Shinto81
Shrine Registration83
Shrine Rankings84
Distribution of Ise Talismans and Almanacs86
The Ise Shrines and Their Outposts87
The State-Sponsored Cult of the War Dead and Loyalists90
Provincial Centers of the Cult of the War Dead92
The Meiji Shrine93
Shrines in the Colonies95
State Shrine Support96
Shrine Mergers98
5.Shrines and the Rites of Empire Part II: Shrine Rites100
Shrine Rites: Types and Standardization100
The Liturgical Structure of Shrine Rites102
Large-Scale State Rites104
Civic Rites in Provincial Society106
Shrine Observances Involving Schoolchildren108
Customary Observances and Shinto110
Conclusion112
6.Religious Freedom Under State Shinto114
The Meiji Constitution115
The Imperial Rescript on Education121
The Religious Organizations Law124
The Suppression of New Religious Movements126
Shinto's Role in Restricting Religious Freedom128
Conclusion131
7.Shinto and the State Since 1945133
Shinto and the Occupation134
The Shinto Directive136
Religious Freedom and the Separation of Church and State137
The Religious Juridical Persons Law139
The Implementation of the Occupation's Policy on Religion140
Shinto since World War II142
Postwar Challenges to Religious Freedom and to Separation of State and Religion143
The Attempt to Reestablish State Support for the Yasukuni Shrine145
The Tsu Grounds Purification Case149
Cabinet Tribute at the Yasukuni Shrine150
The Self-Defense Force Apotheosis Case153
Conclusion157
Epilogue160
Appendixes165
1.Government Expenditures for Shrines in Comparative Perspective165
2.The Shinto Directive167
Notes171
Selected Sources191
Index199

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