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Low-pass filtering and visual averaging: Overview. Low-pass filtering of shot noise. Visual averaging. Baseline subtraction. Multiple time averaging and drift: Multiple time averaging methods. Drift. Multiple time averaging by oscilloscope. Multiple time averaging by computer. Phase-sensitive detector methods: Adaptation of resistor bridge strain gauge. AC coupled amplifier. Drift rejection of PSD. White noise error. Miscellaneous applications. Spectral view of signal recovery: General method. Spectral noise component. Pulse spectrum. Dependence of white noise amplitude upon bandwidth. Noise waveform. Spectral and time-domain views of signal pulse recovery. Shot noise amplitude. Thermal noise amplitude. 1/f noise: General properties. Measurement time independence. Response to combined 'noise'. Experimental result. Frequency response calculations. Low-pass filter. Running average. Visual averaging. Baseline offset correction. Sloping baseline correction. Step measurement. Spatial frequency components of 1/f noise. Frequency response of multiple time averaging. Frequency-domain view of the phase-sensitive detector: Analogue multiplier PSD. White noise error. Reversing PSD. Chopping PSD. Compromise arrangements. PSD imperfections. Non-phase-sensitive detectors. Recovery of a signal submerged in noise. Digitisation and noise: Additional noise due to digitisation. Analogue-to-digital converters. Suitability of real ADC circuits for taking average samples. Point sampling gate. Aliasing. Magnitude determination for transient signals of known shape and timing: Flash spectrometer. Limit setting. Weighted pulse sampling. Matched filtering. Boxcar sampling gate. Offset, drift and 1/f noise. Peak and valley detectors. Software realisation of weighted pulse sampling. Measurement of the time of occurrence of a signal transient: Method for timing a transient with minimum white noise error. Signal pulse timing. Signal step timing. Comparison of the step and pulse methods. Offset, drift and 1/f noise. Lock-in amplifier. Autocorrelation methods. Frequency measurement: Periodic transients of fixed width. Ratemeter. Phase-locked loop. Periodic transients of width proportional to period. Frequency tracker. Single transients. Correlation matching. Noise-optimised averaging of frequency measurements. Frequency domain methods. Appendix: Fourier analysis. Tutorial questions. Answers to tutorial questions. Index.