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Signal Transduction / Edition 1
     

Signal Transduction / Edition 1

by Bastien D. Gomperts, Ijsbrand M. Kramer, Peter E. R. Tatham
 

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ISBN-10: 0122896327

ISBN-13: 9780122896323

Pub. Date: 10/29/2003

Publisher: Elsevier Science

Signal Transduction is a text reference on cellular signalling processes. Starting with the basics, it explains how cells respond to external cues (hormones, cytokines, neurotransmitters, adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix, etc), and shows how these inputs are integrated and co-ordinated. The first half of the book provides the conceptual framework,

Overview

Signal Transduction is a text reference on cellular signalling processes. Starting with the basics, it explains how cells respond to external cues (hormones, cytokines, neurotransmitters, adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix, etc), and shows how these inputs are integrated and co-ordinated. The first half of the book provides the conceptual framework, explaining the formation and action of second messengers, particulary cyclic nucleotides and calcium, and the mediation of signal pathways by GTP-binding proteins. The remaining chapters deal with the formation of complex signalling cascades employed by cytokines and adhesion molecules, starting at the membrane and ending in the nucleus, there to regulate gene transcription. In this context, growth is an important potential outcome and this has relevance to the cellular transformations that underlie cancer. The book ends with a description at the molecular level of how signalling proteins interact with their environment and with each other through their structural domains. Each main topic is introduced with a historical essay, detailing the sources key observations and experiments that set the scence for recent and current work.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780122896323
Publisher:
Elsevier Science
Publication date:
10/29/2003
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
420
Product dimensions:
9.60(w) x 7.40(h) x 1.10(d)

Table of Contents

Prefaceix
1Prologue: Signal transduction, origins and personalities1
Transduction, the word and its meaning: one dictionary, different points of view1
Hormones, evolution and history2
Hormones: a definition9
Neurotransmitters10
Ergot12
Receptors and ligands14
2First messengers19
Hormones19
Binding of ligands to receptors25
3Receptors33
Adrenaline (again)33
[alpha]- and [beta]-adrenergic receptors34
Acetylcholine receptors38
Ion channel-linked receptors42
The 7TM superfamily of G-protein linked receptors51
Receptor-ligand interaction and receptor activation58
Transmitting signals into cells62
Intracellular 7TM receptor domains and signal transmission65
Adrenaline (yet again)66
4GTP-binding proteins and signal transduction71
Nucleotides as metabolic regulators71
GTP-binding proteins, G-proteins or GTPases72
Ras proteins85
Ras-GAPs92
Essay: Activation of G-proteins without subunit dissociation95
5Effector enzymes coupled to GTP-binding proteins: Adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C107
Adenylyl cyclase107
Phospholipase C119
6The regulation of visual transduction127
Sensitivity of photoreceptors127
Photoreceptor mechanisms130
Adaptation: calcium acts as a negative regulator135
Photo-excitation of rhodopsin137
Switching off the mechanism139
A note on phototransduction in invertebrates141
7Calcium and signal transduction145
A new second messenger is discovered145
Calcium and evolution146
Distinguishing Ca[superscript 2+] and Mg[superscript 2+]147
Free, bound and trapped Ca[superscript 2+]148
Cytosol Ca[superscript 2+] is kept low149
Detecting changes in cytosol Ca[superscript 2+]150
Mechanisms that elevate cytosol Ca[superscript 2+] concentration153
The pattern of cytosol Ca[superscript 2+] changes in single cells162
Localization of intracellular second messengers166
8Calcium signalling171
Calcium binding by proteins171
Effects of elevated calcium172
Paradigms of calcium signalling181
9Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation: Protein kinases A and C189
Protein phosphorylation as a switch in cellular functioning189
cAMP and the amplification of signals191
Protein kinase A192
Protein kinase A and the regulation of transcription194
Protein kinase A and the activation of ERK196
Actions of cAMP not mediated by PKA197
Protein kinase C198
The protein kinase C family199
Structural domains and activation of protein kinase C201
Multiple sources of DAG and other lipids to activate PKC204
Differential localization of PKC isoforms205
PKC anchoring proteins, STICKs, PICKs and RACKs205
PKC and cell transformation208
PKC and inflammation212
10Growth factors: Setting the framework225
Viruses and tumours225
The discovery of NGF ... and EGF227
Platelet derived growth factor230
Transforming growth factors231
Problems with nomenclature232
Essay: The cell cycle232
Essay: Cancer and cell transformation246
11Signalling pathways operated by receptor protein tyrosine kinases257
The tyrosine kinase family257
Tyrosine kinase-containing receptors259
Branching of the signalling pathway265
A switch in receptor signalling: Activation of ERK by 7TM receptors276
12Signalling pathways operated by non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases283
The non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase family283
Interferons and their effects290
Oncogenes, malignancy and signal transduction292
Essay: Non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases and their activation294
13Phosphoinositide 3-kinases, protein kinase B and signalling through the insulin receptor299
Insulin receptor signalling; it took some time to discover299
PI 3-kinase300
Insulin: The role of IRS, PI 3-kinase and PKB in the regulation of glycogen synthesis306
Other processes mediated by the 3-phosphorylated inositol phospholipids309
Multiple kinases and multiple phosphorylation sites, PDK1 as an integrator of multiple inputs310
So, who did discover insulin?310
14Signal transduction to and from adhesion molecules315
Adhesion molecules315
Adhesion molecules and cell survival325
Adhesion molecules and regulation of the cell cycle328
Adhesion molecules as tumour suppressors331
Essay: Apoptosis335
15Adhesion molecules and trafficking of leukocytes345
Inflammation and its mediators345
TNF[alpha] and regulation of adhesion molecule expression in endothelial cells349
16Signalling through receptor bound protein serine/threonine kinases359
The TGF[beta] family of growth factors359
Downstream signalling; Drosophila, Caenorhabditis and Smad364
17Protein dephosphorylation and protein phosphorylation373
The importance of dephosphorylation373
The role of PTPs in signal transduction376
Negative regulation through dephosphorylation378
Serine-threonine phosphatases383
Classification of protein serine-threonine phosphatases384
18Protein domains and signal transduction393
Structurally conserved protein modules393
Domains that bind oligopeptide motifs395
Domains that bind proteins and lipids398
Polypeptide modules that bind Ca[superscript 2+]401
Protein kinase domains403
Index411

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