Silicon-on-Insulator Technology: Materials to VLSI: Materials to VLSI / Edition 3

Silicon-on-Insulator Technology: Materials to VLSI: Materials to VLSI / Edition 3

by J.-P. Colinge, J. -P Colinge
     
 

ISBN-10: 1402077734

ISBN-13: 9781402077739

Pub. Date: 02/29/2004

Publisher: Springer US

Silicon-on-Insulator Technology: Materials to VLSI, Third Edition, retraces the evolution of SOI materials, devices and circuits over a period of roughly twenty years. Twenty years of progress, research and development during which SOI material fabrication techniques have been born and abandoned, devices have been invented and forgotten, but, most importantly,

Overview

Silicon-on-Insulator Technology: Materials to VLSI, Third Edition, retraces the evolution of SOI materials, devices and circuits over a period of roughly twenty years. Twenty years of progress, research and development during which SOI material fabrication techniques have been born and abandoned, devices have been invented and forgotten, but, most importantly, twenty years during which SOI Technology has little by little proven it could outperform bulk silicon in every possible way. The turn of the century turned out to be a milestone for the semiconductor industry, as high-quality SOI wafers suddenly became available in large quantities. From then on, it took only a few years to witness the use of SOI technology in a wealth of applications ranging from audio amplifiers and wristwatches to 64-bit microprocessors. This book presents a complete and state-of-the-art review of SOI materials, devices and circuits. SOI fabrication and characterization techniques, SOI CMOS processing, and the physics of the SOI MOSFET receive an in-depth analysis. Silicon-on-Insulator Technology: Materials to VLSI, Third Edition, also describes the properties of other SOI devices, such as multiple gate MOSFETs, dynamic threshold devices and power MOSFETs. The advantages and performance of SOI circuits used in both niche and mainstream applications are discussed in detail. The SOI specialist will find this book invaluable as a source of compiled references covering the different aspects of SOI technology. For the non-specialist, the book serves an excellent introduction to the topic with detailed, yet simple and clear explanations. Silicon-on-Insulator Technology: Materials to VLSI, Third Edition is recommended for use as a textbook for classes on semiconductor device processing and physics at the graduate level.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781402077739
Publisher:
Springer US
Publication date:
02/29/2004
Edition description:
3rd ed. 2004
Pages:
366
Product dimensions:
6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.36(d)

Table of Contents

1 Introduction.- 2 SOI Materials.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Heteroepitaxial techniques.- 2.2.1 Silicon-on-Sapphire (SOS).- 2.2.2 Other heteroepitaxial SOI materials.- 2.2.2.1 Silicon-on-Zirconia (SOZ).- 2.2.2.2 Silicon-on-Spinel.- 2.2.2.3 Silicon on Calcium Fluoride.- 2.3 Dielectric Isolation (DI).- 2.4 Polysilicon melting and recrystallization.- 2.4.1 Laser recrystallization.- 2.4.2 E-beam recrystallization.- 2.4.3 Zone-melting recrystallization.- 2.5 Homoepitaxial techniques.- 2.5.1 Epitaxial lateral overgrowth.- 2.5.2 Lateral solid-phase epitaxy.- 2.6 FIPOS.- 2.7 Ion beam synthesis of a buried insulator.- 2.7.1 Separation by implanted oxygen (SIMOX).- 2.7.1.1 “Standard”SIMOX.- 2.7.1.2 Low-dose SIMOX.- 2.7.1.3 ITOX.- 2.7.1.4 SMOXMLD.- 2.7.1.5 Related techniques.- 2.7.1.6 Material quality.- 2.7.2 Separation by implanted nitrogen (SIMNI).- 2.7.3 Separation by implanted oxygen and nitrogen (SIMON).- 2.7.4 Separation by implanted Carbon.- 2.8 Wafer Bonding and Etch Back (BESOI).- 2.8.1 Hydrophilic wafer bonding.- 2.8.2 Etch back.- 2.9 Layer transfer techniques.- 2.9.1 Smart-Cut®.- 2.9.1.1 Hydrogen / rare gas implantation.- 2.9.1.2 Bonding to a stiffener.- 2.9.1.3 Annealing.- 2.9.1.4 Splitting.- 2.9.1.5 Further developments.- 2.9.2 Eltran®.- 2.9.2.1 Porous silicon formation.- 2.9.2.2 The original Eltran® process.- 2.9.2.3 Second-generation Eltran® process.- 2.9.3 Transferred layer material quality.- 2.10 Strained silicon on insulator (SSOI).- 2.11 Silicon on diamond.- 2.12 Silicon-on-nothing (SON).- 3 SOI Materials Characterization.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Film thickness measurement.- 3.2.1 Spectroscopic reflectometry.- 3.2.2 Spectroscopic ellipsometry.- 3.2.3 Electrical thickness measurement.- 3.3 Crystal quality.- 3.3.1 Crystal orientation.- 3.3.2 Degree of crystallinity.- 3.3.3 Defects in the silicon film.- 3.3.3.1 Most common defects.- 3.3.3.2 Chemical decoration of defects.- 3.3.3.3 Detection of defects by light scattering.- 3.3.3.4 Other defect assessment techniques.- 3.3.3.5 Stress in the silicon film.- 3.3.4 Defects in the buried oxide.- 3.3.5 Bond quality and bonding energy.- 3.4 Carrier lifetime.- 3.4.1 Surface Photovoltage.- 3.4.2 Photoluminescence.- 3.4.3 Measurements on MOS transistors.- 3.4.3.1 Accumulation-mode transistor.- 3.4.3.2 Inversion-mode transistor.- 3.4.3.3 Bipolar effect.- 3.5 Silicon/Insulator interfaces.- 3.5.1 Capacitance measurements.- 3.5.2 Charge pumping.- 3.5.3—-MOSFET.- 4 SOI CMOS Technology.- 4.1 SOI CMOS processing.- 4.1.1 Fabrication yield and fabrication cost.- 4.2 Field isolation.- 4.2.1 LOCOS.- 4.2.2 Mesa isolation.- 4.2.3 Shallow trench isolation.- 4.2.4 Narrow-channel effects.- 4.3 Channel doping profile.- 4.4 Source and drain engineering.- 4.4.1 Silicide source and drain.- 4.4.2 Elevated source and drain.- 4.4.3 Tungsten clad.- 4.4.4 Schottky source and drain.- 4.5 Gate stack.- 4.5.1 Gate material.- 4.5.2 Gate dielectric.- 4.5.3 Gate etch.- 4.6 SOI MOSFET layout.- 4.6.1 Body contact.- 4.7 SOI-bulk CMOS design comparison.- 4.8 ESD protection.- 5 The SOI MOSFET.- 5.1 Capacitances.- 5.1.1 Source and drain capacitance.- 5.1.2 Gate capacitance.- 5.2 Fully and partially depleted devices.- 5.3 Threshold voltage.- 5.3.1 Body effect.- 5.3.2 Short-channel effects.- 5.4 Current-voltage characteristics.- 5.4.1 Lim & Fossum model.- 5.4.2 C?-continuous model.- 5.5 Transconductance.- 5.5.1 gm/ID ratio.- 5.5.2 Mobility.- 5.6 Basic parameter extraction.- 5.6.1 Threshold voltage and mobility.- 5.6.2 Source and drain resistance.- 5.7 Subthreshold slope.- 5.8 Ultra-thin SOI MOSFETs.- 5.8.1 Threshold voltage.- 5.8.2 Mobility.- 5.9 Impact ionization and high-field effects.- 5.9.1 Kink effect.- 5.9.2 Hot-carrier degradation.- 5.10 Floating-body and parasitic BJT effects.- 5.10.1 Anomalous subthreshold slope.- 5.10.2 Reduced drain breakdown voltage.- 5.10.3 Other floating-body effects.- 5.11 Self heating.- 5.12 Accumulation-mode MOSFET.- 5.12.1 I-V characteristics.- 5.12.2 Subthreshold slope.- 5.13 Unified body-effect representation.- 5.14 RF MOSFETs.- 5.15 CAD models for SOI MOSFETs.- 6 Other SOI Devices.- 6.1 Multiple-gate SOI MOSFETs.- 6.1.1 Multiple-gate SOI MOSFET structures.- 6.1.1.1 Double-gate SOI MOSFETs.- 6.1.1.2 Triple-gate SOI MOSFETs.- 6.1.1.3 Surrounding-gate SOI MOSFETs.- 6.1.1.4 Triple-plus gate SOI MOSFETs..- 6.1.2 Device characteristics.- 6.1.2.1 Current drive.- 6.1.2.2 Short-channel effects.- 6.1.2.3 Threshold voltage.- 6.1.2.4 Volume inversion.- 6.1.2.5 Mobility.- 6.2 MTCMOS/DTMOS.- 6.3 High-voltage devices.- 6.3.1 VDMOS and LDMOS.- 6.3.2 Other high-voltage devices.- 6.4 Junction Field-Effect Transistor.- 6.5 Lubistor.- 6.6 Bipolar junction transistors.- 6.7 Photodiodes.- 6.8 G4 FET.- 6.9 Quantum-effect devices.- 7 The SOI MOSFET in a Harsh Environment.- 7.1 Ionizing radiations.- 7.1.1 Single-event phenomena.- 7.1.2 Total dose effects.- 7.1.3 Dose-rate effects.- 7.2 High-temperature operation.- 7.2.1 Leakage current.- 7.2.2 Threshold voltage.- 7.2.3 Output conductance.- 7.2.4 Subthreshold slope.- 8 SOI Circuits.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Mainstream CMOS applications.- 8.2.1 Digital circuits.- 8.2.2 Low-voltage, low-power digital circuits.- 8.2.3 Memory circuits.- 8.2.3.1 Non volatile memory devices.- 8.2.3.2 Capacitorless DRAM.- 8.2.4 Analog circuits.- 8.2.5 Mixed-mode circuits.- 8.3 Niche applications.- 8.3.1 High-temperature circuits.- 8.3.2 Radiation-hardened circuits.- 8.3.3 Smart-power circuits.- 8.4 Three-dimensional integration.

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