Simon and Schuster Quick Access Reference for Writers by Lynn Quitman Troyka, Paperback | Barnes & Noble
Simon and Schuster Quick Access Reference for Writers / Edition 2

Simon and Schuster Quick Access Reference for Writers / Edition 2

4.5 4
by Lynn Quitman Troyka, Emily Gordon
     
 

ISBN-10: 0130965960

ISBN-13: 9780130965967

Pub. Date: 07/31/1998

Publisher: Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference

This brief spiral-bound reference handbook takes a user-friendly, reader-oriented approach—with additional features that give readersaccess to information quickly. The author covers grammar, punctuation, thinking and reading critically, writing argument essays, writing research papers and documenting them, writing for the Web, designing documents,

Overview

This brief spiral-bound reference handbook takes a user-friendly, reader-oriented approach—with additional features that give readersaccess to information quickly. The author covers grammar, punctuation, thinking and reading critically, writing argument essays, writing research papers and documenting them, writing for the Web, designing documents, writing about literature, writing for business, and creating oral presentations.Offers a Premium Companion Website at www.prenhall.com/troyka that facilitates the research process and offers three exclusive databases full of relevant and reliable source material. Expands discussion of the research process from five to seven chapters. Offers a new chapter on writing arguments. Features a new chapter on Oral Presentation that explains how to plan, create, and present. Features a striking new four color design that highlights each key concept. Provides URL addresses throughout that helps readers access useful websites.The ideal reference for professionals of all kinds who want to improve their writing in both business and personal contexts.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780130965967
Publisher:
Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference
Publication date:
07/31/1998
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
355
Product dimensions:
6.86(w) x 9.04(h) x 1.07(d)

Table of Contents

Divider Directory i
QA Box List ii
Preface xxv
How to Use Your Quick Access
What's in This Book
xxxi
Using dividers to get information
xxxi
Using lists to get information
xxxii
Using codes to find information
xxxiii
Using special features to help you understand
xxxiv
Understanding editing and proofreading marks
xxxiv
Hands-On Practice Using Your Quick Access
xxxvi
Learning where to look for what you need to know
xxxvi
Solving problems
xxxvii
Learning to use documentation models
xxxvii
Answers
xxxviii
Writing Process
Getting Started
1(7)
Making preliminary decisions
1(1)
Understanding the writing process
2(1)
Choosing a writing topic
3(1)
Narrowing a topic
3(1)
Uncovering ideas for writing
3(1)
Keeping a Journal
3(1)
Freewriting
4(1)
Brainstorming
4(1)
Asking and Answering Questions
4(1)
Clustering
5(1)
Planning a thesis statement
5(1)
Outlining
6(2)
Drafting
8(2)
Writing a first draft
8(1)
Overcoming writer's block
9(1)
Drafting on a computer
9(1)
Writing answers for essay exams
10(1)
Revising, Editing, and Proofreading
10(5)
Knowing how to revise
10(1)
Using the organizing power of your thesis statement and essay title
11(1)
Revising on a computer
11(1)
Using revision checklists
12(1)
Knowing how to edit
13(1)
Using an editing checklist
14(1)
Knowing how to proofread
15(1)
Using a computer to edit and proofread
15(1)
Rhetorical Strategies for Paragraphs
15(11)
Writing introductory paragraphs
16(1)
Writing effective body paragraphs
17(1)
Writing and using topic sentences
17(1)
Starting with a Topic Sentence
17(1)
Ending with a Topic Sentence
17(1)
Implying a Topic Sentence
18(1)
Using details to develop body paragraphs
18(1)
Crafting coherent paragraphs
19(1)
Using Transitional Expressions
19(1)
Using Deliberate Repetition and Parallelism
20(1)
Using patterns for body paragraphs
20(1)
Narration (Telling a Story)
20(1)
Description (Picturing in Words)
21(1)
Process (Giving Instructions or Advice)
21(1)
Example (Giving Illustrations)
21(1)
Definition (Giving the Meaning)
22(1)
Comparison and Contrast (Explaining Likenesses and Differences
22(1)
Analysis and Classification (Dividing into Parts and Grouping)
23(1)
Analogy (Finding Unusual Similarities)
24(1)
Cause-and-Effect Analysis (Discovering Reasons and Results)
24(1)
Writing concluding paragraphs
25(1)
Essay Arrangements
26(5)
Typical arrangements in essays with an informative purpose
26(1)
Typical arrangements in essays with a persuasive purpose
26(1)
A sample student essay
27(4)
Thinking and Reading Critically
Reading Critically
31(5)
Understanding the reading process
31(1)
Engaging in the reading process
31(1)
Reading for Literal Meaning
32(1)
Reading to Make Inferences
33(1)
Reading to Evaluate
33(1)
Engaging in critical reading
34(1)
Reading Systematically
34(1)
Reading Actively and Closely
35(1)
Thinking Critically
36(8)
Understanding critical thinking
37(1)
Engaging in critical thinking
37(1)
Assessing evidence critically
38(1)
Evaluating Evidence
38(1)
Assessing cause and effect critically
39(1)
Assessing reasoning processes critically
40(1)
Recognizing and avoiding logical fallacies
41(3)
Distinguishing Between Summary and Synthesis
44(3)
Understanding summary
44(1)
Understanding synthesis
45(1)
Synthesizing
45(2)
Grammar Basics
Parts of Speech
47(6)
Recognizing nouns
47(1)
Recognizing pronouns
48(1)
Recognizing verbs
48(1)
Recognizing verbals
49(1)
Recognizing adjectives
49(1)
Recognizing adverbs
50(1)
Recognizing prepositions
51(1)
Recognizing conjunctions
51(2)
Recognizing interjections
53(1)
Sentence Structures
53(7)
Recognizing subjects and predicates
53(1)
Recognizing direct and indirect objects
54(1)
Recognizing complements, modifiers, and appositives
55(1)
Recognizing Complements
55(1)
Recognizing Modifiers
55(1)
Recognizing Appositives
56(1)
Recognizing phrases
56(1)
Recognizing clauses
57(1)
Recognizing Independent Clauses
57(1)
Recognizing Dependent Clauses
57(2)
Recognizing sentence types
59(1)
Verbs
60(10)
Recognizing forms of main verbs
61(1)
Using the -s Form
62(1)
Using Regular and Irregular Verbs
62(2)
Using auxiliary verbs
64(1)
Using lie and lay
65(1)
Understanding verb tense
66(1)
Using the Simple Present Tense
66(1)
Using Accurate Tense Sequences
67(1)
Understanding the indicative, imperative, and subjunctive moods
68(1)
Using the Subjunctive with if, as if, as though, and unless Clauses
68(1)
Using the Subjunctive in that Clauses
69(1)
Using active and passive voices
69(1)
Subject-Verb Agreement
70(5)
Ignoring words between a subject and verb
71(1)
Using one of the
71(1)
Using the correct verb for subjects connected by and
71(1)
Using each and every
72(1)
Making a verb agree with the nearest subject
72(1)
Making verbs agree with pronoun subjects
72(1)
Using Singular Verbs with Most Indefinite Pronouns
72(1)
Making Verbs Agree with the Antecedents of who, which, and that
73(1)
Using one of the...who
73(1)
Making verbs agree with subjects in inverted sentences, in expletive constructions, and in sentences containing subject complements
73(1)
Finding the Subject in Inverted Word Order
73(1)
Finding the Subject in an Expletive Construction
74(1)
Agreeing with the Subject, Not the Subject Complement
74(1)
Making verbs agree with collective nouns, with nouns that specify amounts, with singular subjects in plural form, and with titles and terms
74(1)
Making Verbs Agree with Collective Nouns
74(1)
Making Verbs Agree with Subjects That Specify Amounts
74(1)
Making Verbs Agree with Singular Subjects in Plural Form
75(1)
Using Singular Verbs with Titles and Terms
75(1)
Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement
75(3)
Using plural pronouns for antecedents joined by and
76(1)
Agreeing with the nearest antecedent
76(1)
Agreeing with indefinite-pronoun antecedents
77(1)
Agreeing with collective-noun antecedents
77(1)
Pronoun Reference
78(2)
Avoiding unclear pronoun reference
78(1)
Avoiding adjectives as antecedents
79(1)
Using it, that, this, and which precisely
79(1)
Using you for direct address only
79(1)
Using who, which, and that
79(1)
Pronoun Case
80(4)
Using accurate pronoun case in compound subjects and objects
80(1)
Matching the case of pronouns and nouns in appositives
81(1)
Using the subjective case after linking verbs
82(1)
Using who, whoever, whom, and whomever
82(1)
Using accurate case after than and as
83(1)
Using pronouns with infinitives and gerunds
83(1)
Using -self pronouns
84(1)
Adjectives and Adverbs
84(5)
Using adverbs---not adjectives---to modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs
85(1)
Avoiding double negatives
85(1)
Using adjectives---not adverbs---as complements after linking verbs
85(1)
Using bad and badly
86(1)
Using good and well
86(1)
Using correct comparative and superlative forms
86(1)
Using Correct Regular Forms
86(1)
Using Correct Irregular Forms
87(1)
Avoiding too many nouns as modifiers
87(2)
Correct Sentences
Sentence Fragments
89(3)
Checking for sentence completeness
89(1)
Revising dependent clauses punctuated as sentences
89(1)
Revising phrases punctuated as sentences
90(2)
Being aware of intentional fragments
92(1)
Comma Splices and Fused Sentences
92(3)
Recognizing causes of comma splices and fused sentences
92(1)
Correcting comma splices and fused sentences
93(1)
Using Punctuation
93(1)
Using a Coordinating Conjunction
94(1)
Revising an Independent Clause into a Dependent Clause
94(1)
Taking Special Care with Conjunctive Adverbs and Other Transitional Expressions
95(1)
Sentence Shifts and Disjointed Sentences
95(6)
Staying consistent in number and person
96(1)
Staying consistent in subject, voice, and mood
97(1)
Staying consistent in verb tense
97(1)
Staying consistent in indirect and direct discourse
98(1)
Revising mixed sentences
98(1)
Avoiding Scrambled Sentences
98(1)
Avoiding Faulty Prediction
99(1)
Avoiding is where, is when, and reason...is because
99(1)
Using care with elliptical constructions and comparisons
100(1)
Completing as much as and Similar Phrases
101(1)
Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers
101(4)
Avoiding ambiguous placements
101(1)
Taking Care with only
101(1)
Avoiding Squinting Modifiers
102(1)
Avoiding wrong placements
102(1)
Avoiding split infinitives and other awkward placements
102(1)
Avoiding dangling modifiers
103(2)
Effective Sentences and Words
Conciseness
105(4)
Eliminating unneeded words
105(1)
Avoiding redundancies
106(1)
Eliminating wordy sentence structures
107(1)
Revising unneccesary expletive constructions
107(1)
Revising from passive to active constructions
107(1)
Reducing sentences
107(1)
Combining Sentences
108(1)
Reducing Clauses
108(1)
Reducing Phrases
108(1)
Using strong verbs and avoiding nouns formed from verbs
108(1)
Coordination and Subordination
109(3)
Using coordination to show relationships of equivalent ideas
109(1)
Avoiding coordination problems
109(1)
Using subordination to show relationships of nonequivalent ideas
110(1)
Avoiding subordination problems
111(1)
Sentence Style
112(4)
Using parallelism for balance and rhythm
112(1)
Using Parallel Words, Phrases, and Clauses
112(1)
Using Parallel Structures with Conjunctions
113(1)
Using Parallel Structures and Repetition
114(1)
Using a variety of sentence lengths
114(1)
Revising Strings of Short Sentences
114(1)
Revising Overcompounded Sentences
114(1)
Revising for a Mix of Sentence Lengths
115(1)
Choosing sentence subjects for emphasis
115(1)
Adding modifiers to basic sentences for variety and emphasis
116(1)
Inverting standard word order for variety and emphasis
116(1)
Word Meanings and Word Impact
116(7)
Learning about words and their meanings
116(1)
Choosing exact words
117(1)
Understanding Denotation and Connotation
117(1)
Using Specific and Concrete Language
118(1)
Increasing your vocabulary
118(1)
Understanding Word Roots, Prefixes, and Suffixes
119(1)
Using appropriate language
119(1)
Understanding Levels of Formality
119(1)
Using Edited American English
120(1)
Understanding When to Avoid Slang and Colloquial or Regional Language
120(1)
Using figurative language
121(1)
Avoiding Mixed Metaphors
121(1)
Avoiding cliches
121(1)
Using precise language
121(1)
Avoiding Slanted Language
122(1)
Avoiding Pretentious Language
122(1)
Avoiding Unnecessary Jargon
122(1)
Avoiding Euphemisms
122(1)
Gender-Neutral Language
123(2)
Understanding gender in the English language
123(1)
Using gender-neutral language
123(2)
Punctuation
End Punctuation
125(1)
Using a period after statements, mild commands, and indirect questions
125(1)
Using a question mark after a direct question
125(1)
Using an exclamation point for a strong command or an emphatic declaration
125(1)
Comma Use
126(9)
Using commas before coordinating conjunctions linking independent clauses
128(1)
Using commas to set off introductory clauses, phrases, and words
129(1)
Using commas with items in series
129(1)
Using commas between coordinate adjectives
130(1)
Using commas to set off nonrestrictive (nonessential) elements
131(1)
Using commas to set off transitional and parenthetical words, contrasts, words of direct address, and tag questions
132(1)
Using commas with quoted words
133(1)
Using commas in dates, names, addresses, and numbers
133(1)
Commas with Dates
133(1)
Commas with Names, Places, and Addresses
134(1)
Commas in Letter Openings and Closings
134(1)
Commas with Numbers
134(1)
Using commas to avoid misreadings
135(1)
Comma Misuse
135(3)
Not misusing commas with coordinating conjunctions
135(1)
Not using commas after subordinating conjunctions and prepositions
136(1)
Not misusing commas with items in series
136(1)
Not using commas between cumulative adjectives
136(1)
Not using commas around restrictive (essential) elements
136(1)
Not misusing commas with quoted words
137(1)
Not using commas between certain sentence structures and words
137(1)
Semicolon Use
138(2)
Using a semicolon between closely related independent clauses
138(1)
Using a semicolon when a conjunctive adverb or other transitional expression links independent clauses
139(1)
Using semicolons for clarity between comma-containing structures
139(1)
Not misusing semicolons
139(1)
Colon Use
140(2)
Using a colon when an independent clause introduces a list, an appositive, or a quotation
140(1)
Using a colon between independent clauses when the second clause explains or summarizes the first
140(1)
Understanding conventional uses of colons
141(1)
Not misusing colons
141(1)
Apostrophe Use
142(2)
Using an apostrophe to show that a noun is possessive
142(1)
Adding -'s to Nouns Not Ending in -s
142(1)
Adding-'s to Singular Nouns Ending in -s
142(1)
Adding Only an Apostrophe to Plural Nouns Ending in -s
142(1)
Adding -'s to the Last Word in Compound Words and Phrases
142(1)
Adding -'s to Each Noun in Individual Possession
142(1)
Adding -'s to Only the Last Noun in Joint or Group Possession
142(1)
Using -'s to show that an indefinite pronoun is possessive
143(1)
Using an apostrophe to signal omissions in contractions
143(1)
Using -'s to show plurals of letters, numerals, symbols, and words used as terms
143(1)
Not misusing apostrophes
143(1)
Quotation Marks
144(4)
Using quotation marks accurately with direct quotations of prose, poetry, and speech
144(1)
Using Quotation Marks for Short Quotations of Prose or Poetry
144(1)
Setting Long Quotations of Prose or Poetry Off from Your Words
145(1)
Using Quotation Marks for Spoken Words (Direct Discourse)
145(1)
Knowing when to use single quotation marks
146(1)
Using quotation marks for some titles
146(1)
Using quotation marks accurately for special treatment of words, letters, and numerals
146(1)
Not misusing quotation marks
147(1)
Using other punctuation accurately with quotation marks
148(1)
Placing Commas and Periods Inside Closing Quotation Marks
148(1)
Placing Colons and Semicolons Outside Closing Quotation Marks
148(1)
Positioning Question Marks, Exclamation Points, and Dashes
148(1)
Other Punctuation Marks
148(7)
Knowing when to use the dash
148(1)
Adding Information with Dashes
149(1)
Knowing when to use parentheses
149(1)
Adding Information in Parentheses
150(1)
Using Other Punctuation with Parentheses
150(1)
Knowing when to use brackets
151(1)
Knowing when to use the ellipsis
151(2)
Knowing when to use the slash
153(2)
Spelling and Mechanics
Spelling
155(7)
Knowing rules for spelling plurals, adding suffixes, and spelling ie, ei words
155(1)
Spelling Plurals
155(1)
Spelling Suffixes
156(1)
Using the ie, ei Rule
156(1)
Spelling homonyms and other commonly confused words
157(5)
Hyphens
162(2)
Knowing how to hyphenate at the end of a line
162(1)
Knowing when to hyphenate prefixes, suffixes, compound words, and numbers
162(2)
Capitals
164(4)
Capitalizing at the start of a sentence and other sentencelike structures
164(1)
After a Colon
165(1)
A Series of Questions
165(1)
Listed Items
165(1)
Inside Parentheses
165(1)
Knowing when to capitalize the first letter of a quotation
166(1)
Capitalizing proper nouns and proper adjectives
166(1)
Knowing when to capitalize names and terms
167(1)
Italics or Underlining
168(2)
Knowing when to use italics (or underlining)
169(1)
Using italics (or underlining) for emphasis
170(1)
Abbreviations
170(3)
Knowing when and how to use abbreviations
170(1)
Abbreviating Specific Times, Measurements, and Amounts
170(1)
Abbreviating Titles
171(1)
Abbreviating Names and Terms
172(1)
Abbreviating Addresses
172(1)
Knowing when to use etc. and other Latin abbreviations
173(1)
Numbers
173(2)
Knowing when to use spelled-out numbers
173(1)
Knowing when to use numerals
174(1)
Research Writing
Starting a Research Project
175(2)
Scheduling for research writing
175(1)
Keeping a research log
176(1)
Choosing a topic for research
176(1)
Finding and Evaluating Sources
177(5)
Using a search strategy
177(1)
Undertaking Field Research
178(1)
Researching in the Library
178(1)
Evaluating sources
179(1)
Determining your documentation style
180(1)
Creating a working bibliography
180(1)
Taking useful notes
180(2)
Using Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism
182(9)
Avoiding plagiarism
182(1)
Integrating sources into your writing
183(1)
Analysis and Synthesis
183(1)
Using quotations effectively
183(1)
Making Quotations Mesh with Your Sentences
184(1)
Integrating Author Names and Source Titles
185(1)
Paraphrasing accurately
186(1)
Summarizing accurately
186(4)
Using verbs to mesh source material with your sentences
190(1)
Drafting and Revising a Research Paper
191(2)
MLA Documentation
MLA In-Text Citations
193(6)
Citing sources in the body of a paper in MLA style
193(1)
Citing specific sources in MLA style
193(1)
One Author---MLA
194(1)
Two or Three Authors---MLA
194(1)
More than Three Authors---MLA
194(1)
More than One Source by an Author---MLA
195(1)
Two or More Authors with the Same Last Name---MLA
195(1)
Group or Corporate Author---MLA
195(1)
Work Cited by Title---MLA
195(1)
Multivolume Work---MLA
196(1)
Novel, Play, Poem---MLA
196(1)
Work in an Anthology or Other Collection---MLA
196(1)
Indirect Source---MLA
197(1)
Two or More Sources in One Reference---MLA
197(1)
An Entire Work---MLA
197(1)
An Electronic Source with a Name or Title and Page Numbers---MLA
198(1)
An Electronic Source with Paragraph Numbers---MLA
198(1)
An Electronic Source Without Page or Paragraph Numbers---MLA
198(1)
Using content or bibliographic notes in MLA style
198(1)
MLA Documentation for a Works Cited List
199(16)
Understanding details about a Works Cited list
200(2)
Using sample Works Cited models in MLA style
202(1)
Directory of 52 Types of Print, Nonprint, and Electronic Sample Works Cited Models in MLA Style
203(12)
A Student's MLA Research Paper
215(10)
Preparing your research paper using MLA format guidelines
215(1)
General Instructions---MLA
215(1)
Order of Parts---MLA
216(1)
Name-and-Page-Number Line for All Pages---MLA
216(1)
First Page---MLA
216(1)
Set-Off Quotations---MLA
217(1)
Notes---MLA
217(1)
Works Cited List---MLA
217(1)
Reading a sample research paper that uses MLA documentation
218(7)
APA, CM, CBE Documentation
APA In-Text Citations
225(7)
Understanding details about APA style
225(1)
Formating Quotations
226(1)
Citing specific kinds of sources in APA style
226(1)
One Author---APA
227(1)
Two or More Authors---APA
227(1)
Author(s) with Two or More Works in the Same Year---APA
227(1)
Two or More Authors with the Same Last Name---APA
228(1)
Group or Corporate Author---APA
228(1)
Works Cited by Title---APA
228(1)
Reference to More Than One Source---APA
228(1)
Citing Graphics and Table Data---APA
228(1)
Writing an abstract for an APA-style paper
229(1)
Using content notes in an APA-style paper
229(1)
Preparing your research paper using APA format guidelines
230(1)
General Instructions---APA
230(1)
Order of Parts---APA
230(1)
Title-and-Page-Number Line for All Pages---APA
230(1)
Title Page---APA
230(1)
Abstract---APA
231(1)
Set-Off Quotations---APA
231(1)
References List---APA
231(1)
Notes---APA
232(1)
APA Documentation for a References List
232(11)
Understanding details about the References list
232(2)
Using sample References models in APA style
234(1)
Directory of 44 Types of Print, Nonprint, and Electronic Sample References Models in APA Style
234(9)
CM-Style Documentation
243(12)
Understanding details about CM documentation with bibliographic notes
243(2)
Using sample note forms in CM style
245(1)
Directory of 39 Types of Print, Nonprint, and Electronic Sample Bibliographic Note Models in CM Style
246(8)
Using and Citing Graphics---CM
254(1)
CBE-Style Documentation
255(8)
Understanding details about CBE documentation
255(2)
Using sample References forms in CBE style
257(1)
Directory of 24 Types of Print, Nonprint, and Electronic Sample References, Models in CBE Style
257(6)
Focus on ESL
Singulars and Plurals
263(3)
Understanding count and noncount nouns
263(1)
Knowing which determiners to use with singular and plural nouns
264(1)
Using correct forms for nouns used as adjectives
265(1)
Articles
266(3)
Understanding how to use a, an, or the with singular count nouns
266(1)
Understanding how to use articles with plural count nouns and with noncount nouns
266(2)
Plural Count Nouns
268(1)
Noncount Nouns
268(1)
Generalizations with Plural or Noncount Nouns
268(1)
Understanding how to use the with proper nouns
268(1)
Word Order
269(2)
Understanding standard and inverted word order in sentences
269(1)
Understanding the placement of adjectives
269(1)
Understanding the placement of adverbs
270(1)
Prepositions
271(2)
Understanding the use of in, at, and on to show time and place
271(1)
Understanding the use of prepositions in phrasal verbs
272(1)
Using prepositions in common expressions
272(1)
Gerunds and Infinitives
273(4)
Recognizing verbs that use a gerund, not an infinitive, object
273(1)
Using a Gerund After go
273(1)
Using Gerunds After be + Complement + Preposition
274(1)
Recognizing verbs that use an infinitive, not a gerund, object
274(1)
Using Infinitives After be + Complement
275(1)
Using Unmarked Infinitive Objects
275(1)
Understanding how meaning changes depending on whether gerund or infinitive objects follow stop, remember, and forget
275(1)
Understanding that certain sense verbs use gerund and infinitive objects without changing meaning
276(1)
Choosing between -ing and -ed forms for adjectives
276(1)
Modal Auxiliary Verbs
277(4)
Using modal auxiliary verbs to convey ability, necessity, advisability, and probability
278(1)
Conveying Ability
278(1)
Conveying Necessity
278(1)
Conveying Advisability or the Notion of a Good Idea
278(1)
Conveying Probability
278(1)
Using modal auxiliary verbs to convey preference, plan, and past habit
279(1)
Conveying Preferences
279(1)
Conveying Plan or Obligation
279(1)
Conveying Past Habit
279(2)
Usage Glossary 281(18)
Terms Glossary 299(24)
Index 323(31)
Online Research Basics 354(1)
Finding Online Sources
354(2)
Evaluating Online Sources
356(1)
Documenting Online Sources
357

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