Simsoc: Simulated Society / Edition 5

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Overview

The official guide to SIMSOC, the dynamic group simulation game whose “potential for stimulating the learning process is staggering” (Teaching Sociology), in which players grapple with the challenge of governing society.

In SIMSOC, players confront issues like abuse of power, justice, diversity, trust, and leadership as they negotiate their way through labor-management strife, political turmoil, and natural disasters. Success or failure is dependent upon decisions made by players and the creativity of the group—and every game is a teaching tool.

To be successful, players must utilize every basic social process from cooperation and reward to threat and punishment. SIMSOC will make participants ask questions about social control, and bring everyday experience and deeper understanding to even the most arcane social and organizational theory.

Included in this Fifth Edition of SIMSOC's Participant's Manual are instructions for playing, materials for play, study questions based on participation, and selected readings about simulation games, leadership, and social processes. New to the Fifth Edition are additional size levels to accommodate groups of up to ninety participants with simplified rules and readings by authors from Nicholas Lemann to Robert Putnam.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
Teaching Sociology [SIMSOC's] potential for stimulating the learning process is staggering....It continues to attract devotes. The options for personal modification and innovation are there. The applicability to various course orientations and subtopics is limitless...
Booknews
SIMSOC (simulated society) is a social process game for actively involving students at the college level (and adults in leadership training programs) in the processes of conflict, protest, social control and social change. This edition represents a newly revised version of the game. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780684871400
  • Publisher: Free Press
  • Publication date: 7/28/2000
  • Edition description: Fifth Edition
  • Edition number: 5
  • Pages: 188
  • Sales rank: 524,603
  • Product dimensions: 8.50 (w) x 10.60 (h) x 0.40 (d)

Meet the Author

William A. Gamson, the former President of the American Sociological Association, is also a former Guggenheim Fellow and Professor in Boston College's Sociology Department. He is the creator of SIMSOC and author of Talking Politics, The Strategy of Social Protest, and Power and Discontent, among other books.

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Read an Excerpt

Introduction

You will shortly be participating as a citizen in a simulated society. If the society is to be a valuable learning experience, we will need your cooperation. Cooperation in this context means taking your objectives in the society seriously, We have tried to create a situation in which each of you has goals that depend on other people in the society for their achievement. Some of your goals will be held in common with other people, and some will bring you into conflict with others. Inevitably, some of you will do better than others in achieving your goals but, unlike some games, SIMSOC has no clear winners or losers.

You represent only some of the citizens of your society. Other citizens are present only in imaginary form — that is, certain rules of the game are based on assumptions about the reactions of these imaginary citizens. Nevertheless, this is basically your society to do with as you like.

COORDINATOR'S ROLE

The coordinator's role is kept to an absolute minimum once the society is in process. He or she will maintain the bank, receive forms, and carry out other tasks specified in the manual to make the game operate. If questions about the rules arise, the coordinator will guide you to the appropriate section of the manual and help you locate appropriate forms, but will not interpret ambiguous rules or advise you how to deal with situations arising in the game. The coordinator will do everything possible to avoid becoming enmeshed as a participant in your society once it has begun.

NATURE OF THE RULES

The rules in the manual are intended to represent certain "natural" forces in the real world rather than human laws. To ignore them by cheating simply renders the game pointless and meaningless. The coordinator should not be put in the position of having to monitor your observance of the rules, but should be able to depend on your cooperation to achieve the larger purpose of learning. The rules of the manual, as you will see, allow great leeway for you to add your own agreements and rules. The agreements that you make among yourselves are your own responsibility — these represent human laws rather than "natural" forces. If a player ignores or refuses to comply with a rule your society makes, you must face the issue of how to deal with this behavior. All players have a responsibility to observe the rules in the manual to make the game operative, but it is a matter of individual choice whether one observes the rules that you may establish to govern yourselves.

In spite of efforts to anticipate various contingencies, ambiguous situations will inevitably arise. When more than one meaning of a rule is possible, the coordinator will refer the question to a group within the society for interpretation. The coordinator will be concerned only with those aspects of the ambiguous situation that affect his or her specific tasks as coordinator.

SUMMARY OF THE RULES

The rules that follow are detailed, but not as complicated as they first appear; you will discover this once SIMSOC is in process. A short summary of the rules is included here to give you a general sense of the nature of the society and the options available to you. It also includes page references so that later you can easily look up exact details as necessary. A careful reading of this summary is a helpful way to begin, but you should read the complete rules rapidly. Once you begin to play and attempt to achieve your goals, you will need to read various specific sections of the complete rules more carefully.

Simbucks

Simbucks are the basic currency in SIMSOC. Initially, they are held in a bank run by the game coordinator.

Region

All members of the society live in one of four regions.

Moving

A player may move to another region by paying a moving fee to the bank.

Travel

A person cannot travel between regions without having either a travel ticket or a Private Transportation Certificate. Travel tickets may be obtained from a limited number of players who have travel agencies and receive a supply of tickets each session. A Private Transportation Certificate may be purchased from the bank.

Subsistence

Every member of the society must, for every session attended, provide for his or her subsistence, doing this by means of either a subsistence ticket or luxury living. Subsistence tickets can be obtained from a limited number of players who have subsistence agencies and receive a supply of tickets each session. Luxury living may be purchased from the bank.

Failure to provide subsistence for a session will mean loss of one's job. Failure to do so in two consecutive sessions means one is considered dead and cannot participate in the society in any way.

Munchies (optional)

The coordinator will maintain a Munchie Bazaar where Simbucks may be converted to food or beverages. Or, instead of Munchies, the coordinator may make other desirable items available for purchase with Simbucks.

Enterprises

Participants can invest their Simbucks to buy risky enterprises from the coordinator. The success of these enterprises depends partly on luck and partly on the skill of the investors.

Basic Groups

There are eight basic groups in SIMSOC for which you can work. Only the heads of these groups will be designated by the coordinator at the beginning. The rest of the players must find jobs. The head of each group receives the group's income to dispense.

The groups include two industries (BASIN and RETSIN), two political parties (POP and SOP), an employee interest group (EMPIN), a human services group (HUMSERVE), a mass media group (MASMED), and a rule-interpreting group (JUDCO). You should read the description of these groups before beginning play because you will be asked to designate a preference. If you are not picked as head of a group, you will be faced with the need for employment. You will also have an opportunity to support or withhold support from some of these groups.

National Indicators

Numerical values for four National Indicators are calculated at the end of each session. The indicators are Food and Energy Supply (FES), Standard of Living (SL), Social Cohesion (SC), and Public Commitment (PC). These National Indicators may be raised by investing Simbucks in either of two broad public programs — Research and Conservation, or Welfare Services. The National Indicators decline by a certain percentage each session and can be lowered further by various actions and events in the society. If the National Indicators decline below certain points, the income available to the basic groups in the society declines. If the National Indicators rise above a certain point, the income available to the basic groups in the society increases. If any National Indicator goes below zero, the society collapses and the game is over.

Absenteeism

Certain National Indicators (described above) are lowered when members are absent, regardless of the reason for the absence.

Unemployment

Certain National Indicators are lowered if there are members of the society without jobs.

Death

Certain National Indicators are lowered if members die.

Minority Group (optional)

The coordinator will announce whether this option is in effect. It provides for the designation of some members of the society as Minority Group Members. These people may be removed from their positions at any time by action of any two non-Minority Group Members, or may face other obstacles.

Individual Goals

You will be asked to select certain personal or individual goals to pursue during the course of the society. You will have an opportunity to change these goals and to declare at each session the extent to which you feel you are meeting them.

Simforce

Actual physical force is prohibited in SIMSOC but the equivalent of such physical force is provided. Any individual or group may create a Simforce with the power to arrest others and to protect specified others from arrest. A person who is arrested is restricted to his region and may not travel, may not hold any job or official position in the society, may not engage in any official transactions with the coordinator, and will have all possessions confiscated. All confiscated materials will be turned over to the head of the Simforce. A person is dead if his arrest is renewed for two consecutive sessions.

More than one Simforce can be created, and it is also possible to remove an existing Simforce. Arrests lower certain National Indicators.

Simriot

Members of the society may riot by signing a riot form (Form M). Riots may be prevented, however, by the placing of a guard post. Riots lower certain National Indicators.

Government

There is no requirement that the society establish a government nor are there any formal rules regulating a government.

Special Events (optional)

The coordinator may announce the occurrence of certain "outside events" affecting the society, but you will not know in advance when the events will occur or what their nature will be.

The Object of the Game

To achieve the individual goals you have set for yourself, to help the basic group to which you belong to achieve its goals, and to see to it that the society as a whole is a "success" — however you may choose to define this. If you try to achieve these objectives, the larger objective of learning will be achieved (see Summary).

GENERAL CONSTRAINTS

The "laws of nature" prohibit all of the following:

1. Taking resources from the bank or from other participants without their consent.

2. The use of physical force. (The game provides fora simulated version of this.)

3. Counterfeiting Simbucks or other resources.

4. Forging another person's signature without his or her consent.

Copyright © 1966, 1969, 1972, 1978, 1991, 2000 by William A. Gamson

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Table of Contents

Contents

PREFACE

IN ORDER TO PLAY SIMSOC

1 RULES

INTRODUCTION

Coordinator's Role

Nature of the Rules

Summary of the Rules

General Constraints

PERSONAL LIFE

Simbucks

Region

Travel

Subsistence

Munchies

Enterprises

BASIC GROUPS

BASIN

RETSIN

POP

SOP

EMPIN

HUMSERVE

MASMED

JUDCO

The Group Head

Mergers

COLLECTIVE LIFE

National Indicators

Public Programs

Changes in the National Indicators

Consequences of Changes in the National Indicators

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

Absenteeism

Unemployment

Death

Minority Croup Members (Optional)

Individual Coals

Simforce

Simriot

Government

Special Events (Optional)

SUMMARY

Self-Test on SIMSOC Rules

Some Common Questions about Playing SIMSOC

STUDY QUESTIONS (Optional)

Assignment One

Assignment Two

Assignment Three

2 SELECTED READINGS

3 FORMS

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First Chapter

Chapter 1 Rules

Introduction

You will shortly be participating as a citizen in a simulated society. If the society is to be a valuable learning experience, we will need your cooperation. Cooperation in this context means taking your objectives in the society seriously. We have tried to create a situation in which each of you has goals that depend on other people in the society for their achievement. Some of your goals will be held in common with other people, and some will bring you into conflict with others. Inevitably, some of you will do better than others in achieving your goals but, unlike some games, SIMSOC has no clear winners or losers.

You represent only some of the citizens of your society. Other citizens are present only in imaginary form -- that is, certain rules of the game are based on assumptions about the reactions of these imaginary citizens. Nevertheless, this is basically your society to do with as you like.

COORDINATOR'S ROLE

The coordinator's role is kept to an absolute minimum once the society is in process. He or she will maintain the bank, receive forms, and carry out other tasks specified in the manual to make the game operate. If questions about the rules arise, the coordinator will guide you to the appropriate section of the manual and help you locate appropriate forms, but will not interpret ambiguous rules or advise you how to deal with situations arising in the game. The coordinator will do everything possible to avoid becoming enmeshed as a participant in your society once it has begun.

NATURE OF THE RULES

The rules in the manual are intended to represent certain "natural" forces in the real world rather than human laws. To ignore them by cheating simply renders the game pointless and meaningless. The coordinator should not be put in the position of having to monitor your observance of the rules, but should be able to depend on your cooperation to achieve the larger purpose of learning. The rules of the manual, as you will see, allow great leeway for you to add your own agreements and rules. The agreements that you make among yourselves are your own responsibility -- these represent human laws rather than "natural" forces. If a player ignores or refuses to comply with a rule your society makes, you must face the issue of how to deal with this behavior. All players have a responsibility to observe the rules in the manual to make the game operative, but it is a matter of individual choice whether one observes the rules that you may establish to govern yourselves.

In spite of efforts to anticipate various contingencies, ambiguous situations will inevitably arise. When more than one meaning of a rule is possible, the coordinator will refer the question to a group within the society for interpretation. The coordinator will be concerned only with those aspects of the ambiguous situation that affect his or her specific tasks as coordinator.

SUMMARY OF THE RULES

The rules that follow are detailed, but not as complicated as they first appear; you will discover this once SIMSOC is in process. A short summary of the rules is included here to give you a general sense of the nature of the society and the options available to you. It also includes page references so that later you can easily look up exact details as necessary. A careful reading of this summary is a helpful way to begin, but you should read the complete rules rapidly. Once you begin to play and attempt to achieve your goals, you will need to read various specific sections of the complete rules more carefully.

Simbucks

Simbucks are the basic currency in SIMSOC. Initially, they are held in a bank run by the game coordinator (see p. 7).

Region

All members of the society live in one of four regions (see p. 7).

Moving

A player may move to another region by paying a moving fee to the bank (see p. 7).

Travel

A person cannot travel between regions without having either a travel ticket or a Private Transportation Certificate. Travel tickets may be obtained from a limited number of players who have travel agencies and receive a supply of tickets each session. A Private Transportation Certificate may be purchased from the bank (see p. 8).

Subsistence

Every member of the society must, for every session attended, provide for his or her subsistence, doing this by means of either a subsistence ticket or luxury living. Subsistence tickets can be obtained from a limited number of players who have subsistence agencies and receive a supply of tickets each session. Luxury living may be purchased from the bank and includes a supply of Munchie tickets in addition to subsistence.

Failure to provide subsistence for a session will mean loss of one's job. Failure to do so in two consecutive sessions means one is considered dead and cannot participate in the society in any way (see p. 10).

Munchies

A limited number of Munchie tickets will be available for each session. The coordinator will maintain a Munchie Bazaar at which Munchie tickets can be converted to food or beverages (see p. 10).

Basic Groups

There are seven basic groups in SIMSOC for which you can work. Only the heads of these groups will be designated by the coordinator at the beginning. The rest of the players must find jobs. The head of each group receives the group's income to dispense.

The groups include two industries (BASIN and RETSIN), two political parties (POP and SOP), an employee interest group (EMPIN), a mass media group (MASMED), and a rule-interpreting group (JUDCO). You should read the description of these groups before beginning play because you will be asked to designate a preference. If you are not picked as head of a group, you will be faced with the need for employment (see p. 24). You will also have an opportunity to support or withhold support from some of these groups.

National Indicators

Numerical values for four National Indicators are calculated at the end of each session. The indicators are Food and Energy Supply (FES), Standard of Living (SL), Social Cohesion (SC), and Public Commitment (PC). These National Indicators may be raised by investing Simbucks in either of two broad public programs -- Research and Conservation or Welfare Services. The National Indicators decline by a certain percentage each session and can be lowered further by various actions and events in the society. If the National Indicators decline below certain points, the income available to the basic groups in the society declines. If the National Indicators rise above a certain point, the income available to the basic groups in the society increases. If any National Indicator goes below zero, the society collapses and the game is over (see pp. 20-23).

Absenteeism

Certain National Indicators (described above) are lowered when members are absent, regardless of the reason for the absence (see p. 23).

Unemployment

Certain National Indicators are lowered if there are members of the society without jobs (see p. 24).

Death

Certain National Indicators are lower if members die (see p. 24).

Minority Group (optional)

The coordinator will announce whether this option is in effect. It provides for the designation of some members of the society as Minority Group Members. These people may be removed from their positions at any time by action of any two non-Minority Group Members (see p. 24).

Individual Goals

You will be asked to select certain personal or individual goals to pursue during the course of the society. You will have an opportunity to change these goals and to declare at each session the extent to which you feel you are meeting them (see p. 25).

Simforce

Actual physical force is prohibited in SIMSOC but the equivalent of such physical force is provided. Any individual or group may create a Simforce with the power to arrest others and to protect specified others from arrest. A person who is arrested is restricted to his region and may not travel, may not hold any job or official position in the society, may not engage in any official transactions with the coordinator, and will have all possessions confiscated. All confiscated materials will be turned over to the head of the Simforce. A person is dead if his arrest is renewed for two consecutive sessions.

More than one Simforce can be created, and it is also possible to remove an existing Simforce. Arrests lower certain of the National Indicators (see pp. 26-29).

Simriot

Members of the society may riot by signing a riot form (Form M). Riots may be prevented, however, by the placing of a guard post. Riots lower certain National Indicators (see p. 29).

Government

There is no requirement that the society establish a government nor are there any formal rules regulating a government (see p. 30).

Special Events (optional)

The coordinator may announce the occurrence of certain "outside events" affecting the society, but you will not know in advance when the events will occur or what their nature will be (see p. 30).

The Object of the Game

To achieve the individual goals you have set for yourself, to help the basic group to which you belong to achieve its goals, and to see to it that the society as a whole is a "success" -- however you may choose to define this. If you try to achieve these objectives, the larger objective of learning will be aehieved (see p. 30).

GENERAL CONSTRAINTS

The "laws of nature" prohibit all of the following:

1. Taking resources from the bank or from other participants without their consent.
2. The use of physical force. (The game provides for a simulated version of this.)
3. Counterfeiting Simbucks or other resources.
4. Forging another person's signature without his or her consent.

Personal Life

SIMBUCKS

Simbucks are the basic currency in SIMSOC. They are signified in these instructions by "$." You can use them to buy things you will need to achieve your goals in the society. For example, they will help you to travel or to buy subsistence and Munchies. You can also invest them in various ways, or you may save them in any given session for later use. As you read the following instructions, you will discover the many ways in which you can spend your Simbucks. All Simbucks not owned by individuals or groups are the property of the bank kept by the coordinator. The bank does not make loans or extend credit.

REGION

All members of the society live in one of four regions, designated Red, Yellow, Blue, and Green. At the beginning of each session, you must go to your home region.

Moving

Any player may move to another region by filing the Moving Sheet (Form C) and paying a moving fee of $10 to the bank. The move becomes effective at the beginning of the session following the filing of this form. However, players may go to the new region immediately, if they provide their transportation as described in the next section.

Moving to a new region is subject to the following restrictions: First, no more than one-third of the total participants (including absentees) may live in any one region. Second, a player may be refused admission to a region by the unanimous consent of the inhabitants who are present (that is, excluding visitors or absentees).

TRAVEL

You may travel between regions in two ways:

1. Public transportation. A person who possesses a travel ticket may use it to travel between regions. A travel ticket is good for one trip, defined as leaving and returning to the home region with no more than one stop in each other region. A trip is over when the traveler returns to the home region or repeats a visit to any region. It is your responsibility to give the coordinator or an assistant your travel ticket at the beginning of each trip. Travel tickets can be obtained from people who head travel agencies (see discussion below).

2. Private transportation. Any individual may purchase a Private Transportation Certificate (Form D) from the bank at a cost of $25. Those who possess such a certificate may make as many trips as they like. In other words, a Private Transportation Certificate allows you to travel freely for the rest of the session and for all future sessions of the society. Only the individual who has bought a Private Transportation Certificate may use it. He or she may, however, sell or transfer a certificate to another individual by filing Form F and paying a transfer fee of $3 to the bank. The bank cannot buy back a Private Transportation Certificate once it has been issued.

No one may travel without either a travel ticket or a Private Transportation Certificate. A certain number of players will be designated as owners of travel agencies at the beginning of the game. These agency heads will receive five travel tickets in each session which they can use, hoard, dispense, save, or sell in any fashion they see fit. Unused travel tickets may be carried over to future sessions. A travel agency with its regular supply of five travel tickets may be sold or transferred (Form F), but a transfer charge of $3 must be paid to the bank.

Restrictions on Travel

Travel is subject to the following restrictions: First, no more than half of the total participants present at a session may occupy any region at any one time. A traveling member may not enter a region in which there are already 50% of the members of the society present. This restriction also applies to any other areas even if they are not official regions (for example, an "uninhabited region" used as a meeting place). Second, any player, even with valid transportation, may be refused admission to a region by the unanimous consent of the inhabitants who are present (excluding visitors or absentees). He or she may not be refused admission if one or more of the inhabitants is willing to have the traveler enter.

Calling or shouting between regions is prohibited. Players should act as if sound-barriers make it impossible for them to speak to each other unless they are physically present in the same region.

Reassigning a Travel Agency

If owners of travel agencies are absent, arrested, or have a Minority Group Member Action (Form K) filed against them, they lose their agency. The coordinator will reassign the agency at random to another member of the same home region. If the old owner has not yet received the allotment of tickets for the current session, the new owner will receive the supply for that session.

Location of Bank

The coordinator's desk or bank is considered part of every region, and transactions with the coordinator do not require travel.

SUBSISTENCE

All members of the society must provide for their subsistence for every session at which they are present (even if present for only part of the session). You can do this by presenting the coordinator with a subsistence ticket at any time before the end of the session. You can also provide for subsistence plus luxury by purchasing one of the luxury-living options described below.

A certain number of players will be designated as owners of subsistence agencies at the beginning of the game. These agency heads will receive five subsistence tickets in each session, which they can use, hoard, dispense, save, or sell in any fashion they see fit. Unused subsistence tickets may be carried over to future sessions. A subsistence agency, with its allotment per session of five tickets, may be sold or transferred (Form F), but a transfer charge of $3 must be paid to the bank.

The two luxury-living options are:

1. Luxury-Living Package. You may provide for your subsistence by purchasing a Luxury Living Package from the coordinator at a price of $15 per session. A Luxury Living Package includes subsistence for the purchaser for the session of purchase plus five Munchie tickets.
2. Endowment. You may purchase from the coordinator a Luxury Living Endowment at a cost of $25 (Form E). This endowment provides you with subsistence for the session of purchase and for all future sessions, plus a supply of five Munchie tickets for each session. You may transfer your Luxury Living Endowment to another participant (Form F), but a transfer charge of $3 must be paid to the bank. The bank cannot buy back a Luxury Living Package or Endowment once it has been issued. A Luxury Living Endowment can be used to provide subsistence and Munchie tickets for only one individual per session.

Reassigning a Subsistence Agency

The same rules apply as for a travel agency.

Subsistence Failure

If you fail to provide subsistence for a session, you suffer the following con- sequences: As of the end of that session, you are unemployed; if you are head of a basic group, you will be removed from your position and a new head will be chosen in the manner specified in the rules. If you own a subsistence or travel agency, you forfeit it, and it will be reassigned as specified in the rules.

These restrictions remain in effect until you provide a subsistence ticket or buy luxury living. During the period in which you are without subsistence, you are free to talk to others and to travel if you have the means of transportation. Even though you are officially unemployed, you may participate in ongoing activities and may continue to hold any Simbucks or tickets which you have saved from previous sessions. You may turn in Support Cards for basic groups and participate in other activities. Once you obtain subsistence, it is up to you to find a new job or regain your old one; you do not automatically assume your old position.

Repeated Subsistence Failure. If you fail to obtain subsistence in two consecutive sessions, you are considered dead and henceforth cannot participate in the society in any way. You will then be asked by the coordinator to observe the society and assist the coordinator.

MUNCHIES

Munchies represent imported luxuries. A limited number of Munchie tickets will be available for each session. The total number available per session is based on one of the National Indicators -- Standard of Living. The exact relationship depends on the size of the society as follows:

No. of Munchies (Size Level One) =.7 x Standard of Living
No. of Munchies (Size Level Two) = 1.0 x Standard of Living
No. of Munchies (Size Level Three) =1.3 x Standard of Living

Since the Standard of Living begins at 100, in the first session there will be 70, 100, or 130 Munchie tickets available depending on the size level.

When the game begins, some members of the society will have Munchie tickets. Those Munchie tickets that have not been distributed can be purchased from the coordinator at a cost of $1 each on a first-come, first-served basis.

The Munchie tickets one has acquired can be reconverted back to Simbucks at the bank, at a considerable discount. The bank will buy back Munchie tickets from anyone who wishes to sell them, at a rate of $1 for four Munchie tickets.

During the course of the society, some members may purchase Luxury Living Endowments which call for them to be supplied with Munchie tickets. Those who have such endowments will receive first call on the available supply of Munchie tickets for a session. If the supply available is insufficient to cover what they have coming, the amount available will be divided as evenly as possible among those with such endowments. If the supply available is more than sufficient to cover the endowments, the balance will be available for purchase from the coordinator at $1 each. Any Munchie tickets not sold by the coordinator during a given session will revert to the bank, with an appropriate allotment available for the next session.

The coordinator will maintain a Munchie bazaar at which Munchie tickets can be converted to food or beverages at rates designated by the coordinator. Munchie tickets need not be used in the session acquired and may be dispensed, saved, or sold in any fashion the owner sees fit.

The bringing of any food or beverage to sessions of SIMSOC is prohibited. Participants should act as if the Munchie bazaar is the only place where it is possible to get Munchies while the society is in session.

Basic Groups

As noted, there are seven basic groups: two industries (BASIN and RETSIN), two political parties (POP and SOP), an employee organization (EMPIN), a mass media group (MASMED), and a judicial council (JUDCO). The objectives of these groups and the resources and options available to them are described in detail below.

Before the society begins, you will be asked to express your first, second, and third preferences among the types of groups described below. These choices will be used only in selecting the head of each group, not the other group members.

Those persons not assigned as head of a group may then seek employment in one or more of the groups. In seeking employment:

1. You do not have to join the group you originally chose on Form A but can join any group that will hire you.
2. You can work for more than one group. This also applies to the heads, who may hold positions in other groups.
3. Ownership of a subsistence or travel agency is considered employment, but you may accept positions in basic groups as well.

Three different figures are given in the following sections for the basic income of the groups: Size Level One, Size Level Two, and Size Level Three. The appropriate figure is determined by the total number of participants in your society. It will be announced by the coordinator prior to beginning the game and will not change. You may find it helpful to cross out the figures that do not apply to your society. Note that after the first session, a group may receive either more or less than its basic income, depending on changes in the National Indicators (see p. 23, "Consequences of Changes in the National Indicators").

BASIN (Basic Industry)

Overall Objective: To Expand Its Assets and Income as Much as Possible. BASIN represents a basic extractive industry such as mining. Its raw material is words, from which it extracts the vowels a, e, i, o, and u. In each session, BASIN may purchase from the coordinator any number of verbal passages up to five. These passages need not all be purchased at the same time; they may be purchased any time during the session. BASIN's work on the passage consists of making a list of the correct number for each type of vowel that appears in the passage.

All purchases of passages must be authorized by the head of BASIN, using Form H. The passages purchased will vary in length, and hence in the labor involved in determining the correct number of vowels. The exact cost of a passage and the payment for a completed one vary depending on the size level of the society; they are summarized in Table 1. This Table shows that BASIN receives a 25% profit on its investment for extracting the vowels correctly.

The return which BASIN receives for a completed passage is reduced if there are errors in the solution. Each number that BASIN is off from the correct solution counts as an error. Thus, if a solution has the correct number of a's, e's, and i's, but has two fewer o's than the correct answer and one more u than the correct answer, this constitutes three errors. Each error reduces the payment or credit to BASIN for a completed passage by 10% of the purchase price. For example, in a Size Level Two society, BASIN would pay $60 for a passage. If the solution had four errors, instead of receiving the full payment of $75 it would receive $75- (4 x $6)= $51. BASIN receives zero payment for solutions in which there are six or more errors.

To receive credit for a passage, the solution must be turned in to the coordinator (using Form H) during the same session in which the passage was purchased. Passages purchased in one session cannot be held over to be completed in later sessions. Payment or credit for a completed passage is not received until the session is over. In other words, if BASIN completes a passage early in the session, it cannot use the payment for this product immediately, since it does not receive it until the session is over. The coordinator will keep track of BASIN's assets, and the head of BASIN will receive 10% interest on its assets at the begining of each new session, including the value of work completed by the end of the previous session. The head of BASIN can withdraw part or all of its assets from the bank at any time by filling out Form I and giving it to the coordinator.

BASIN can purchase passages by using its assets in the bank and its income from these assets. In the beginning of the society, however, BASIN assets and income are not high enough to purchase five passages. Therefore, if BASIN wishes to buy the greatest possible number of passages, it will need to raise Simbucks from other individuals and groups in the society. It may do this by promising others some return on their money, by persuading them that this will help the society, or by offering other inducements, arguments or even threats to get people to lend their money to BASIN.

Effects on National Indicators

The buying of passages and their successful completion by BASIN affect two of the National Indicators (these are described more fully later). The Standard of Living is raised for each acceptable solution (that is, each solution with fewer than six errors). The Food and Energy Supply is lowered for each passage purchased, on the assumption that this investment depletes existing resources in the society. In other words, buying passages entails short-term costs for the society but at the same time produces long-term growth in the economy.

RETSIN (Retail Sales Industry)

Overall Objective: Like BASIN, to Expand Its Assets and Income as Much as Possible. RETSIN represents an industry that manufactures retail goods for sale abroad. The market for its product is less certain than BASIN's market. Its raw material consists of anagrams from which it can form smaller marketable words. For each anagram, there are only five marketable words, but RETSIN won't know which ones are of value. It knows only that all marketable words have exactly five letters, are common English words, and are not proper nouns or plurals.

In each session, RETSIN may purchase from the coordinator any number of anagrams up to five. These anagrams need not be purchased all at the same time; they may be purchased any time during the session. A completed anagram consists of a list of five-letter words, including as many marketable words as possible. Once a completed anagram has been turned in to the coordinator it cannot be reclaimed for further work in the event that some marketable words have been missed. Most marketable words, however, will be fairly obvious and shouldn't take more than five to ten minutes to discover.

All purchases of anagrams must be authorized by the head of RETSIN, using Form H. The exact cost of an anagram and the payment for each marketable word derived from it vary depending on the size level of the society; they are summarized in Table 2. This table shows that RETSIN receives a 50% return on its investment if it produces all five marketable words from an anagram, 20% if it produces four, minus 10% if it produces three, minus 40% if it produces two, and minus 70% if it produces only one marketable word. For example, in a Size Level Two society, RETSIN would pay $60 for an anagram. If its solution has four marketable words, it would receive $18 for each, or a total of $72.

To receive credit for marketable words, the solution must be turned in to the coordinator (using Form H) during the same session in which the anagram was purchased. Anagrams purchased in one session cannot be held over to be completed in later sessions. Payment or credit for marketable words is not received until the beginning of the following session. In other words, if RETSIN completes an anagram early in a session, it cannot use the payment for this product immediately, since it does not receive it until the session is over. The coordinator will keep track of RETSIN's assets and the head of RETSIN will receive 10% interest on its assets at the beginning of each new session. The head of RETSIN can withdraw part or all of its assets from the bank at any time by filling out Form I and giving it to the coordinator.

RETSIN can purchase anagrams by using its assets in the bank and its interest from these assets. In the beginning of the society, however, RETSIN assets and income are not high enough to purchase five anagrams. Therefore, if RETSIN wishes to buy the greatest possible number of anagrams, it will need to raise Simbucks from other individuals and groups in the society. It may do this by promising others some return on their money, by persuading them that this will help the society, or by offering other inducements, arguments, or even threats to get people to lend their money to RETSIN.

Effects on National Indicators

The manufacture of marketable words from anagrams by RETSIN affects two of the National Indicators (as described more fully later). The Standard of Living is raised for each anagram that is converted into one or more marketable words. However, Public Commitment is lowered for completed anagrams, on the assumption that RETSIN's product, while in demand abroad, is not regarded as fully reputable by the citizens of SIMSOC -- as might be true for armaments, heroin, useless or shoddy objects, or those that pollute the environment or are otherwise objectionable. Hence, the production of marketable words causes some discontent, reflected in the effect on Public Commitment. In other words, buying anagrams entails short-term costs for the society but at the same time produces long-term growth in the economy.

POP (Party of the People)

Overall Objective: To Determine the Major Public Policies Followed by the Society and to Develop Programs and Mobilize Supporters for This Purpose; to Be More Influential Than Its Rival. When the society begins, POP is a political party that has neither a program, a philosophy, nor an ideology. It is up to the members of POP to develop these things as they see fit. The content may vary greatly, depending on the circumstances in a given society and the beliefs of the citizens.

Income for POP

At the beginning of the first session, POP receives a starting income as follows:

Size Level One: $40
Size Level Two: $60
Size Level Three: $80

After the first session, POP receives an income according to the following: Income (after 1st session) = Number of Support Cards turned in during session/40% of members of the society x starting income

To illustrate, in a Size Level Two society, POP would receive $60 for the first session. If POP received the support cards of 50% of the members in the first session, it would receive an income of $75 at the beginning of the next session (50%/40% x $60 = 1.25 x $60=$75).

Turning in Support Cards

Each individual in the society may turn in one Party Support Card per session for either POP or SOP, but you are not obliged to turn one in if you choose not to.

Support Cards may be turned in at any time during a session either directly by an individual or through an intermediary. To be valid, a Support Card must be signed by the individual expressing support. If the coordinator receives more than one Support Card signed by the same individual for a given session, all of that individual's Support Cards will be considered invalid for that session and the person will be treated as having abstained. Support Cards from absentees or people under arrest are invalid and will not be counted.

The political parties may work together if they choose, and new parties may be created, but these actions do not affect the rules for receiving income which the coordinator follows. Members of the society are free to handle the distribution of this income once it is received in any manner consistent with the rules.

SOP (Society Party)

Overall Objective: Same as for POP. Starting income for first session:

Size Level One: $40
Size Level Two: $60
Size Level Three: $80

Income level after the first session is calculated the same way as for POP.

EMPIN (Employee Interests)

Overall Objective: To See to It That Members of SIMSOC Who Are Not Heads of Basic Groups Have Adequate Subsistence and a Fair Share of the Society's Wealth. EMPIN may wish to organize the members of society working for the various basic groups in some manner. It may wish to develop various services for this constituency. It may wish to propose programs for the society as a whole that would meet EMPIN's objectives. It may want to carry out various educational programs of its own. In doing so it may want to work closely with one or more other groups.

Income

EMPIN receives a starting income for the first session as follows:

Size Level One: $30
Size Level Two: $45
Size Level Three: $60

In each subsequent session, it receives an amount of Simbucks equal to twice the number of valid EMPIN cards turned in to the coordinator. For example, if 25 members turned in valid EMPIN Membership Cards during a session, EMPIN will receive an income of $50 for the next session. EMPIN may solicit additional money from members of the society if it wishes.

Turning in EMPIN Membership Cards

As with the Party Support Card, each individual may turn in one EMPIN Membership Card per session or, if you choose, you may decline to turn in a card. EMPIN Membership Cards may be turned in at any time during a session either directly by an individual or through an intermediary. To be valid, an EMPIN membership card must be signed by the individual member. If the coordinator receives more than one EMPIN Membership Card for the same individual during a session, it will count as only one membership. Membership cards from absentees and persons under arrest are invalid and will not be counted.

Note: EMPIN membership cards will be considered valid only if the signer is employed at the end of the session. Cards from unemployed members will not be counted in calculating EMPIN's income.

MASMED (Mass Media)

Overall Objective: To Insure Good Communication Across Regions About What Is Happening in the Society. MASMED does not have a monopoly over communication in SIMSOC, but it has certain advantages and information that make it easier for it to play a special role. The most commonly used form of communication in SIMSOC is face-to-face oral communication as participants travel from one region to another. To facilitate the role of MASMED in such communication, the head of MASMED receives a Private Transportation Certificate and a one-time supply of five travel tickets. This is initially issued in the name of the head of MASMED but it can be transferred by the usual procedures described above under "Travel" (p. 8).

The media of communication available to MASMED will be specified by the coordinator and will vary with the technical facilities available. Possibilities include the following:

1. Closed circuit television with broadcast transmission originating only from MASMED but reception in all regions.

2. Videotape transmission with recording available only through MASMED but viewing available in all regions. The coordinator or an assistant will act as distribution agent for up to two taped broadcasts per session.

3. One-way intercom transmission with broadcast originating only from MASMED but received in all regions.

4. One-way computer transmission with sending capability available only through MASMED but terminals to receive messages in all regions.

5. Hard copy from a word processor or typewriter with transmission available only through MASMED. The coordinator or an assistant will act as distribution agent for up to two transmissions of hard copy per session.

After each session is completed and the coordinators have had an opportunity to calculate changes in the National Indicators, they will inform the head of MASMED of the current value of these indicators as well as the rates of absenteeism, unemployment, arrests, rioters, and death, and the total number of POP and SOP cards, EMPIN memberships, MASMED subscriptions, and Individual Goal Declarations turned in during the previous session. This information can be used by the head of MASMED in any way desired. However, all official forms filed by any individual with the coordinator will be treated as confidential and will be revealed only with the permission of the person filing the form.

Income

At the beginning of the first session, MASMED receives a starting income as follows:

Size Level One: $30
Size Level Two: $45
Size Level Three: $60

After the first session, MASMED receives income equal to twice the number of valid MASMED subscriptions turned in to the coordinator. For example, if 25 members turn in valid MASMED subscriptions during a given session, MASMED will receive an income of $50 for the next session. MASMED may solicit additional money from members of the society or may charge for its services if it wishes.

Turning in MASMED Subscriptions

As with Party Support Cards and EMPIN Membership Cards, each individual may turn in one MASMED Subscription per session or may choose not to subscribe. MASMED Subscriptions may be turned in at any time during a session either directly by an individual or through an intermediary. To be valid, a MASMED subscription must be signed by the individual subscriber. If the coordinator receives more than one MASMED subscription for the same individual during a session, it will be counted as only one subscription. Subscriptions from absentees, persons under arrest, or those without subsistence are invalid and will not be counted.

Summary of MASMED resources

-- One Permanent Transportation Certificate.

-- Five Travel Tickets (opening session only).

-- Special access to information on National Indicators, other rates, Support Cards turned in for basic groups, and totals on Individual Goal Declarations.

-- Unlimited television, intercom, or computer transmissions per session (if available).

-- Two distributions of videotape or hard copy per session.

-- Starting income plus income based on number of subscriptions after first session.

JUDCO (Judicial Council)

Overall Objective: To Clarify and Interpret the Rules as Honestly and Conscientiously as Possible. JUDCO members may be called on to decide issues such as the following:

1. whether the action or prospective action of some member or group of members violates the basic rules of the game;

2. whether an agreement among members of the society violates any basic rule of the game.

JUDCO may act when some action or agreement is challenged. JUDCO is the final arbiter on the meaning and interpretation of all rules, and the coordinator may refer questions to JUDCO for clarification.

JUDCO members should try to interpret ambiguous situations in good faith rather than use their ingenuity to evade the basic rules. The coordinators will accept JUDCO's judgment even though it might differ from their own interpretation, but arbitrary and capricious interpretations can render SIMSOC meaningless. If JUDCO, by its interpretations, removes the "natural constraints" which the rules are intended to simulate, the dilemmas the game poses will disappear -- and the challenge of the game and its value as a learning device will disappear at the same time.

These rules govern the functioning of JUDCO:

1. To be valid, JUDCO decisions must be signed by a simple majority of its members. These decisions must be filed on Form J and signed by a majority.

2. JUDCO must have at least two other members besides its head, but it may have more than this as long as the total membership is an odd number.

Basic Income Per Session

Size Level One: $30
Size Level Two: $45
Size Level Three: $60

THE GROUP HEAD

Powers of the Group Head

People are not considered officially employed by a group until the head of the group has filed a Job Schedule (Form G) listing them. Employment is assumed to carry over between sessions unless something happens to change a person's employment status. It is not necessary for group heads to file a Job Schedule after the first session unless they wish to make some change in employment, in which case they must file another copy of the Job Schedule indicating the nature of the changes.

No individual will be considered employed without his or her consent; an individual may quit any lob by filling out the notice of resignation on the Job Schedule. Agreements on salary and working conditions are internal matters between the group heads and their employees and need not be reported to the coordinator.

Replacing the Group Head

1. Voluntary removal. The head of a group may resign at any time and simply appoint a successor of his or her choice. You do this by filling out the appropriate part of the Job Schedule (Form G).

2. Involuntary removal. Heads of groups are automatically removed from office if they (a) fail to provide subsistence, (b) are arrested, or (c) are absent. They may also be removed from office by the unanimous consent of all employees of the group who are present at that session. There is one qualification to this rule: the head cannot be removed by unanimous consent unless there are at least two official employees present.

Designating a New Group Head

In the case of voluntary removal, the old head can simply designate a successor. In the case of involuntary removal, we must distinguish three cases:

1. There are no other employees or all are absent. In this case, the coordinator will pick a new head at random from the same region in which the old head resides.

2. There is only one other employee present at the session. This employee automatically becomes the new head.

3. There are two or more employees present. They must agree unanimously on a new head. In the event that they cannot come to unanimous agreement, the group will remain without a head for that session. At the end of the session, the coordinator will pick a new head for the following session at random from among the employees.

The Job Schedule (Form G) is the form to use for all transactions regarding the removal and replacement of the head of a group.

MERGERS

Groups may make various alliances and arrangements with each other, including mergers, federations, and the like. All such agreements are internal matters among members of the society and do not involve coordinator transactions. For example, if two group heads join together to create a new group, the coordinator will continue to provide any resources to which individuals are entitled under the rules. The individuals are then free to pool these resources or not as they choose.

Collective Life

NATIONAL INDICATORS

Numerical values for four National Indicators are calculated by the coordinator at the end of each session as one means of measuring the general effectiveness and "health" of the society as a whole. Each indicator pertains to a different aspect of the society, as follows:

1. Food and Energy Supply (FES). This represents how well the society is adapting to its physical environment. Is it.developing its natural resources to meet the needs of its population? (The words "population" and "citizens" in this discussion of National Indicators refer not only to the actual participants but to an abstract group of others who are represented here through the National Indicators.) Is it replenishing the resources it consumes? A higher score means an abundant Food and Energy Supply.

2. Standard of Living (SL). This represents the consumption level of the society. How well are the citizens of the society living at the present time? A higher score means a higher Standard of Living.

3. Social Cohesion (SC). This represents how well different groups of citizens are integrated. Are some groups isolated and left out? Are there destructive conflicts between subgroups? The higher the score on Social Cohesion, the less the presence of destructive intergroup conflict.

4. Public Commitment (PC). This represents the degree of commitment by citizens of the society to its social structure and values. Are there large numbers of alienated citizens who feel estranged from the society and do not participate in it in a constructive way? The higher the score on Public Commitment, the less the degree of alienation among the citizens.

PUBLIC PROGRAMS

The National Indicators may be raised by investing money in either of two broad Public Programs. The money is invested by giving it to the bank with the instruction that it be used for a specific Public Program. This money is "used up" in the Public Program -- that is, once invested it cannot later be withdrawn from the bank.

The programs are:

1. Research and Conservation. The purpose of this program is to promote scientific research and activity in such areas as (a) developing and conserving the natural environment so as to increase the Food and Energy Supply, and (b) utilizing available manpower resources more effectively so as to raise the overall Standard of Living.

2. Welfare Services. This program creates and expands a variety of Welfare Services for the citizens of the society and thus copes with poverty, discontent, social unrest, and so forth. Investments in this program help to raise the Standard of Living as well as Social Cohesion and Public Commitment.

Any individual or group can invest any amount of money in either or both of these programs. The specific effects of these investments on the four National Indicators of Food and Energy Supply, Standard of Living, Social Cohesion, and Public Commitment are discussed below. The effects take place at the end of each session.

Any individual or group may decide to aid the society by advising its members on investment policies, work organization, or other matters which may indirectly affect any of the National Indicators, and thus contribute to the overall vitality and effectiveness of the society.

CHANGES IN THE NATIONAL INDICATORS

Each National Indicator begins at 100 for the first session. Many of the actions that influence different indicators will be discussed further below. The effects are summarized here and in Table 3.

1. Spontaneous decline. Each indicator automatically declines by 10% between sessions to represent a spontaneous decay factor.

2. Public Programs. Simbucks invested in the two programs described above raise the National Indicators; however, these programs have "administrative costs," so that a Simbuck invested in them does not bring an equivalent rise in the National Indicators.

a. Research and Conservation. This program raises the Food and Energy Supply (FES) by 40% of the value of all new money invested in it and the Standard of Living (SL) by 10% of the value of all new money invested in it.

b. Welfare Services. This program raises the Standard of Living (SL) by 10% of the value of all new money invested in it and Social Cohesion (SC) and Public Commitment (PC) by 20% of the value of all new money invested in it.

3. Industrial Production. Each passage purchased by BASIN lowers FES by two units, but each passage completed raises SL by 1 unit. Each anagram invested in by RETSIN raises SL by 1 unit but lowers PC by 1 unit.

4. Absenteeism. Each absentee lowers SL and PC both by 2 units.

5. Unemployment. Each unemployed person lowers SL and SC by 3 units and PC by 1 unit.

6. Riots. Each rioter lowers PC by 2 units and SC by the amounts indicated in Table 4 (page 29). Each guard post lowers Social Cohesion by 5 units.

7. Arrests. Each arrest lowers SC and PC by 3 units.

8. Deaths. Each death lowers SL, SC, and PC by 5 units.

9. Individual Goal Declarations. Every four positive individual goal declarations ("Yes, I'm satisfied") raise PC by 1 unit; each negative declaration ("No, I'm not satisfied") lowers PC by one unit. Any declaration of change in individual goals leaves PC unaffected.

Maximum Decline

No National Indicator will be lowered by more than 30 units in a single session for any single cause although there is no limit to the size of decline from a combination of causes. To illustrate, if seven members were to die in a single session, SL, SC, and PC would be lowered only by 30 units rather than by 35. However, these indicators might also be lowered additionally by absenteeism, arrests, etc.

Table 3 summarizes these effects.

CONSEQUENCES OF CHANGES IN THE NATIONAL INDICATORS

The basic income which group heads receive at the beginning of each session is affected by the state of the National Indicators, and, as stated previously, the supply of Munchie tickets available is affected by one of these indicators, Standard of Living. More specifically:

1. If all four of the National Indicators are at 120 or above at the beginning of a session, basic income will be increased by 20% for that session.

2. If any of the four National Indicators is below 90, basic income will be reduced by 10%; if any is below 80, income will be reduced by 20%; if any is below 70, income will be reduced by 30%; and so forth, down to 90% less for any session in which any of the National Indicators is below 10. Note that this affects in the same way the income which BASIN and RETSIN receive, although their assets in the bank are not affected by the National Indicators.

3. The society ends if any National Indicator falls below zero.

4. The number of Munchie tickets available per session is equal to the value of the Standard of Living multiplied by either.7 (for a Size Level One society), 1.0 ( Size Level Two society), or 1.3 (Size Level Three).

General Considerations

ABSENTEEISM

For every member of the society who is absent from any session, regardless of reason, Standard of Living and Public Commitment are each reduced by two units. Absentees are not required to supply subsistence for sessions which they miss, and therefore do not suffer the consequences of subsistence failure for the following session.

If heads of basic groups or agencies are absent, they are automatically removed from office and a new head is designated in the manner provided in the rules. Employees of the group continue to hold their positions while absent unless they are removed by the head. Members are not considered absent if they are present for any part of a session.

For any session in which there are five or more absentees (but fewer than ten), one subsistence agency chosen at random will not receive its allotment of subsistence tickets. For any session in which there are ten or more absentees, two subsistence agencies chosen at random will not receive their allotment of subsistence tickets.

UNEMPLOYMENT

Unemployment can result from any of five sources:

1. Employer action. You may be fired, or no one may be willing to hire you.

2. Employee action. You may resign from all your positions.

3. Subsistence failure. Failure to obtain subsistence means automatic unemployment.

4. Arrest. Arrest means automatic unemployment (see discussion of Simforce below).

5. Minority Group Action. If the Minority Group option is in effect, some Minority Group Members may become unemployed by having a Minority Group Action (Form K) filed against them (see discussion in section below).

For each unemployed person in a given session, Standard of Living and Social Cohesion will each be lowered by three units, and Public Commitment will be lowered by one unit. (This does not include unemployment due to arrest, the effects of which on the indicators are already included.)

DEATH

You may die from failure to obtain subsistence in two consecutive sessions or from having your arrest renewed for two consecutive sessions (the second renewal is equivalent to execution). Members who die cannot henceforth participate in the society in any way; you will be asked to observe and assist the coordinator. Each death, regardless of cause, lowers Standard of Living, Social Cohesion, and Public Commitment by five units.

MINORITY GROUP MEMBERS (OPTIONAL)

The coordinator may include the following optional feature: Of the members of the society 20 % will be designated by the coordinator as Minority Group Members when the society begins. They will be asked to wear some insignia or armband so that everyone can clearly identify them as Minority Group Members.

Minority Group Members will operate under the following special restrictions: Any two non-Minority Group Members of the society may at any time, and without cost, have any Minority Group Members fired from their jobs and/ or removed as head of a basic group or owner of a subsistence or travel agency. This is done by filing Form K with the instructor.

If a Minority Group Member is removed as head of a basic group or agency, a new head will be designated in the manner indicated in the rules.

Minority Group Members who are the recipient of such action retain all resources in their possession, including Simbucks and travel, subsistence, and Munchie tickets. They also retain their Private Transportation Certificate and Luxury Living Endowment if they own one. If they control a Simforce, this is not affected by Form K. In sum, a Form K deprives Minority Group Members only of their positions, not of their possessions.

Minority Group Members may reacquire any former positions in the next session if they are able to do so. They may not hold any position with a basic group or head any agency during the remainder of the session in which a Form K has been filed against them. Furthermore, a new Form K may be filed against them in subsequent sessions.

Alternative Minority Group Option

If this option is in effect, the coordinator will administer a test. Only those who pass this test will be eligible to serve as basic group heads or agency heads.

INDIVIDUAL GOALS

In addition to pursuing basic group goals and various goals for the society as a whole, individuals are asked to pursue personal or individual goals. An individual goal emphasizes something for you qua individual (for example, being powerful) rather than a goal for the society (for example, making SIMSOC a place where people trust each other).

A short list of possible personal goals in SIMSOC is given below. You should choose one or more which you intend to pursue. In addition to or in place of those listed, you may substitute other individual goals you may wish to pursue, but be sure that they refer to something for you as an individual.

During the course of the game you will have an opportunity to change the goals you choose.

1. Power. I will try to influence what happens in the society as much as possible.

2. Center of attention. I will try to be a central figure in the life of the society, salient to as many people as possible.

3. Style of life. I will try to enjoy the highest standard of living available, including as many Munchies as possible.

4. Security. I will try to lead a life in which I will not be threatened by lack of subsistence, by loss of job, arrest, or any other misfortune.

5. Popularity. I will try to be loved and admired as much as possible.

6. Fun and adventure. I will try to lead an exciting life, filled with adventure and challenge.

7. Other. (Please specify.)

Individual Goal Declaration

Each individual may turn in one Goal Declaration Card per session, choosing one of the following three answers to the question: "Are you satisfied with how well you are meeting your personal goals?"

1. Yes, I'm satisfied.

2. No, I'm not satisfied.

3. I've changed my individual goals as follows: (specify the nature of the change).

Note that you have the option of not turning in any Individual Goal Declaration, either because you are uncertain or for any other reason. Individual Goal Declarations may be turned in at any time during a session. Unlike Party Support Cards, EMPIN Memberships, or MASMED Subscriptions, Individual Goal Declarations may not be turned in by an intermediary but must be given by the individual directly to the coordinator. No more than one option may be checked, nor more than one turned in per session, or all for that individual will be considered invalid for that session. For example, if you indicate a change in your goals but also check that you are satisfied, such a declaration will have no effect. Individual Goal Declarations from absentees or from people under arrest are invalid and will not be counted.

Effects of Individual Goal Declarations on National Indicators

One of the National Indicators, Public Commitment, is raised by one unit for every four persons turning in a positive Goal Declaration, and is lowered by one unit for each negative declaration. Abstentions or changes in goals do not affect Public Commitment.

SIMFORCE

For better or worse, physical force, or the threat of physical force, plays a role in the life of real societies. It may take various forms -- police arresting citizens, secret terrorist organizations threatening citizens, guerrilla forces attacking government officials, or even two armies fighting against each other as in a civil war. Actual physical force is prohibited in SIMSOC -- no participant can physically restrain the movement of other participants or in any other way use physical force against them. The equivalent of such physical force is, however, provided in the game.

Initiating a Simforce

Any individual or group of individuals may create a Simforce by filling out Form L; the minimum cost is $25 (paid to the bank), but a larger amount of money will create a larger Simforce. Form L requires a stated authorization rule telling the coordinator what constitutes an order of the Simforce. This statement may take any form desired (for example, "An order must be signed by a two-thirds majority," "An order must be signed by any one of the following people," or "An order must be signed by all of the following people"). The only requirement is that the statement be unambiguous. Any persons authorized to give orders may issue orders changing the authorization rule itself (see Form L ).

A Simforce must be renewed during each session following its creation or it will be considered defunct and its orders will not be carried out by the coordinator. The renewal cost is $10 (paid to the bank) for a force of any size; this payment is for maintenance and does not increase its size. The size of a Simforce may be increased by giving additional money to the bank for this purpose.

The Simforce must also designate a head, but the powers of this head are regulated by the authorization rule that is chosen. The head of the Simforce receives the confiscated possessions of those arrested (as described below) and is the communication link with the coordinator. The designated head of a Simforce may be replaced by any valid order that follows the stated authorization rule for the Simforce. If a Simforce head is absent during a session and no one present is authorized to give orders to replace the head, then this Simforce will be considered dormant and will lose all powers during this session. If the Simforce head returns in subsequent sessions, the Simforce may be renewed with its full powers restored.

Powers of a Simforce

A Simforce has three powers: (1) to arrest persons, (2) to protect persons from arrest, and (3) to attack another Simforce.

1. Arrest. An arrest is initiated by filling out Form L. (One must, of course, already have a Simforce to arrest someone.) There is a cost of $10 (paid to the bank) for each person placed under arrest. The actual arrest is made by the coordinator, who will carry out the orders of the Simforce. If the coordinator cannot carry out an ordered arrest because the target is under the protection of another Simforce, the head of the Simforce attempting the arrest will be informed that the order cannot be carried out, but the $10 will not be returned.

Arrests of unprotected persons will take place as soon as the coordinator is able to carry out the order and will last for the duration of the session. Arrested citizens will be informed by the coordinator of their status and all their personal possessions will be confiscated (see restriction #4 below). Note that if the head of BASIN or RETSIN is arrested, only their own Simbucks are affected, not those that are held by the coordinator in the bank accounts for these groups.

The coordinator will not reveal the identity of the arresting Simforce unless asked to do so by the head of the Simforce. All confiscated possessions will be turned over to the head of the Simforce.

An arrested person may be released at any time by order of the arresting Simforce. The return of confiscated materials upon a person's release is an internal matter and is not specified by the rules. At the beginning of each session following an arrest, the coordinator will ask the Simforce head whether he or she wishes to renew existing arrests for the session or release those under arrest. Renewals require a payment to the bank of $10 for each arrested person per session. The coordinator will inform those under arrest of their status for the session.

All arre sted individuals are automatically, immediately released if the arresting Simforce is removed (see discussion below on removing a Simforce).

a. Restrictions on the arrested person. Members who are under arrest --

(1) are restricted to their own region and may not travel;

(2) may not hold any official position in the society (including any position in a basic group or agency);

(3) may not engage in any official transactions with the coordinator (i.e., turn in any forms, invest Simbucks, etc.);

(4) will be obliged to surrender all Simbucks, subsistence, travel, and Munchie tickets in their possession at the time of arrest;

(5) are provided with subsistence while under arrest, but if released during a session must provide subsistence for that session;

(6) maintain their Luxury Living Endowments and Private Transportation Certificates if they own them, but cannot use them while under arrest;

(7) will have their POP and SOP support cards, EMPIN Membership Cards, MASMED Subscriptions, and Individual Goal Declarations become invalid for the period of the arrest (they will not be counted by the coordinator);

(8) and whose arrests are renewed twice consecutively are dead and cannot henceforth participate in any way. They will be asked to observe and assist the coordinator.

b. Fines. A Simforce may wish to institute a schedule of fines for given actions. The coordinator, however, will not act as the agent of the Simforce in collecting such fines. If a fine is assessed against people and they refuse to pay, the matter may be dropped, or else some action such as arrest may be carried out against the refusers. In short, the collection of fines is the responsibility of the participants and will not be assumed by the coordinator.

2. Protection From arrest. Any person who is under the protection of a Simforce cannot be arrested until the protecting Simforce is removed (see below). All individuals authorized to sign orders of the Simforce (as indicated on Form L) are automatically assumed to be protected by it; in addition, the Simforce may place any other individuals under its protection by so indicating on Form L. In order to be effective, protection must be extended to persons prior to the time the coordinator informs them of their arrest.

3. Attacking and removing another Simforce. A Simforce may be destroyed by an attack from another, larger Simforce. An attack is launched by filing an attack order on the Simforce action form (Form L). An attack is successful in removing the target if and only if --

a. the target is correctly identified by the name of the official head;

b. the attacking Simforce is at least $25 larger than the target force.

If an attack is successful, the coordinator will inform the attacker of this fact and will inform the head of the now defunct Simforce that his or her force is no longer in effect. In this case the attacking Simforce will be reduced in overall size by an amount equal to 50% of the size of the Simforce that was destroyed.

The coordinator will not reveal the size of any Simforce or the name of the official head. If an attack is unsuccessful because of a failure to identify the head accurately, the head of the attacking Simforce will be informed of this and will be charged $10. If an attack is unsuccessful because the attacking Simforce is insufficient in size to overcome the target, the attacking Simforce will be reduced in size by 50% and the head will be so informed. The head of the Simforce that was attacked will be informed of the unsuccessful attack on his force but will not be told the identity of the attacking Simforce.

To illustrate this rule, assume that a Simforce of size $70 attacks another Simforce of size $50 and correctly identifies the head. The attack is unsuccessful since the attacking force is not $25 larger than the target. The unsuccessful attack means that it is reduced in size by 50% to $35.

Once an attack order is filed with the coordinator, the attack is considered in progress. Neither the attacking Simforce nor the target Simforce may be enlarged in size while an attack is in progress.

Effects on National Indicators

There is no expectation that a Simforce will necessarily be created. It is only a possible option, and the society may end up with several, one, or no forces depending on the decisions of its members.

Arrests affect the National Indicators thus: For every individual who is arrested, Public Commitment and Social Cohesion are reduced by three units.

SIMRIOT

Members of the society may riot by signing the Simriot Form (Form M). An individual may sign only one riot form in any given session. If more than one is signed, his or her signatures on all such forms will be considered invalid. A riot does not occur until and unless the riot form is presented to the coordinator; thus, the existence of a signed riot form does not guarantee that a riot will in fact occur. Signatures on riot forms are valid only for the session in which they are signed. Individuals under arrest cannot riot.

Preventing a Riot

Any individual may, by payment of a fee of $20, place a guard post in any designated region. The posting of a guard will be indicated by the coordinator's placing of a Guard Post Form (Form N) in a visible place in the designated region. The guard post is valid only for the session in which it is posted, but the original poster has the option of renewing it at the beginning of each session for a fee of $20 per session. The presence of a guard post in a region makes it impossible for a riot to occur there, but it lowers Social Cohesion by 5 units. Signatures on a riot form will be considered invalid if a guard post is in effect in the region at the time a riot form for that region is filed with the coordinator.

Effects of a Riot on National Indicators

1. Public Commitment: -- 2 for each rioter.
2. Social Cohesion: Calculate the percentage of the total population of the society represented by the rioters to the nearest 5% and apply Table 4 below:

GOVERNMENT

There is no requirement that the society establish a government, and it may wish to operate without one. If members wish to form a government, they may do so at any time. If a government is created, its supporters may organize and conduct it in any manner they choose. There are no formal rules regulating such a government.

SPECIAL EVENTS (OPTIONAL)

Sometime during SIMSOC, the coordinator may announce the occurrence of certain outside events affecting the society. You will not know in advance when such an event will occur or what its nature is. These events are mentioned here so that you realize that they are part of the game and not an arbitrary intervention by the coordinator.

Summary

The rules are less complicated than they first appear, as you will discover once SIMSOC is in process. All the details have been included here, but they will not all be needed by everybody. The basic question many people have at this initial stage is simply, "What is the object of the game?" For you as an individual participant, there are several objectives:

1. To achieve the individual goal or goals you have set for yourself;
2. To help the basic group or groups to which you belong achieve their goals;
3. To see to it that the society as a whole is a "success" -- however you may wish to define this.

If you conscientiously try to achieve these objectives, the larger objective of learning will be achieved.

At this point, take out your Choice Sheet (Form A) and indicate on it your choice of basic group and individual goals. Put only your name on the Assignment Sheet (Form B) and hand this in also. This will be filled out by the coordinator and returned to you at the beginning of the first session.

SELF-TEST ON SIMSOC RULES

To make sure that you understand enough of the rules to begin play, a short, self-administered quiz on the rules is included in this manual (Form O). You should take it and check your answers before you begin play.

SOME COMMON QUESTIONS ABOUT PLAYING SIMSOC

Some of the most typical questions asked by participants before playing SIMSOC are included below, with answers indicated:

Question: Does each person get a certain number of Simbucks?

Answer: No. Only the heads of the basic groups receive Simbucks, but they can give them to others.

Question: Does a group get its income only once, or does it get a fresh supply of Simbucks at each session?

Answer: The head of a group gets a fresh supply at each session. Similarly, the owner of a travel or subsistence agency gets a fresh supply of tickets at each session.

Question: Can the members of the society decide to make travel free if no one objects?

Answer: No, because that violates the basic rules in the manual. The rules in the manual are like the laws of nature -- the travel ticket represents the cost in time, manpower, and energy consumption of travel from one place to another. The rules you make among yourselves are like the laws of society -- they can be changed or broken -- but you should all try to observe the rules in the manual or else the game will not work properly.

Question: Does one need a travel ticket to give something to the coordinator?

Answer: No. The coordinator and the bank should be regarded as part of every region. You are not considered to have left your region when you approach the coordinator for any transaction. You have traveled only when you go to some other region.

Question: Suppose a majority of the members of society agree that some obnoxious individual should not be allowed to travel. Would the coordinator enforce this rule?

Answer: No. It would be up to you to enforce it, using the means provided in the game. The coordinator will carry out only those actions specified in the manual.

Question: Are the four regions separate societies?

Answer: No. They are four parts of the same society. The National Indicators, for example, affect all of you the same way regardless of region. The region is just the place where you live.

Question: Does it make sense for us to pool our travel tickets?

Answer: It's up to you to figure out what makes sense and what does not. There is no rule prohibiting you from doing it.

Question: Will everyone be assigned to some basic group and region?

Answer: Everyone will be assigned to some region, but only seven people will be assigned to groups -- the seven heads. The rest of you will need to find jobs.

Question: Can you work for more than one group?

Answer: Yes.

Question: Will we be told what caused the National Indicators to change as they did?

Answer: No. MASMED will be told the end result and all of the relevant rates that go into it. It can do whatever it wants with the information.

Question: If BASIN finishes a passage during a session, can it use the money it gets for that to buy another passage?

Answer: Not during that session because it does not receive credit in its bank account for solved passages until the end of the session. It can use the money it makes to buy passages during the following session.

Question: Can JUDCO make laws?

Answer: Any group can make laws. The question is, who will obey them? The coordinators will not enforce the laws which members of society choose to make, including JUDCO. They will carry out only those actions specified in the manual. If these are ambiguous, they will accept the judgment of JUDCO on how they should be interpreted. For example, suppose JUDCO made a ruling that only members of JUDCO were allowed to create a Simforce. If some group ignored this and filled out the proper forms to create a Simforce, following the procedures described in the manual, the coordinator would carry out their Simforce orders. JUDCO's ruling would have no effect unless members chose to observe it or unless JUDCO had worked out some way of making it effective.

Question: Will there be enough subsistence tickets for everybody?

Answer: You will have to wait and see that when the society begins.

Question: Must the owners of a subsistence agency use one of their five tickets for their own subsistence, or do they not need one?

Answer: They need one the same as everybody else does unless they buy a Luxury Living Option.

Question: Can people get subsistence even though they do not have a job?

Answer: Yes, Someone might give them a subsistence ticket.

Question: Can a Simforce arrest someone without a reason?

Answer: Yes, if it follows the procedures described in the manual.

Question: Doesn't SIMSOC create a capitalist society?

Answer: No. It is true that the income for the basic groups is given to individuals, but they do not necessarily have to operate as private citizens. You can set up a system of state ownership or ownership by groups and call the head a manager or secretary; or you can allow the individual group heads the freedom to decide for themselves how to use the group's income. It is up to you to create the kind of economic system you think is best. Whatever the system, however, some individual must still be officially designated as the head, and the rules do give this person important powers which you will have to come to terms with in some way in any system.

Question: Is the object of the game to keep the National Indicators as high as possible?

Answer: That's one possible objective but not the only one. It's up to you how much you choose to emphasize the National Indicators compared to other objectives. This is not the kind of game where there is one clear goal of "winning." It's more like life, in that you usually want to achieve several different goals at the same time.

Study Questions (Optional)

ASSIGNMENT ONE

Answer three or more of the following questions, using events in SIMSOC and the selected readings for illustration, but drawing on other material as well where applicable:

1. Under what conditions could a society manage to function without a formal agency to administer sanctions for deviance (i.e., a police force)?
2. What may prevent people in authority from using their authority for selfish ends?
3. Under what conditions are people most likely to keep agreements which they make, and under what conditions are they most likely to break them?
4. Imagine a situation in which people hold many different goals, some of which conflict with each other. Imagine that there are also certain things that help or hurt everybody equally. Describe several different ways in which a society can get its members to contribute to the general interest, even when this detracts from their pursuit of their private interests.
5. What factors keep a society from breaking down into a series of small communities that have no contact with each other or whose only contact is to make war on each other? To what extent are these factors present or absent among the different countries of the world?
6. Some studies of leadership have shown that the persons who work hardest to move a group toward its goals are not the most popular or best-liked members. Why do you think this is so, and what do you think the best-liked members are likely to contribute to the group?
7. Under what conditions will efforts to induce conformity produce nonconformity or deviance by the persons at whom these efforts are directed? Under what conditions are efforts at producing conformity most likely to meet with success?
8. What kinds of people are most likely to deviate from group norms?
9. What features would you build into or prohibit in a society if you wanted to keep yourself from being influenced or constrained by others as much as possible? What features would you build into a society or prohibit in a society if you wanted to make sure you could influence others as much as possible?
10. Some people argue that conflict is always bad for a society, whereas others see it as healthy and making positive contributions. For each of these viewpoints, discuss the conditions under which it is likely to be valid.
11. Under what conditions will groups within a society rebel, and under what conditions will their rebellion be successful?
12. When will a protest group decide to work within the system rather than try to overthrow the system?
13. What determines how effective a government is in putting resources to work to solve a society's problems?
14. What are some effective mechanisms for handling social conflict in a society?
15. How do feelings of powerlessness affect one's social interaction with those on whom one is dependent?
16. How are those with power able to deal with the potential or actual resentment of those who are affected by their power?
17. Under what conditions do members of a society begin to question basic values and goals that have heretofore been accepted by almost everybody?
18. What kinds of social institutions foster close interpersonal relations and a sense of community?
19. Under what conditions would a fully collectivized society emerge in SIMSOC?

ASSIGNMENT TWO

Imagine that you are back at the beginning of SIMSOC, except that you know what you now know. Others are in the state of relative innocence and confusion which prevailed then. Describe in detail what you would do to achieve any three of the following goals:

1. to get as many people as possible to participate in the running of the society;
2. to create conditions under which people could be trusted to keep agreements;
3. to make yourself the best-liked person in the society;
4. to create conditions under which you and others would be as free as possible from other people's influence, particularly the influence of societal leaders;
5. to create conditions under which you would have maximum influence over others;
6. to make sure the National Indicators of your society would be higher than those of any other SIMSOC that has been run.

Suppose you were trying to achieve all three of your selected objectives at the same time. To what extent do they conflict with each other, and to what extent do the same actions contribute to more than one objective simultaneously (either positively or negatively)?

Finally, suppose that the society were to start again at the point at which it ended. To achieve the same objectives discussed above, would you do anything different from what you described above? If so, what would have to be done differently and why?

ASSIGNMENT THREE

Imagine that you have been hired by the superintendent of a large metropolitan school system. Your job is to develop an educational game to teach social science material to high school seniors. Pick any body of material in this course as subject matter of your game, specify what it is you intend to teach in the game you develop, and then describe the educational game you would use to teach it.

You may wish to read one or both of the following books if you become especially interested in this: Samuel Livingston and Clarice Stoll, Simulation Games (New York: The Free Press, 1972), and Michael Inbar and Clarice Stoll, editors, Simulation and Gaming in Social Science (New York: The Free Press, 1972). The former is a brief paperback which includes a substantial section on how to develop games. The latter is a collection of descriptions by simulation game designers of how they developed their simulations.

Copyright © 1966, 1969, 1972, 1978, 1991 by William A. Gamson

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