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This historically organized anthology, co-edited by one of contemporary philosophy's most noted scholars and teachers, Robert C. Solomon, provides philosophy students with a carefully edited collection of classical sources drawn from the history of philosophy. Unlike other historical anthologies, SINCE SOCRATES is designed as a concise source book, readily managed in the course of a semester with substantial yet manageable readings from original texts in translation. Beginning with selections from Pre-Socratic sources—both Eastern and Western—and moving through representative Ancient, Medieval, Modern, and 20th century readings, students are introduced to the wide range of ideas and styles that compose philosophy's historical cannon. The aim of the book is to provide both some contact with the great historical texts in philosophy and central topics for philosophical discussion. The readings are centered on three critical questions, ethics and the quest for the good life, truth and the problem of knowledge, and the existence of God.
Introduction. Timeline. PROLOGUE: BEFORE SOCRATES. The Vedas, Brahman, and Buddhism. Rg Veda. Bhagavad Gita. Teachings of the Buddha. Confucianism. Confucius/The Analects. Taoism. Lao-Tze/Tao Te Ching. Chuang Tze/Selections. The Pre-Socratics. Thales/Selections. Pythagoras/Selections. Heraclitus/Selections. Parmenides/The Way of Truth. 1. SOCRATES AND PLATO. Apology. Euthyphro. Crito. Meno. Phaedo. Symposium. Phaedrus. Republic. 2. ARISTOTLE. Nicomachean Ethics. Categories. Metaphysics. Physics. 3. SEXTUS EMPIRICUS. From Outlines of Pyrrhonism. 4. ST. AUGUSTINE. The Problem of Evil (City of God, XI, XIV). 5. ST. ANSELM. The Ontological Proof of God. 6. ST. THOMAS AQUINAS. The Five Ways. 7. THOMAS HOBBES. Leviathan (13-15). 8. RENE DESCARTES. Meditations. 9. JOHN LOCKE. Essay on Human Understanding. From An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. On Personal Identity. From The Second Treatise on Government. 10. GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON LEIBNIZ. Monadology. 11. BISHOP GEORGE BERKELEY. Of the Principles of Human Knowledge. 12. DAVID HUME. Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding. There Is No Self. Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (continued). Treatise of Human Nature. From Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding. 13. IMMANUEL KANT. Critique of Pure Reason. Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. 14. G.W.F. HEGEL. The Phenomenology of Spirit. 15. SOREN KIERKEGAARD. Concluding Unscientific Postscript to Philosophical Fragments. 16. JOHN STUART MILL. Utilitarianism. On Liberty. 17. FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE. Gay Science. Beyond Good and Evil. The Genealogy of Morality. Twilight of the Idols. On Truth. On the Will to Power. On Eternal Recurrence. 18. WILLIAM JAMES. The Will to Believe. 19. BERTRAND RUSSELL. The Problems of Philosophy. 20. LUDWIG WITTGENSTEIN. Philosophical Investigations. 21. JEAN-PAUL SARTRE. Existentialism Is a Humanism. Being and Nothingness. 22. SIMONE DE BEAUVIOR. The Ethics of Ambiguity. 23. MICHEL FOUCAULT. Truth and Power.