Slavery's Exiles: The Story of the American Maroons

Slavery's Exiles: The Story of the American Maroons

by Sylviane A. Diouf
     
 

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Over more than two centuries men, women, and children escaped from slavery to make the Southern wilderness their home. They hid in the mountains of Virginia and the low swamps of South Carolina; they stayed in the neighborhood or paddled their way to secluded places; they buried themselves underground or built comfortable settlements. Known as maroons, they lived

Overview


Over more than two centuries men, women, and children escaped from slavery to make the Southern wilderness their home. They hid in the mountains of Virginia and the low swamps of South Carolina; they stayed in the neighborhood or paddled their way to secluded places; they buried themselves underground or built comfortable settlements. Known as maroons, they lived on their own or set up communities in swamps or other areas where they were not likely to be discovered.

Although well-known, feared, celebrated or demonized at the time, the maroons whose stories are the subject of this book have been forgotten, overlooked by academic research that has focused on the Caribbean and Latin America. Who the American maroons were, what led them to choose this way of life over alternatives, what forms of marronage they created, what their individual and collective lives were like, how they organized themselves to survive, and how their particular story fits into the larger narrative of slave resistance are questions that this book seeks to answer. To survive, the American maroons reinvented themselves, defied slave society, enforced their own definition of freedom and dared create their own alternative to what the country had delineated as being black men and women’s proper place. Audacious, self-confident, autonomous, sometimes self-sufficient, always self-governing; their very existence was a repudiation of the basic tenets of slavery.

Editorial Reviews

Publishers Weekly
11/04/2013
Diouf (Servants of Allah) tackles a subject that many may not be familiar with: the slaves who escaped from bondage to live free in the wilds of the American South known as maroons. Because direct accounts of these slaves’ lives are rare, where they exist at all, the author takes her information from court records, newspaper articles, and other outside sources. This cobbling together of accounts makes for an uneven narrative, with important pieces missing. Whether a slave lived or died, or was successful as a maroon, is often not revealed. In other instances, the narrative is interrupted by a glut of specifics. Where fact and narrative blend in balance, however, the stories are riveting. Readers will become familiar with colorful characters like Captain Cudjoe of Jamaica or the man nicknamed “Forest” for his skill at hiding, and they will learn surprising facts about maroons’ participation in trade and defense, along with horrific details of punishments. The plight, motivations, and survival methods of the maroons are also covered in their varying modes. This work is best suited for an academic audience, as Diouf tends to assume some familiarity with the history of the maroons, but it’s a notable document for its treatment of the subject. (Feb.)
From the Publisher
"Diouf persuasively captures the quiet heroism of North American maroons. Less dramatic and long-lived than many of the maroon communities in Suriname, Jamaica, or Brazil, those in the southern United States were nonetheless ever present. Diouf demonstrates how much freedom mattered to the enslaved and how, within the limited possibilities open to them, those that set off into the inhospitable swamps and forests managed to forge a new life beyond the authority of whitefolks."-Richard Price,author of Maroon Societies

"In writing that is deeply informative, with vivid anecdotes when available, including horrors of punishment enacted when maroons were captured, this book is recommended to those wishing to pursue the study of American slavery beyond more general texts."-Sonnet Ireland,Library Journal

"With impressive research and vivid prose, Diouf directs our attention to maroons within the United States. From the Great Dismal Swamp of Virginia to the frontier regions of Louisiana, she shows, fugitive slaves managed to survive without fleeing to the North. An important addition to our understanding of slave society and black resistance."-Eric Foner,author of The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery

"In contrast to the study of slavery elsewhere, six decades of research in the United States has systematically bypassed the issue of marronage. Sylviane Diouf’s exhaustive research has not only brought the subject to center stage, it offers a framework for recasting the study of runaway slaves throughout the Americas. This is one of those rare books that is at once of scholarly significance and will engage a wide readership."-David Eltis,Robert W. Woodruff Professor of History, Emory University

"[T]he stories are riveting. Readers will become familiar with colorful characters like Captain Cudjoe of Jamaica or the man nicknamed 'Forest' for his skill at hiding, and they will learn surprising facts about maroons’ participation in trade and defense, along with horrific details of punishments...[I]t’s a notable document for its treatment of the subject."-Publishers Weekly

"A curator at the New York Public Library's Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture reconstructs the lives of blacks who sought freedom and self-determination on the margins of an American slave society. Whether newly arrived from Africa or already acculturated to the demands of servitude, whether they fled to the hinterlands to live in secluded swamps or in the mountains, or to the borderlands, close to farms, plantations or towns, the maroons ran away intending to stay away, seeking autonomy even at the price of unspeakable danger. Most were captured and suffered barbaric whippings or brandings, some died of exposure or hunger, some were killed by the militia, the slave patrols and dogs—a memorable passage here details the various repellents that slaves devised to throw bloodhounds off the track—set after them. But many survived for weeks, months and even years, offering hope to their enslaved companions and a powerful rebuke to the white power structure. From the colonial era to the 1860s, Diouf (Dreams of Africa in Alabama: The Slave Ship Clotilda and The Story of the Last Africans Brought to America, 2007, etc.) explains how the maroons lived, the skills and protective strategies they developed, how they sheltered themselves and traded in the underground economy, how they hunted, gathered, and even raised crops, how they stole necessary clothing, tools and livestock, and how they depended on the complicity of their enslaved companions for survival. She tells the story of a few large communities, most notably that of the Great Dismal Swamp, and briefly examines the marronage subgroups of bandits and insurrectionists, but the triumph here is the author's portrait of the day-to-day precariousness of maroon lives, the courage and resourcefulness required for survival, and the terrible price they paid for trying to recover their freedom. A neglected chapter of the American slave experience brought sensitively and vividly to life."-Kirkus

"Her project is novel because previous research about maroons was primarily focused on slaves from Brazil, Jamaica and Panama."-Reuven Blau ,New York Daily News

Library Journal
03/01/2014
When reading about the men, women, and children who escaped slavery, general readers may first think of the Underground Railroad, which helped slaves to make their way north. But there were also maroons, slaves who instead escaped captivity by fleeing into the Southern wilderness, whether mountains or swamps. They formed their own communities or, more commonly, lived almost entirely in isolation "from the borderlands to the hinterland," operating with occasional risky crossings between the worlds of untamed wilderness and of what they left behind. Historian Diouf (Servants of Allah: African Muslims Enslaved in the Americas) delves into the lives of the maroons and explores marronage (the different states of flight and survival) itself, from Louisiana to Virginia, through deep research in primary and secondary sources. Because maroons stayed in the South, they also stayed out of most documentation covering the escapes and rights of slaves who headed north. The author also notes the distinguishing features of these slaves' existence compared to that of the earlier maroons of South America and the Caribbean. VERDICT In writing that is deeply informative, with vivid anecdotes when available, including the horrors of punishment enacted when maroons were captured, this book is recommended to those wishing to pursue the study of American slavery beyond more general texts.—Sonnet Ireland, Univ. of New Orleans Lib.
Kirkus Reviews
2013-12-08
A curator at the New York Public Library's Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture reconstructs the lives of blacks who sought freedom and self-determination on the margins of an American slave society. Whether newly arrived from Africa or already acculturated to the demands of servitude, whether they fled to the hinterlands to live in secluded swamps or in the mountains, or to the borderlands, close by farms, plantations or towns, the maroons ran away intending to stay away, seeking autonomy even at the price of unspeakable danger. Most were captured and suffered barbaric whippings or brandings, some died of exposure or hunger, some were killed by the militia, the slave patrols and dogs--a memorable passage here details the various repellents the slaves devised to throw bloodhounds off the track--set after them. But many survived for weeks, months and even years, offering hope to their enslaved companions and a powerful rebuke to the white power structure. From the colonial era to the 1860s, Diouf (Dreams of Africa in Alabama: The Slave Ship Clotilda and the Story of the Last Africans Brought to America, 2007, etc.) explains how the maroons lived, the skills and protective strategies they developed, how they sheltered themselves and traded in the underground economy, how they hunted, gathered and even raised crops, how they stole necessary clothing, tools and livestock, and how they depended on the complicity of their enslaved companions for survival. She tells the story of a few large communities, most notably that of the Great Dismal Swamp, and briefly examines the marronage subgroups of bandits and insurrectionists, but the triumph here is the author's portrait of the day-to-day precariousness of maroon lives, the courage and resourcefulness required for survival, and the terrible price they paid for trying to recover their freedom. A neglected chapter of the American slave experience brought sensitively and vividly to life.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780814724378
Publisher:
New York University Press
Publication date:
01/17/2014
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
403
Sales rank:
812,200
Product dimensions:
6.50(w) x 9.10(h) x 1.30(d)

Meet the Author

Sylviane A. Diouf is an award-winning historian of the African Diaspora. She is the author of Slavery’s Exiles: The Story of the American Maroons and Servants of Allah: African Muslims Enslaved in the Americas, both with NYU Press. The fifteenth anniversary edition of Servants of Allah—named Choice Outstanding Academic Book in 1999—will be released in October 2013. Her book Dreams of Africa in Alabama: The Slave Ship Clotilda and the Story of the Last Africans Brought to America received the 2007 Wesley-Logan Prize of the American Historical Association, the 2009 Sulzby Award of the Alabama Historical Association and was a finalist for the 2008 Hurston/Wright Legacy Award. She is the editor of Fighting the Slave Trade: West African Strategies and the co-editor of In Motion: The African-American Migration Experience. A recipient of the Rosa Parks Award, the Dr. Betty Shabazz Achievement Award, and the Pen and Brush Achievement Award, Diouf is a Curator at the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture of the New York Public Library.

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