Small Arms & Security / Edition 1

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This book examines the emergence of new international norms to govern the spread of small arms, and the extent to which these norms have been established in the policies and practices of states, regions and international organizations. It also attempts to establish criteria for assessing norm emergence, and to assess the process of norm development by comparing what actually happens at the multilateral level.

If norm-making on small arms and related multilateral negotiations have mostly dealt with ‘illicit arms’, and most of the norms examined here fall on the arms supplier side of the arms equation, the author argues that the creation of international norms and the setting of widely agreed standards amongst states on all aspects of the demand for, availability, and spread of both legal and illegal small arms and light weapons must become central to the multilateral coordination of policy responses in order to tackle the growing violence associated with small arms availability.

Small Arms and Security will be of interest to researchers and professionals in the fields of peace and conflict studies, global governance, international security and disarmament.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780415770514
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis Ltd
  • Publication date: 9/14/2006
  • Series: Contemporary Security Studies
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 296
  • Product dimensions: 6.14 (w) x 9.21 (h) x 0.69 (d)

Table of Contents

Foreword   Robert I. Rotberg     xv
Preface: the rise of small arms into the international agenda - a debate in the context of global governance and human security     xvii
Acknowledgments     xxi
List of abbreviations and acronyms     xxiii
Small arms, norms and the international agenda     1
Norms in international relations: the case of small arms     3
Introduction     3
Objectives of, and approaches to, the development of this study     9
Norms in international relations     14
Norm-building processes in the evolution of the small-arms question on the international agenda     29
The enlargement of the concept of security and changes in arms-trade patterns after the Cold War     29
The initial impetus for norm building regarding small arms, 1990-5     34
Furthering norm building on small arms, 1995-2001     46
Developments, 2001-6     59
Leading international emerging norms     63
The destruction and disposal of surplus weapons     65
Introduction     65
Weapons destruction: froin practice to international norm     66
Accelerating norm development: changes in state practice regarding weapons destruction     69
Categorizing mainactors and their roles in the generation of knowledge on norm building regarding weapons destruction     71
Consolidating norm development: path-breaking events     76
Regional and international norm diffusion     79
Main mechanisms of norm diffusion     88
Regulating illicit arms brokering     91
Introduction     91
The Rwandan genocide: the catalyzing event for international norm building?     93
The intricate issue of illicit arms brokering: explaining the obstacles to norm building     95
The generation of knowledge as a prerequisite for norm building     99
Categorizing the main actors     100
Regional and international norm diffusion     104
Main mechanisms of norm diffusion     113
Norm emergence since 2001     115
Marking, tracing and record-keeping     117
Introduction     117
Marking weapons: from practice to emerging international norm - how did norm building occur?     118
The eminent persons group: contributing to or obstructing normative development?     124
Tracking international and regional norm building     126
Main mechanisms of norm diffusion     133
Norm emergence since 2001     134
Failed or weaker international emerging norms     137
Creating a norm of transparency in small-arms transfers     139
Introduction     139
Enabling conditions for the norm on transparency to emerge in the post-Cold War period     141
The path of norm emergence on transparency regarding conventional arms transfers in the post-Cold War period     142
Norm development on transparency regarding small arms     147
Regional and international norm diffusion and influence     150
Main mechanisms of norm diffusion     157
Norm emergence since 2001     159
Regulating civilian gun ownership     160
Introduction     160
Controlling civilian gun ownership: from domestic law to international norm     163
The UN: the prime site for norm building     165
Tracking institutional norm building     167
Main mechanisms of norm diffusion     174
Banning the sale of weapons to non-state actors     177
Introduction     177
The emergence of a failed international norm     178
The international normative context for norm development     179
Reasons for creating a norm on banning the sale of weapons to non-state actors     182
Individual entrepreneurship and norm building      183
Norm diffusion failure     184
Reasons for norm-diffusion failure and the absence of norm-diffusion mechanisms     187
Norm emergence since 2001     189
Findings and conclusions     191
The making of international norms     193
Introduction     193
Implications of the rise of the small-arms debate for the study of international relations     195
Competing international norms     197
The role of soft law in the origins of norms in international relations     199
Whither compliance? The way forward     201
The constructivist research agenda on norms and the norms on small arms     202
Norm entrepreneurs: key to the origins of norms?     202
Activism and norm building-"pro" and "anti" gun NGOs     209
Notes     211
Select bibliography     253
Index     257
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