Small Unmanned Aircraft: Theory and Practice [NOOK Book]

Overview

Autonomous unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) are critical to current and future military, civil, and commercial operations. Despite their importance, no previous textbook has accessibly introduced UAVs to students in the engineering, computer, and science disciplines--until now. Small Unmanned Aircraft provides a concise but comprehensive description of the key concepts and technologies underlying the dynamics, control, and guidance of fixed-wing unmanned aircraft, and enables all students with an introductory-level ...

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Small Unmanned Aircraft: Theory and Practice

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Overview

Autonomous unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) are critical to current and future military, civil, and commercial operations. Despite their importance, no previous textbook has accessibly introduced UAVs to students in the engineering, computer, and science disciplines--until now. Small Unmanned Aircraft provides a concise but comprehensive description of the key concepts and technologies underlying the dynamics, control, and guidance of fixed-wing unmanned aircraft, and enables all students with an introductory-level background in controls or robotics to enter this exciting and important area.

The authors explore the essential underlying physics and sensors of UAV problems, including low-level autopilot for stability and higher-level autopilot functions of path planning. The textbook leads the student from rigid-body dynamics through aerodynamics, stability augmentation, and state estimation using onboard sensors, to maneuvering through obstacles. To facilitate understanding, the authors have replaced traditional homework assignments with a simulation project using the MATLAB/Simulink environment. Students begin by modeling rigid-body dynamics, then add aerodynamics and sensor models. They develop low-level autopilot code, extended Kalman filters for state estimation, path-following routines, and high-level path-planning algorithms. The final chapter of the book focuses on UAV guidance using machine vision.

Designed for advanced undergraduate or graduate students in engineering or the sciences, this book offers a bridge to the aerodynamics and control of UAV flight.

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Editorial Reviews

Applied Control Technology Consortium
It is very nicely written with a presentation style that engineers in industry will appreciate. Most of the mathematics involved is very straightforward and the results are presented in a very clear manner. This is a text that should be very useful to those working on unmanned aerial vehicles and may even be of interest to those working on unmanned land or marine vehicles.
From the Publisher
"It is very nicely written with a presentation style that engineers in industry will appreciate. Most of the mathematics involved is very straightforward and the results are presented in a very clear manner. This is a text that should be very useful to those working on unmanned aerial vehicles and may even be of interest to those working on unmanned land or marine vehicles."—Applied Control Technology Consortium
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781400840601
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • Publication date: 2/26/2012
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Edition description: Course Book
  • Pages: 320
  • File size: 13 MB
  • Note: This product may take a few minutes to download.

Meet the Author

Randal W. Beard is a professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Brigham Young University. He is the coauthor of "Distributed Consensus in Multi-vehicle Cooperative Control. " Timothy W. McLain is a professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Brigham Young University.
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Table of Contents

Preface xi

Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 System Architecture 1
1.2 Design Models 4
1.3 Design Project 6

Chapter 2 Coordinate Frames 8
2.1 RotationMatrices 9
2.2 MAV Coordinate Frames 12
2.3 Airspeed,Wind Speed, and Ground Speed 18
2.4 TheWind Triangle 20
2.5 Differentiation of a Vector 24
2.6 Chapter Summary 25
2.7 Design Project 27

Chapter 3 Kinematics and Dynamics 28
3.1 State Variables 28
3.2 Kinematics 30
3.3 Rigid-body Dynamics 31
3.4 Chapter Summary 37
3.5 Design Project 38

Chapter 4 Forces and Moments 39
4.1 Gravitational Forces 39
4.2 Aerodynamic Forces andMoments 40
4.3 Propulsion Forces andMoments 52
4.4 Atmospheric Disturbances 54
4.5 Chapter Summary 57
4.6 Design Project 58

Chapter 5 Linear Design Models 60
5.1 Summary of Nonlinear Equations of Motion 60
5.2 Coordinated Turn 64
5.3 Trim Conditions 65
5.4 Transfer Function Models 68
5.5 Linear State-space Models 77
5.6 Reduced-order Modes 87
5.7 Chapter Summary 91
5.8 Design Project 92

Chapter 6 Autopilot Design Using Successive Loop Closure 95
6.1 Successive Loop Closure 95
6.2 Saturation Constraints and Performance 97
6.3 Lateral-directional Autopilot 99
6.4 Longitudinal Autopilot 105
6.5 Digital Implementation of PID Loops 114
6.6 Chapter Summary 117
6.7 Design Project 118

Chapter 7 Sensors for MAVs 120
7.1 Accelerometers 120
7.2 Rate Gyros 124
7.3 Pressure Sensors 126
7.4 Digital Compasses 131
7.5 Global Positioning System 134
7.6 Chapter Summary 141
7.7 Design Project 141

Chapter 8 State Estimation 143
8.1 Benchmark Maneuver 143
8.2 Low-pass Filters 144
8.3 State Estimation by Inverting the Sensor Model 145
8.4 Dynamic-observer Theory 149
8.5 Derivation of the Continuous-discrete Kalman Filter 151
8.6 Attitude Estimation 156
8.7 GPS Smoothing 158
8.8 Chapter Summary 161
8.9 Design Project 162

Chapter 9 Design Models for Guidance 164
9.1 AutopilotModel 164
9.2 Kinematic Model of Controlled Flight 165
9.3 Kinematic Guidance Models 168
9.4 Dynamic Guidance Model 170
9.5 Chapter Summary 172
9.6 Design Project 173

Chapter 10 Straight-line and Orbit Following 174
10.1 Straight-line Path Following 175
10.2 Orbit Following 181
10.3 Chapter Summary 183
10.4 Design Project 185

Chapter 11 Path Manager 187
11.1 Transitions BetweenWaypoints 187
11.2 Dubins Paths 194
11.3 Chapter Summary 202
11.4 Design Project 204

Chapter 12 Path Planning 206
12.1 Point-to-Point Algorithms 207
12.2 Coverage Algorithms 220
12.3 Chapter Summary 223
12.4 Design Project 224

Chapter 13 Vision-guided Navigation 226
13.1 Gimbal and Camera Frames and Projective Geometry 226
13.2 Gimbal Pointing 229
13.3 Geolocation 231
13.4 Estimating Target Motion in the Image Plane 234
13.5 Time to Collision 238
13.6 Precision Landing 240
13.7 Chapter Summary 244
13.8 Design Project 245

APPENDIX A: Nomenclature and Notation 247
APPENDIX B: Quaternions 254
B.1 Quaternion Rotations 254
B.2 Aircraft Kinematic and Dynamic Equations 255
B.3 Conversion Between Euler Angles and
Quaternions 259

APPENDIX C: Animations in Simulink 260
C.1 Handle Graphics inMatlab 260
C.2 Animation Example: Inverted Pendulum 261
C.3 Animation Example: Spacecraft Using Lines 263
C.4 Animation Example: Spacecraft Using Vertices and
Faces 268

APPENDIX D: Modeling in Simulink Using S-Functions 270
D.1 Example: Second-order Differential Equation 270
APPENDIX E: Airframe Parameters 275
E.1 Zagi Flying Wing 275
E.2 Aerosonde UAV 276

APPENDIX F: Trim and Linearization in Simulink 277
F.1 Using the Simulink trim Command 277
F.2 Numerical Computation of Trim 278
F.3 Using the Simulink linmod Command to
Generate a State-space Model 282
F.4 Numerical Computation of State-space Model 284
APPENDIX G: Essentials from Probability Theory 286

APPENDIX H: Sensor Parameters 288
H.1 Rate Gyros 288
H.2 Accelerometers 288
H.3 Pressure Sensors 289
H.4 Digital Compass/Magnetometer 289
H.5 GPS 290

Bibliography 291
Index 299

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