Smart Grids / Edition 1

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More About This Textbook

Overview

On a worldwide basis, the development of SmartGrids is a consistent answer to the problem of an efficient and sustainable delivery of electric energy through distribution grids. SmartGrids are a combination of information and communication technologies and new energy technologies. There are many different definitions of the concept of SmartGrids and thus it appears indispensable to gather the knowledge available from both industry and research laboratories in one book. Distributed generation is rightly receiving an increased amount of attention and will become an integral part of urban energy systems, providing consumers and energy providers with safe, affordable, clean, reliable, flexible and readily-accessible energy services.
The aim of this book is to describe future electricity networks that will enable all energy services to become sustainable. The traditional design of network control systems with a centralized structure is not in-line with the paradigm of the unbundled electricity system and decentralized control; this is highlighted by looking at how future active networks will efficiently link small- and medium-scale power sources with consumer demands, allowing decisions to be made on how best to operate in real time. It also looks at the level of control required: power flow assessment, voltage control and protection require cost-competitive technologies and new communication systems with more sensors and actuators than presently used, certainly in relation to the distribution systems. To manage active networks, a vision of grid computing is created that assures universal access to computing resources. An intelligent grid infrastructure gives more flexibility concerning demand and supply, providing new instruments for optimal and cost-effective grid operation at the same time.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781848212619
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 5/1/2012
  • Series: ISTE Series , #533
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 350
  • Product dimensions: 6.30 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Table of Contents

Foreword xv
Ronnie BELMANS

Chapter 1. SmartGrids: Motivation, Stakes and Perspectives 1
Nouredine HADJSAÏD and Jean-Claude SABONNADIÈRE

1.1. Introduction 1

1.1.1. The new energy paradigm 1

1.2. Information and communication technologies serving the electrical system 5

1.3. Integration of advanced technologies 7

1.4. The European energy perspective 10

1.5. Shift to electricity as an energy carrier (vector) 15

1.6. Main triggers of the development of SmartGrids 16

1.7. Definitions of SmartGrids 17

1.8. Objectives addressed by the SmartGrid concept 18

1.8.1. Specific case of transmission grids 18

1.8.2. Specific case of distribution grids 19

1.8.3. The desired development of distribution networks: towards smarter grids 20

1.9. Socio-economic and environmental objectives 21

1.10. Stakeholders involved the implementation of the SmartGrid concept 22

1.11. Research and scientific aspects of the SmartGrid 23

1.11.1. Examples of the development of innovative concepts 23

1.11.2. Scientific, technological, commercial and sociological challenges 28

1.12. Preparing the competences needed for the development of SmartGrids 30

1.13. Conclusion 30

1.14. Bibliography 31

Chapter 2. From the SmartGrid to the Smart Customer: the Paradigm Shift 33
Catherine FAILLIET

2.1. Key trends 33

2.1.1. The crisis 33

2.1.2. Environmental awareness 35

2.1.3. New technologies 35
2.2. The evolution of the individual’s relationship to energy 37

2.2.1. Curiosity 37

2.2.2. The need for transparency 38

2.2.3. Responsibility 38

2.3. The historical model of energy companies 39

2.3.1. Incumbents in a natural monopoly 39

2.3.2. A clear focus on technical knowledge 40

2.3.3. Undeveloped customer relationships 40

2.4. SmartGrids from the customer’s point of view 42

2.4.1. The first step: the data revolution 42

2.4.2. The second step: the establishment of a smart ecosystem 45

2.4.3. The consumers’ reluctance 47

2.5. What about possible business models? 49

2.5.1. An unprecedented global buzz… and the search for a business model 49

2.5.2. Government research into a virtuous model of regulation 52

2.5.3. An opening for new stakeholders 54

2.6. Bibliography 56

Chapter 3. Transmission Grids: Stakeholders in SmartGrids 57
Hervé MIGNON

3.1. A changing energy context: the development of renewable energies 58

3.2. A changing energy context: new modes of consumption 62

3.3. New challenges 68

3.4. An evolving transmission grid 72

3.5. Conclusion 76

3.6. Bibliography 77

Chapter 4. SmartGrids and Energy Management Systems 79
Jean-Louis COULLON

4.1. Introduction 79

4.2. Managing distributed production resources: renewable energies 80

4.2.1. Characterization of distributed renewable production 81

4.2.2. Integrating renewable energies into the management process 83

4.3. Demand response 87

4.4. Development of storage, microgrids and electric vehicles 90

4.4.1. New storage methods 90

4.4.2. Microgrids 91

4.4.3. Electric vehicles 92

4.5. Managing high voltage direct current connections 92

4.6. Grid reliability analysis 94

4.6.1. Model-based stability analysis 94

4.6.2. Continuous measurements-based analysis: phasor measurement units 95

4.6.3. Dynamic limits . 97

4.6.4. Self-healing grids 98

4.7. Smart asset management 99

4.8. Smart grid rollout: regulatory needs 102

4.8.1. The need for pilot projects 102

4.8.2. Incentives for investment in grid reliability 103

4.8.3. Renewables 103

4.8.4. Investment incentives for energy efficiency 103

4.8.5. Cost/profit allocation 104

4.8.6. New regulatory frameworks 104

4.9. Standards 105

4.9.1. The case of smart grids 105

4.9.2. Work in progress 106

4.9.3. Cooperation 107

4.10. System architecture items 107

4.10.1. Broaden the vision 108

4.10.2. Taking vertical changes into consideration 112

4.10.3. Developing integration tools 112

4.11. Acknowledgements 113

4.12. Bibliography 113

Chapter 5. The Distribution System Operator at the Heart of the SmartGrid Revolution 115
Pierre MALLET

5.1. Brief overview of some of the general elements of electrical distribution grids 116

5.2. The current changes: toward greater complexity 117

5.3. Smart grids enable the transition to carbon-free energy 118

5.4. The different constituents of SmartGrids 118

5.5. Smart Life 119

5.6. Smart Operation 120

5.7. Smart Metering 121

5.7.1. The Linky project 121

5.7.2. New services for customers 122

5.7.3. Smart meters can significantly modernize grid management 122

5.8. Smart Services 123

5.9. Smart local optimization 123

5.9.1. Distributed generation 124

5.9.2. Active management of demand 126

5.9.3. Means of distributed storage 126

5.9.4. New uses including electric vehicles 127

5.9.5. Local optimization of the system 128

5.10. The distributor ERDF is at the heart of future SmartGrids 128

5.11. Bibliography 129

Chapter 6. Architecture, Planning and Reconfiguration of Distribution Grids 131
Marie-Cécile ALVAREZ, Raphaël CAIRE and Bertrand RAISON

6.1. Introduction 131

6.2. The structure of distribution grids 133

6.2.1. High voltage/medium voltage delivery stations 133

6.2.2. Meshed and looped grids 135

6.2.3. Types of conductor 138

6.2.4. Underground/overhead 139

6.2.5. MV/LV substations 140

6.3. Planning of the distribution grids 140

6.3.1. Principles of planning/engineering 141

6.3.2. All criteria to be met by the proposed architectures 143

6.3.3. Example on a secured feeder grid 143

6.3.4. Long-term and short-term planning 148

6.3.5. The impact of connecting DGs on the MV grid structure 155

6.3.6. Increasing the DG insertion rate in the grid 162

6.3.7. Proposal for a new looped architecture: the hybrid structure 164

6.4. Reconfiguration for the reduction of power losses 166

6.4.1. The problem of copper losses 166

6.4.2. Mathematic formulation of the optimization problem 169

6.4.3. Combinatorial optimization 176

6.4.4. Different approaches to finding the optimal configuration 181

6.4.5. Reconfiguration of the partially meshed grids 191

6.5. Bibliography 193

Chapter 7. Energy Management and Decision-aiding Tools 197
Yvon BÉSANGER, Bertrand RAISON, Raphaël CAIRE and Tran-Quoc TUAN

7.1. Introduction 197

7.2. Voltage control 198

7.2.1. Introduction to voltage control in distribution networks 198

7.2.2. Voltage control in current distribution networks 199

7.2.3. Voltage control in distribution networks with dispersed generation 199

7.2.4. Voltage control conclusion 210

7.3. Protection schemes 211

7.3.1. MV protection scheme 212

7.3.2. Neutral grounding modes 214

7.3.3. Fault characteristics 215

7.3.4. Power outages 216

7.3.5. Impact of decentralized production on the operation of protections of the feeder 217

7.4. Reconfiguration after a fault: results of the INTEGRAL project 221

7.4.1. Goals of the INTEGRAL project 221

7.4.2. Demonstrator description 221

7.4.3. General self-healing principles 224

7.4.4. Some results 227

7.5. Reliability 231

7.5.1. Basic concepts of the Monte Carlo simulation 232

7.5.2. Conclusion on reliability 239

7.6. Bibliography 240

Chapter 8. Integration of Vehicles with Rechargeable Batteries into Distribution Networks 243
Florent CADOUX and George GROSS

8.1. The revolution of individual electrical transport 244

8.1.1. An increasingly credible technology 244

8.1.2. Example: the Fluence ZE 244

8.1.3. What are the consequences on the electrical network? 245

8.1.4. Demand management and vehicle-to-grid 246

8.2 Vehicles as “active loads” 246

8.2.1. Energetic services 247

8.2.2. Frequency regulation 248

8.2.3. Load reserve and shedding 248

8.2.4. Other services 249

8.3. Economic impacts 250

8.3.1. A potentially lucrative but limited market 250

8.3.2. New business models 250

8.3.3. Market integration 252

8.4. Environmental impacts 252

8.4.1. Synergy with intermittent sources 252

8.4.2. Energetic efficiency 253

8.4.3. Other advantages 253

8.4.4. Evaluating environmental impacts 254

8.5. Technological challenges 254

8.5.1. Architecture 255

8.5.2. Communication infrastructure 255

8.5.3. Control strategy 256

8.5.4. Feedback 256

8.6. Uncertainty factors 257

8.6.1. Electric vehicle adoption 257

8.6.2. Viability of demand management 257

8.6.3. Technological factors 258

8.6.4. Economic factors 258

8.7. Conclusion 259

8.8. Bibliography 259

Chapter 9. How Information and Communication Technologies Will Shape SmartGrids 263
Gilles PRIVAT

9.1. Introduction 263

9.2. Control decentralization 264

9.2.1. Why smart grids will not be “intelligent networks” 264

9.2.2. From the “home area network” to the “smart home grid”: extension of the local data network to the electrical grid for the home 265

9.2.3. The “smart home grid” for the local optimization of energy efficiency 267

9.2.4. From the home to microgrids: towards the autonomous control of subnetworks 270

9.3. Interoperability and connectivity 270

9.3.1. “Utility computing”: when the electrical grid is a model for information technologies 270

9.3.2. Avatars of connectivity, when moving up from the physical layer to information models 271

9.4. From synchronism to asynchronism 273

9.4.1. Absolute and relative low-level and top-level synchronism 273

9.4.2. From asynchronous data to asynchronous electricity 274

9.4.3. From data packets to energy packets 275

9.5. Future Internet for SmartGrids 277

9.5.1. Towards a shared infrastructure for SmartGrids and physical networks: sensors 277

9.5.2. Towards a shared infrastructure: SmartGrids in the cloud 278

9.6. Conclusion 279

9.7. Bibliography 280

Chapter 10. Information Systems in the Metering and Management of the Grid 281
Hervé BARANCOURT

10.1. Introduction 281

10.1.1. Classification of the information systems 281

10.1.2. Approach 283

10.2. The metering information system 283

10.2.1. Presentation of the metering system 283

10.2.2. Architecture of the metering system 286

10.2.3. The manipulated data 291

10.2.4. The deployment of a metering system 293

10.3. Information system metering in the management of the grid 295

10.3.1. Links with IS management of the distribution network 295

10.3.2. The SmartGrid triptych 296

10.4. Conclusion: urbanization of the metering system 297

10.4.1. Two approaches 297

10.4.2. The “pro’sumer’s” information 298

10.4.3. Summary 299

10.5. Bibliography 300

Chapter 11. Smart Meters and SmartGrids: an Economic Approach 301
Jacques PERCEBOIS

11.1. “Demand response”: a consequence of opening the electricity industry and the rise in environmental concerns 302

11.1.1. The specific features of electricity 302

11.1.2. The impact of introducing competition 303

11.1.3. The impact of the objectives for reducing CO2 emissions 306

11.2. Traditional regulation via pricing is no longer sufficient to avoid the risk of “failure” during peaks 306

11.2.1. Coping with failures 306

11.2.2. Expensive advanced means reduces the incentive to invest 307

11.2.3. Emphasizing the seasonal differentiation of prices 308

11.3. Smart meters: a tool for withdrawal and market capacity 311

11.3.1. Towards a market of withdrawal 311

11.3.2 Who is financing the installation of the meters? 314

11.3.3. What are the economic results of the operation? 314

11.4. From smart meters to SmartGrids – the results 317

11.5. Bibliography 319

Chapter 12. The Regulation of SmartGrids 321
Didier LAFFAILLE

12.1. The regulation and funding of SmartGrids 321

12.1.1. Must R&D expenditure be submitted to an incentive mechanism? 322

12.1.2. How to cope with the deployment costs of SmartGrids? 323

12.1.3. Which investments will be supported by transmission tariffs and to what extent? 323

12.1.4. Should cooperation be established? 323

12.2. Regulation and economic models 324

12.3. Evolution of the value chain 326

12.3.1. How will the energy and ICT sectors work together? 326

12.3.2. What will be the role of consumers and new players in the value chain? 328

12.4. The emergence of a business model for smart grids 329

12.4.1. Do we need an energy regulatory framework to enhance the deployment of SmartGrids within Europe? 329

12.4.2. What variation is there in France? 331

12.5. Regulation can assist in the emergence of SmartGrids 333

12.5.1. How to ensure that system operators will account for public interest in their investment decisions? 334

12.5.2. The Linky smart meter 334

12.5.3. How to finance investments in SmartGrids? 337

12.5.4. Which energy regulatory framework should be used to encourage efficient investments in the SmartGrids? 337

12.5.5. What kind of development in prices would be acceptable for the consumer? 338

12.5.6. How else can the energy regulator facilitate the development of a SmartGrid system? 338

12.6. The business models are yet to be created 339

12.7. The standardization of SmartGrids 340

12.7.1. Why is standardization an essential factor in efficiently developing the electrical system? 340

12.7.2. Is standardization a response to the need for interoperability in SmartGrids? 342

12.7.3. What standardization efforts are being made for SmartGrids in Europe? 344

12.7.4. Is standardization an important commercial issue for the European sector? 346

12.8. Conclusion 347

12.9. Bibliography 348

List of Authors 351

Index 355

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