Snow Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Examination of Snow-Covered Ecosystems

Snow Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Examination of Snow-Covered Ecosystems

by H. G. Jones
     
 

This volume opens a new perspecitve on snow cover as a habitat for organisms under extreme environmental conditions and as a key factor in the ecology of much of the Earth's surface. The contributors describe the fundamental physical and small-scale chemical processes that characterize the evolution of snow and their influence on the life cycles of true snow organisms… See more details below

Overview

This volume opens a new perspecitve on snow cover as a habitat for organisms under extreme environmental conditions and as a key factor in the ecology of much of the Earth's surface. The contributors describe the fundamental physical and small-scale chemical processes that characterize the evolution of snow and their influence on the life cycles of true snow organisms and the biota of cold regions with extended snow cover. The book also studies the relationship between snow and climate and the paleo-ecological evidence for the influence of past snow regimes on plant communities.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780521188890
Publisher:
Cambridge University Press
Publication date:
04/28/2011
Edition description:
Reissue
Pages:
400
Product dimensions:
7.00(w) x 10.00(h) x 0.90(d)

Table of Contents

List of Authors and Affiliationsxiii
Prefacexv
1Snow Cover and the Climate System1
1.1Introduction1
1.2Snow Cover Observations and Data Sources4
1.3Snow Cover Climatology10
1.3.1Spatial and Temporal Distributions of Snow Cover Extent10
1.3.2Spatial and Temporal Distributions of Snow Depth14
1.3.3Information about SWE16
1.3.4Seasonal Snow Cover Classifications16
1.4Snow-Climate Interactions and Sensitivity18
1.4.1Interactions Between Snow Cover and Other Climatic Variables18
1.4.2Relationships with Synoptic Circulations22
1.4.3Large-Scale Interactions24
1.4.4Modeling Snow Cover-Atmosphere Interactions and Feedback Processes27
1.5The Impact of Possible Future Climatic Changes on Snow Cover and its Ecology30
1.6Conclusions33
1.7Future Research Needs33
1.8References34
2Physical Properties of Snow45
2.1Introduction: Snow Physics and Ecology45
2.1.1Unique Physical Properties of Snow46
2.2Accumulation48
2.2.1Snowfall48
2.2.2Distribution of Snowfall and Snow Cover49
2.2.3Wind Redistribution52
2.2.4Interception by Vegetation64
2.3Energetics of Snowpacks73
2.3.1Atmospheric Boundary73
2.3.2Soil Boundary80
2.3.3Internal Energetics81
2.3.4Snowmelt92
2.4Snow Cover Structure95
2.4.1Dry Snow96
2.4.2Wet Snow102
2.4.3Snow Cover Classification110
2.5Impact of Snow on Soil and Aquatic Ecosystems113
2.5.1Infiltration of Meltwater into Frozen and Unfrozen Soils113
2.5.2Runoff and Streamflow Generation114
2.6Conclusions117
2.6.1Future Research117
2.7References118
3The Chemistry of Snow: Processes and Nutrient Cycling127
3.1Introduction: Snow Chemistry and Ecology127
3.2The Chemistry of Snowfall128
3.2.1Formation of Snow Crystals and the Scavenging of Atmospheric Species128
3.2.2Spatial and Temporal Variability of Snowfall Composition132
3.3Chemistry of Cold, Dry Snow Cover134
3.3.1Processes at the Atmosphere--Snow Surface Interface135
3.3.2In-Pack Processes140
3.3.3Basal Gas Exchange Between Snow and Soil142
3.4Chemistry of Wet Snow and Snow--Meltwater Systems144
3.4.1Leaching of Solute from Snow Crystals145
3.4.2Snowmelt--Particulate Interactions149
3.4.3Microbial Activity150
3.4.4Basal Processes: Soil--Meltwater Interactions152
3.5Snow Cover Nutrient Fluxes and Ecosystem Budgets152
3.6Summary and Future Research Needs155
3.7References156
4Microbial Ecology of Snow and Freshwater Ice with Emphasis on Snow Algae168
4.1Overview168
4.2Introduction169
4.2.1Historical Perspective169
4.2.2Locations of Snow and Ice Microorganisms169
4.3Populations170
4.3.1Population Diversity and Density170
4.3.2Snow Microbe Associations174
4.3.3Food Chains and Food Webs176
4.4Cell Structure and Cell Physiology177
4.4.1Cell Structure177
4.4.2Cell Physiology and Special Adaptations180
4.5Life Cycles, Laboratory Mating Experiments, and Cultures186
4.5.1Life Cycles and Speciation186
4.5.2Laboratory Mating Experiments190
4.5.3Culture Collections and Growth Media191
4.6Evolution and Origins193
4.6.1Snow and Ice Microorganisms193
4.7Interrelationships of Physical Factors with Snow and Ice Microorganisms195
4.7.1Temperature195
4.7.2Meltwater Flow and Water Content197
4.7.3Light, Cryoconite Holes, and Suncups198
4.8Productivity and Biogeochemical Cycles in Snow and Ice201
4.8.1Primary Productivity and Respiration201
4.8.2Dissolved Gases and pH203
4.8.3Nutrients, Nutrient Cycling, and Conductivity204
4.8.4Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals209
4.9Human Aspects, Interests, and Considerations210
4.9.1Biotechnology210
4.9.2Human Food211
4.9.3Exobiology212
4.10Other Future Research212
4.10.1Genetics, Molecular Biology, and Ultrastructure212
4.10.2Ecology and Physiology213
4.11Acknowledgments215
4.12References215
5The Effect of Snow Cover on Small Animals229
5.1Introduction229
5.2Invertebrates231
5.2.1Nival and Aeolian Fauna231
5.2.2Subnivean, Intranivean, and Supranivean Fauna233
5.2.3Physiological and Morphological Mechanisms243
5.2.4Food Webs245
5.2.5Life Cycles and Development247
5.3Vertebrates247
5.3.1Subnivean Vertebrates247
5.3.2Physiological and Morphological Mechanisms250
5.3.3Subnivean Food Webs251
5.4Recommendations for Future Research254
5.5Acknowledgments256
5.6References256
6Snow--Vegetation Interactions in Tundra Environments266
6.1Overview266
6.2Introduction266
6.3Snow Gradients267
6.3.1Plant Species267
6.3.2Plant Communities268
6.3.3Snow Flush Areas, Ribbon Forests, and Krummholz272
6.3.4Soils276
6.3.5Subnivean Animals278
6.3.6Other Factors Affecting Plant Composition of Snowbeds279
6.3.7Landscape and Regional Vegetation Patterns280
6.4Plant Physiological Responses283
6.4.1Characteristics of Arctic and Alpine Snow Cover284
6.4.2Phenology287
6.4.3Production288
6.4.4Growth Strategies of Snowbed Plants289
6.4.5Wind290
6.4.6Radiation291
6.4.7Temperature293
6.4.8Soil Moisture and Drought Stress297
6.5Experimental Studies299
6.6Conclusion302
6.7Acknowledgments306
6.8References306
7Tree-Ring Dating of Past Snow Regimes325
7.1Introduction325
7.2Dendrochronological Approaches and Basic Recognition of Past Snow Levels327
7.3The Role of Snow in Tree Survival328
7.4The Critical Period of the Snow Cover Breakthrough330
7.5The Effect of Snow Accumulation on Trees335
7.6Snow Levels and Past Climate337
7.7Conclusion341
7.8Acknowledgments343
7.9References343
Epilogue347
Book Glossary349
Index371

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