Social Gerontology : A Multidisciplinary Perspective / Edition 5

Social Gerontology : A Multidisciplinary Perspective / Edition 5

by Nancy R. Hooyman, H. Asuman Kivak, H. Asuman Kiyak, H. Asuman Kiyak
     
 

ISBN-10: 0205277721

ISBN-13: 9780205277728

Pub. Date: 07/24/1998

Publisher: Pearson

Aging is a fact of life. We see our parents and grandparents go through it. We even see ourselves go through it. As we get older, we enter a distinct stage of life, complete with its own biological issues and psychological and social ones too. Yet most books on social aging ignore the psychological and biological aspects of aging that make the social issues so

Overview

Aging is a fact of life. We see our parents and grandparents go through it. We even see ourselves go through it. As we get older, we enter a distinct stage of life, complete with its own biological issues and psychological and social ones too. Yet most books on social aging ignore the psychological and biological aspects of aging that make the social issues so important. This book provides a complete look at aging so that we can better understand the older stage of life for both ourselves and those around us. This book presents a multidisciplinary perspective on social aging. It takes the approach of the older person in context, and how age-related changes in the biological, functional, and psychological domains can influence the older person's interactions with his/her social and physical environment. Unique features include an original approach, a multidisciplinary perspective, a framework based on research findings, and attention to differences by age, gender, ethnic minority status, sexual orientation, and socio-economic class. Social workers, psychologists, gerontology professionals, and professors.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780205277728
Publisher:
Pearson
Publication date:
07/24/1998
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
542
Product dimensions:
7.67(w) x 9.51(h) x 1.03(d)

Table of Contents

Preface xiv
PART ONE THE FIELD OF SOCIAL GERONTOLOGY 1(50)
CHAPTER 1 THE GROWTH OF SOCIAL GERONTOLOGY
1(34)
Toward Understanding Aging
1(1)
The Field of Gerontology
2(2)
Social Gerontology
4(1)
What Is Old Age?
4(1)
A Diverse Population
5(1)
A Person-Environment Perspective on Social Gerontology
5(3)
Environmental Press
5(2)
Environmental Interventions
7(1)
Organization of the Text
8(1)
Why Study Aging?
8(1)
Growth of the Older Population
9(3)
Changes in Life Expectancy
10(1)
Maximum Life Span
11(1)
The Oldest-Old
12(4)
Ages 85 and Older
12(2)
Centenarians
14(1)
Population Pyramids
15(1)
Dependency Ratios
16(2)
Population Trends
18(3)
Ethmic Minorities
18(2)
Geographic Distribution
20(1)
Educational and Economic Status
20(1)
Worldwide Trends
21(2)
Impact of Demographic Trends in the United States
23(1)
Longevity in Health or Disease?
23(1)
How Aging and Older Adults Are Studied
24(1)
Development of the Field
24(1)
Historical Forces of the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries
25(1)
Formal Development of the Field
25(1)
Major Research Centers Founded
26(1)
Research Methods
26(5)
The Age/Period/Cohort Problem
27(1)
Cross-Sectional Studies
27(1)
Longitudinal Studies: Design and Limitations
28(1)
Sequential Designs
29(1)
Selecting Older Persons as Research Subjects
30(1)
Summary and Implications
31(1)
Glossary
32(1)
References
32(3)
CHAPTER 2 HISTORICAL AND CROSS-CULTURAL ISSUES IN AGING
35(16)
Old Age Historically
36(3)
Old Age in Ancient Cultures
36(1)
Old Age in Greek and Roman Cultures
36(1)
Old Age in Medieval Europe
37(1)
Old Age in Colonial America
38(1)
The Effects of Modernization
39(4)
Alternatives to Modernization Theory
40(1)
Ideal of Equality versus Status of Age in America
41(1)
Other Perspectives on Historical Change
42(1)
A Cross-Cultural View of Old Age in Contemporary Societies
43(3)
Importance of Social Position and the Control of Property
44(1)
Knowledge as a Source of Power
45(1)
Effects of Culture and Modernization Are Still Changing
46(1)
Summary and Implications
47(1)
Glossary
48(1)
References
48(3)
PART TWO THE BIOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CONTEXT OF SOCIAL AGING 51(78)
CHAPTER 3 THE SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF PHYSICAL AGING
55(38)
Biological Theories of Aging
56(2)
Can Aging Be Reversed or Delayed?
58(1)
Growth Hormones
58(1)
Caloric Restriction
59(1)
Research on Physiological Changes with Age
59(13)
Aging in Body Composition
60(1)
Changes in the Skin
61(1)
Changes in the Hair
62(1)
Changes in the Musculoskeletal and Kinesthetic System
63(2)
Changes in the Sense of Touch
65(1)
Aging in the Respiratory System
65(1)
Cardiovascular Changes and the Effects of Exercise
66(2)
Changes in the Urinary System
68(1)
Sexual Changes
69(1)
Changes in the Gastrointestinal System
69(1)
Changes in the Endocrine System
70(1)
Changes in the Nervous System
70(1)
Changes in Sleep Patterns with Aging
71(1)
Changes in Sensory Functions
72(13)
Changes in Vision
73(5)
Assisting Adaptation and Quality of Life through Environmental Modifications
78(1)
Changes in Hearing
79(4)
Changes in Taste and Smell
83(2)
Summary and Implications
85(1)
Glossary
86(2)
References
88(5)
CHAPTER 4 MANAGING CHRONIC DISEASES AND PROMOTING WELL-BEING IN OLD AGE
93(36)
Defining Health
93(2)
Quality of Life in Health and Illness
95(1)
Effects of Stress on Health
96(2)
Chronic and Acute Diseases
98(2)
Interactive Effects
97(3)
Causes of Death in Older Adults
100(1)
Common Chronic Conditions
101(13)
Heart Disease and the Cardiovascular System
101(1)
Strokes and Other Cerebrovascular Problems
102(1)
Cancer
103(1)
Arthritis
104(1)
Osteoporosis
105(3)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease or Respiratory Problems
108(1)
Diabets
109(1)
Problems with the Kidneys and Urinary Tract
110(1)
Problems with the Intestinal System
111(1)
Oral Diseases
112(1)
AIDS in the Older Population
112(1)
Accidents among Older People
113(1)
Falls and Their Prevention
114(1)
Use of Physician Services by Older People
115(1)
Use of Other Health Services
115(1)
Health Promotion with Older People
116(7)
The Relationship of Health Practices to Health Outcomes
118(2)
Health Promotion Guidelines
120(1)
Oral Health Promotion
121(1)
Limitations of Health Promotion
121(2)
Summary and Implications
123(1)
Glossary
124(1)
References
124(5)
PART THREE THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTEXT OF SOCIAL AGING 129(96)
CHAPTER 5 COGNITIVE CHANGES WITH AGING
133(24)
Intelligence and Aging
133(5)
Problems in the Measurement of Cognitive Function
136(1)
Longitudinal Studies of Intelligence
137(1)
Factors That May Influence Intelligence in Adulthood
138(2)
The Process of Learning and Memory
140(2)
The Information Processing Model
142(1)
Factors That Affect Learning in Old Age
143(3)
Age-Related Changes in Memory
146(1)
Improving Cognitive Abilities in Old Age
147(2)
Wisdom and Creativity
149(2)
Summary and Implications
151(1)
Glossary
152(1)
References
152(5)
CHAPTER 6 PERSONALITY AND MENTAL HEALTH IN OLD AGE
157(46)
Stage Theories of Personality
158(4)
Erikson's Psychosocial Model
158(1)
Jung's Psychoanalytic Perspective
159(1)
Empirical Testing of These Perspectives
160(1)
The Kansas City Studies
161(1)
Dialectical Models of Adult Personality
161(1)
Trait Theories of Personality
162(1)
Self-Concept and Self-Esteem
163(2)
Stress, Coping, and Adaptation
165(6)
Some Useful Definitions
165(1)
Aging and Life Events
166(1)
Potential Problems in Measurement of Stress
166(2)
What Determines Stress Responses in Old Age?
168(1)
Adapation in the Later Years
168(3)
Successful Aging
171(2)
Mental Disorders among Older Persons
173(17)
Depression
174(4)
Suicide among Older People
178(1)
Dementia
179(1)
Alzheimer's Disease
180(7)
Alcoholism
187(1)
Drug Abuse
188(1)
Paranoid Disorders and Schizophrenia
188(1)
Anxiety
189(1)
Older Adults Who Are Chronically Mentally III
190(3)
Psychotherapy with Older Persons
190(1)
Use of Mental Health Services
191(2)
Summary and Implications
193(2)
Glossary
195(1)
References
196(7)
CHAPTER 7 LOVE, INTIMACY, AND SEXUALITY IN OLD AGE
203(22)
Attitudes and Beliefs about Sexuality in Later Life
204(1)
Myths and Reality about Physiological Changes and Frequency of Sexual Activity
204(3)
Women and Age-Related Physiological Changes
207(2)
Men and Age-Related Physiological Changes
209(3)
Disease and Sexual Activity
212(2)
Gay and Lesbian Partners in Old Age
214(2)
Psychosocial Factors and Late-Life Affection, Love, and Intimacy
216(3)
Facilitating Older Adults' Sexual Functioning
219(1)
Summary and Implications
220(1)
Glossary
221(1)
References
222(3)
PART FOUR THE SOCIAL CONTEXT OF AGING 225(212)
CHAPTER 8 SOCIAL THEORIES OF AGING
229(18)
The Importance of Social Theories of Aging
229(1)
Social Gerontological Theory before 1961: Role and Activity
230(2)
Role Theory
230(2)
Activity Theory
232(1)
The First Transformation of Theory
232(2)
Disengagement Theory
232(1)
Continuity Theory
233(1)
Alternative Theoretical Perspectives
234(5)
Symbolic Interactionism and Subculture of Aging
235(1)
Age Stratification Theory
236(1)
Social Exchange Theory
237(1)
Political Economy of Aging
238(1)
Life Course Perspective
238(1)
Recent Developments in Social Gerontological Theory: The Second Transformation
239(4)
Social Phenomenologists and Social Constructionists
239(1)
Critical Theory and Feminist Perspectives
240(3)
Summary and Implications
243(1)
Glossary
243(1)
References
244(3)
CHAPTER 9 THE IMPORTANCE OF SOCIAL SUPPORTS: FAMILY, FRIENDS, AND NEIGHBORS
247(40)
The Nature and Function of Informal Supports
247(1)
The Changing Concept of the Aging Family
248(2)
The Multigenerational Family
249(1)
The Role of Culture
250(1)
Older Couples
250(5)
Marital Satisfaction
251(2)
Spouses as Caregivers
253(1)
Divorce in Old Age
254(1)
Lesbian and Gay Partners
254(1)
Sibling Relationships
255(1)
Never-Married Older People
256(1)
Childless Older Adults
256(1)
Other Kin
257(1)
Intergenerational Relationships: Adult Children
257(6)
Patterns of Intergenerational Assistance
258(1)
Families as Caregivers
258(2)
Women as Caregivers
260(2)
Ethnic Minority Families as Caregivers
262(1)
The Stresses of Caregiving
263(2)
Elder Abuse
265(1)
Institutionalization: A Painful Decision for Family Members
266(1)
Legal and Policy Questions Regarding Caregiving
267(1)
Grandparenthood and Great-Grandparenthood
268(4)
Grandparents as Primary Caregivers of Grandchildren
270(2)
The Effects of Divorce
272(1)
Friends and Neighbors as Social Supports
273(1)
Interventions to Strengthen or Build Social Supports
273(4)
Relationships with Pets
277(1)
Summary and Implications
278(1)
Glossary
279(1)
References
280(7)
CHAPTER 10 LIVING ARRANGEMENTS AND SOCIAL INTERACTIONS
287(32)
Person-Environment Theories of Aging
288(2)
P-E Congruence Models in Gerontology
288(1)
The Competence Model
289(1)
Geographic Distribution of the Older Population
290(1)
Relocation
291(2)
The Impact of the Neighborhood
293(1)
Victimization and Fear of Crime
294(1)
Housing Patterns of Older People
295(5)
Independent Housing
295(2)
Planned Housing
297(1)
Congregate Housing
298(1)
Continuous Care Retirement Communities
299(1)
Nursing Homes
300(3)
Recent Developments in Long-Term Care
303(2)
Services to Aid Older People in the Community
305(1)
Home Care
305(1)
Adult Day Care
306(1)
Technology to Help Older Persons Remain Independent
306(2)
Housing Policy and Government Programs
308(1)
Environmental Quality
309(1)
SRO Housing
310(1)
The Problems of Homelessness
311(1)
Summary and Implications
312(2)
Glossary
314(1)
References
314(5)
CHAPTER 11 PRODUCTIVE AGING: PAID AND NONPAID ROLES AND ACTIVITIES
319(46)
Retirement
321(5)
The Timing of Retirement
322(1)
Satisfaction with Retirement
323(2)
The Importance of Planning
325(1)
Employment Status
326(4)
Unemployment among Older People
327(1)
Barriers to Employment
328(2)
Creating New Opportunities for Work
330(1)
Economic Status: Sources of Income in Retirement
330(5)
Social Security
331(1)
Assets
333(1)
Earnings
333(1)
Pensions
333(2)
Poverty among Old and Young
335(5)
Public Assistance
339(1)
Patterns and Functions of Nonpaid Roles and Activities
340(15)
Leisure
340(2)
Membership in Voluntary Associations
342(1)
Volunteer Work
343(2)
Educational Programs
345(1)
Religious Participation, Religiousness, and Spirituality
346(2)
The Value of Spirtual Well-Being
348(1)
Political Participation
349(2)
Voting Behavior
351(1)
Senior Power
351(4)
Summary and Implications
355(2)
Glossary
357(1)
References
358(7)
CHAPTER 12 DEATH, DYING, BEREAVEMENT, AND WIDOWHOOD
365(26)
The Changing Context of Dying
365(3)
Attitudes toward Death
366(1)
Variation by Age and Gender
366(2)
Death as Loss
368(1)
The Dying Process
368(1)
The Dying Trajectory Framework
369(1)
Care of the Dying
369(3)
Hospice Care
370(1)
Psychotherapeutic Approaches
371(1)
The Right to Die
372(3)
Passive Euthanasia (Voluntary Elective Death)
372(1)
Active Euthanasia
373(2)
Legal Options Regarding End-of-Life Care
375(5)
Bereavement, Grief, and Mourning Rituals
380(2)
Widowhood
382(4)
Gender Differences in Widowhood
384(2)
Summary and Implications
386(1)
Glossary
387(1)
References
388(3)
CHAPTER 13 THE RESILIENCY OF OLDER ETHNIC MINORITIES
391(28)
Defining Ethnicity
392(2)
Who Are Ethnic Minority Older People?
392(2)
Research History
394(2)
Older African Americans
396(4)
Older Hispanic Americans
400(3)
Older American Indians
403(4)
Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders
407(4)
Implications for Service Delivery
411(3)
Summary and Implications
414(1)
Glossary
415(1)
References
415(4)
CHAPTER 14 THE CHALLENGES FACING OLDER WOMEN
419(18)
Rationale for a Focus on Older Women's Needs
419(3)
Older Women's Economic Status
422(4)
Older Women's Health Status
426(4)
Less Access to Health Insurance
427(1)
Higher Incidence of Chronic Health Problems
427(1)
Osteoporosis
428(1)
Menopause
429(1)
Older Women's Social Status
430(2)
Widowhood
430(1)
Divorce
431(1)
Limited Opportunities to Remarry
431(1)
Future Directions
432(2)
Summary and Implications
434(1)
Glossary
434(1)
References
434(3)
PART FIVE THE SOCIETAL CONTEXT OF AGING 437(58)
CHAPTER 15 SOCIAL POLICIES TO ADDRESS SOCIAL PROBLEMS
441(30)
Variations among Policies and Programs
442(3)
Factors Affecting the Development of Policies
445(2)
The Development of Policies for Older People
447(4)
1930 to 1950
447(1)
Program Expansion in the 1960s and 1970s
448(1)
Program Reductions in the 1980s and 1990s
449(1)
The Politics of Diversity and Deficit Spending in the 1990s
450(1)
Social Security and SSI
451(1)
Income Security Programs: Social Security and Supplemental Security Income
451(5)
Social Security
451(4)
Supplemental Security Income
455(1)
Private Pensions and Income Tax Provisions
456(1)
Private Pensions
456(1)
Income Tax Provisions
457(1)
Social Services
457(2)
Policy Dilemmas
459(5)
Age-Based versus Needs-Based Programs
459(1)
The Politics of Productivity versus the Politics of Entitlement
460(1)
Intergenerational Inequity Framework
460(1)
Critique of the Intergenerational Inequity Framework
461(1)
The Interdependence of Generations Framework
462(2)
Who Is Responsible?
464(1)
Reductions in Government Support
464(1)
Summary and Implications
465(1)
Glossary
466(2)
References
468(3)
CHAPTER 16 HEALTH AND LONG-TERM CARE POLICY AND PROGRAMS
471(24)
Health and Long-Term Care Expenditures
472(3)
Factors Underlying Growing Costs
474(1)
Medicare
475(3)
The Crisis in Medicare
478(4)
Efforts to Reduce Medicare Costs
479(2)
The New Medicare
481(1)
Medicaid
482(3)
Social Services Block Grants and the Older Americans Act
485(1)
Private Insurance
486(1)
Resultant Inequities
487(1)
Health and Long-Term Care Reforms
487(4)
Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs)
489(1)
Social Health Maintenance Organizations (SHMOs) and Other Model Innovative Programs
490(1)
Summary and Implications
491(1)
Glossary
492(1)
References
492(3)
EPILOGUE 495(28)
Demographics 495(2)
Health Status 497(2)
Health Care Delivery in the Future 499(3)
Changing Family Relationships 502(5)
New Definitions of Work and Productivity 507(5)
Changes in Living Arrangements 512(2)
Ethical Dilemmas 514(3)
Careers in Gerontology 517(3)
References 520(3)
INDEX 523

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