Social Psychology / Edition 2

Social Psychology / Edition 2

by Taylor and Francis, Diane M. MacKie

ISBN-10: 086377587X

ISBN-13: 9780863775871

Pub. Date: 01/28/2000

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

First published in 2000. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.  See more details below


First published in 2000. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Product Details

Taylor & Francis
Publication date:
Edition description:
Older Edition
Product dimensions:
7.98(w) x 9.88(h) x 1.02(d)

Related Subjects

Table of Contents

Preface     xix
How To Use This Book     xxviii
What Is Social Psychology?     3
A Definition of Social Psychology     5
The Scientific Study...     5
...of the Effects of Social and Cognitive Processes...     5
...on the Way Individuals Perceive, Influence, and Relate to Others     7
Historical Trends and Current Themes in Social Psychology     8
Social Psychology Becomes an Empirical Science     8
Social Psychology Splits From General Psychology Over What Causes Behavior     9
The Rise of Nazism Shapes the Development of Social Psychology     10
Growth and Integration     12
Integration of Cognitive and Social Processes     12
Integration of Basic Science and Social Problems     13
How the Approach of This Book Reflects an Integrative Perspective     14
Two Fundamental Axioms of Social Psychology     15
Construction of Reality     15
Pervasiveness of Social Influence     16
Three Motivational Principles     17
People Strive for Mastery     17
People Seek Connectedness     17
People Value "Me and Mine"     17
Three Processing Principles     18
Conservatism: Established Views Are Slow to Change     18
Accessibility: Accessible Information Has the Most Impact     18
Superficiality Versus Depth: People Can Process Superficially or in Depth     19
Common Processes, Diverse Behaviors     20
Plan of the Book     20
Summary     22
Asking and Answering Research Questions     25
A Note to the Student on How to Use This Chapter     26
Research Questions and the Role of Theory     27
Origins of Research Questions     27
What is a Scientific Theory?     27
Testing Theories: From Theory to Research     29
Construct Validity and Approaches to Measurement     30
Threats to Construct Validity     31
Ensuring Construct Validity     31
Internal Validity and Types of Research Design     33
Threats to Internal Validity     33
Ensuring Internal Validity     34
Experimental Versus Nonexperimental Research Designs     36
External Validity and Research Populations and Settings     36
Generalizing to Versus Generalizing Across People and Places     37
External Validity and Research Participants     39
Cultures and External Validity      39
External Validity and Laboratory Research     40
External Validity and Nonlaboratory Research     41
Ensuring External Validity     42
Evaluating Theories: The Bottom Line     43
The Importance of Replication     44
Competition With Other Theories     45
Getting the Bias Out     46
The Role of Ethics and Values in Research     47
Being Fair to Participants     48
The Use of Deception in Research     50
Being Helpful to Society     52
Concluding Comments     53
Summary     54
Perceiving Individuals     57
Forming First Impressions: Cues, Interpretations, and Inferences     58
The Raw Materials of First Impressions     59
Impressions From Physical Appearance     59
Physical Appearance in the Workplace     60
Impressions from Nonverbal Communication     61
Detection of Deception     61
Lie Detection in the Legal System     62
Impressions from Familiarity     62
Impressions from Environments     63
Impressions from Behavior     63
Which Cues Capture Attention?     63
Interpreting Cues      64
The Role of Associations in Interpretation     65
The Role of Accessibility in Interpretation     65
Accessibility from Concurrent Activation of Knowledge     66
Accessibility from Recent Activation     67
Accessibility from Frequent Activation: Chronic Accessibility     68
Accessibility and Sexism in a Job Interview     68
Characterizing the Behaving Person: Correspondent Inferences     69
When Is a Correspondent Inference Justified?     70
The Correspondence Bias: People Are What They Do     70
Correspondence Bias in the Workplace     71
Limits on the Correspondence Bias     71
Beyond First Impressions: Systematic Processing     73
Causal Attributions     73
Attributions to Accessible Causes     73
Attributions to Salient Causes     74
Attributions Based on Covariation Information     75
Cultural Differences in Attributions     75
Using Attributions to Correct First Impressions     77
Putting It All Together: Forming Complex Impressions     78
Integrating Trait Information     79
Integrating Evaluations     79
The Accuracy of Considered Impressions     80
Motivation to Be Accurate     80
Motives Besides Accuracy     81
Awareness of Bias as a Motive     82
The Impact of Impressions: Using, Defending, and Changing Impressions     82
Impressions and Judgments     83
Superficial Processing: Using a Single Attribute     84
Systematic Processing: Integrating Multiple Factors     84
Defending Impressions     85
Impressions Shape Interpretations     85
Impressions Resist Rebuttal     85
Perseverance in the Courtroom     86
Selectively Seeking Impression-Consistent Behavior     86
Creating Impression-Consistent Behavior: The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy     87
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy in the Classroom and the Workplace     88
Limits on the Self-Fulfilling Prophecy     88
Dealing With Inconsistent Information     89
Reconciling Inconsistencies     89
Integrating Inconsistencies     90
Altering Impressions: Is Fundamental Change Possible?     90
Concluding Comments     91
Summary     93
The Self     95
Constructing the Self-Concept: What We Know About Ourselves     96
Sources of the Self-Concept     96
Drawing Inferences from Our Behavior     96
Drawing Inferences from Thoughts and Feelings     98
Effects Of Other People's Reactions     98
Social Comparison     99
Learning About Self and Others: The Same or Different?     100
Differences in Amount of Knowledge     100
Differences in Attribution     101
Similarities in Accuracy     102
Multiple Selves     102
Putting It All Together: Constructing a Coherent Self-Concept     103
Coherence Through Limited Accessibility     103
Coherence Through Selective Memory     104
Coherence Through Attribution     104
Coherence Though Selecting a Few Key Traits     104
Cultural Differences in the Self-Concept     104
Constructing Self-Esteem: How We Feel About Ourselves     107
Balancing Accurate Self-Knowledge and Self-Enhancement     107
Evaluating Personal Experiences: Some Pain but Mainly Gain     109
Biased Memories: Recalling Successes     109
Social Comparisons: Better or Worse Than Others?     110
Biased Comparisons: Definitely Better Than Others     111
Why Self-Enhance?     112
Self-Esteem in Cultural Context     113
Effects of the Self: Processes of Self-Regulation     114
The Self and Thoughts About Ourselves and Others     114
The Self and Emotions; For Me or Against Me?     115
How Do Emotions Arise?     116
Appraisals, Emotions, Bodily Responses: All Together Now     118
The Self in Action: Regulating Behavior     118
Negative Effects of Self-Discrepancies     120
Temptations and Other Threats to Self-Regulation     121
Taking Accounts of Other People's Standards     122
Self-Expression: I Am What I Am     122
Self-Presentation: I Am What You Want Me To Be     122
From Self to Behavior, and Back Again     123
Personality Differences in Behavior: Self-Monitoring     124
Defending the Self: Coping With Stresses, Inconsistencies, and Failures     125
Threats to the Well-Being of the Self     125
Emotional and Physical Effects of Threat     126
Threat and Appraisals of Control     127
Control and Depression     127
Defending Against Threat: Emotion-Focused Coping     128
Escaping from Threat: Shipping Out     129
Downplaying Threat: Accentuate the Positive, Eliminate the Negative     129
Working Through Threat: Self-Expression      130
Women Under Stress: Tend and Befriend     131
Attacking Threat Head-On: Problem-Focused Coping     131
Making Excuses: It's Not My Fault     131
Self-Handicapping     131
Taking Control of the Problem     132
Control and Life Goals     133
Solving the Problem: Rising to the Challenge     133
How to Cope?     134
Self-Esteem as a Resource for Coping     134
Controllability and Coping     135
Concluding Comments     136
Summary     137
Perceiving Groups     141
Targets of Prejudice: Social Groups     143
Social Categorization: Dividing the World into Social Groups     144
Forming Impressions of Groups: Establishing Stereotypes     145
The Content of Stereotypes     146
Stereotypes Include Many Types of Characteristics     146
Stereotypes Can Be Either Positive or Negative     146
Stereotypes Can Be Accurate or Inaccurate     147
Seeking the Motives behind Stereotyping     149
Motives for Forming Stereotypes: Mastery through Summarizing Personal Experiences     149
People Notice Some Members More Than Others     150
Some Information Attracts More Attention Than Other Information     151
Social Roles Trigger Correspondence Biases     152
Social Roles and Gender Stereotypes     153
Between-Group Interactions Generate Emotion     154
Learning Stereotypes from the Media     156
Gender Stereotypes and the Media     156
Motives for Forming Stereotypes: Connectedness to Others     157
Learning Stereotypes From Others     157
Social Communication of Stereotypes     158
Motives for Forming Stereotypes: Justifying Inequalities     158
Using Stereotypes: From Preconceptions to Prejudice     160
Activation of Stereotypes     161
What Activates Stereotypes?     161
Stereotypes Can Be Activated Automatically     162
Feelings About Groups Can Be Activated Automatically     163
Measuring Stereotypes and Prejudice     163
Impact of Stereotypes on Judgments and Actions     166
Less Capacity, More Stereotyping     167
More Emotion, More Stereotyping     168
More Power, More Stereotyping     169
Trying to Overcome Stereotype Effects     169
Suppressing Stereotypic Thoughts     170
Correcting Stereotypic Judgments      170
Activating Counterstereotypic Information     171
Beyond Simple Activation: Effects of Stereotypes on Considered Judgments     171
Seeking Evidence to Confirm the Stereotype: Just Tell Me Where to Look     172
Interpreting Evidence to Fit the Stereotype: Well, If You Look at It That Way     173
Comparing Information to Stereotypic Standards: That Looks Good, for a Group Member     173
Constraining Evidence To Fit the Stereotype: The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy     174
Self-Fulfilling Prophecies in School and at Work     174
Changing Stereotypes: Overcoming Bias to Reduce Prejudice     176
Barriers to Stereotype Change     176
Explaining Away Inconsistent Information     176
Compartmentalizing Inconsistent Information     177
Differentiating Atypical Group Members: Contrast Effects     177
Overcoming Stereotype Defenses: The Kind of Contact That Works     178
Repeated Inconsistency: An Antidote for "Explaining Away"     178
Widespread Inconsistency: An Antidote for Subtyping     179
Being Typical As Well As Inconsistent: An Antidote for Contrast Effects     179
Personal Relationships: Combining the Conditions that Make Contact Effective     179
Intergroup Contact in the Neighborhood     180
Concluding Comments     181
Summary     183
Social Identity     187
Categorizing Oneself as a Group Member     189
Learning About Our Groups     189
Accessibility of Group Memberships     190
Direct Reminders of Membership     190
Presence of Out-Group Members     191
Being a Minority     191
Conflict or Rivalry     191
Cultural Differences in the Importance of Group Membership     192
Personality Differences in Group Membership Importance     193
Me, You, and Them: Effects of Social Categorization     194
"I" Becomes "We": Social Categorization and the Self     194
Seeing Oneself as a Group Member     195
Accessibility of Gender Identity in the Classroom     195
Liking Ourselves: Social Identity and Self-Esteem     195
Social Identity and Emotions     196
Balancing Individuality and Connectedness     196
Others Become "We": Social Categorization and the In-Group     197
Perceiving Fellow In-Group Members     197
Liking In-Group Members: To Be Us Is To Be Lovable     198
Giving In-Group Members the Language Advantage     198
Treating the In-Group Right: Justice and Altruism     199
Others Become "They": Social Categorization and the Out-Group     200
Perceiving the Out-Group as Homogeneous: "They're All Alike!"     201
Out-Group Homogeneity in the Legal System     203
Effects of Mere Categorization: Discrimination Favoring the In-Group     204
Discrimination and Social Identity     204
Effects of Perceived Disadvantage: Let's Compete With Them     206
Effects of Extreme Threat: They Threaten Us, So Let's Attack First     206
Moral Exclusion     208
When Group Memberships Are Negative     209
Effects of Stigmatized Group Memberships     210
Effects on Performance     210
Effects on Self-Esteem     212
Defending Individual Self-Esteem     212
Using Attributions to Advantage     212
Attributional Ambiguity in the Workplace     214
Making the Most of Intragroup Comparisons     215
Women's Self-Esteem: What's So Special About Gender?     215
Individual Mobility: Escaping Negative Group Membership     216
Disidentification: Putting the Group at a Psychological Distance     216
Dissociation: Putting the Group at a Physical Distance     217
Social Creativity: Redefining Group Membership as Positive     218
Social Change: Changing the Intergroup Context     219
Social Competition     219
Recategorization: Changing the Definition of In-Group     220
"Color-Blindness" or Valuing Group Differences?     221
One Goal, Many Strategies     222
Concluding Comments     224
Summary     225
Attitudes and Attitude Change     229
Attitudes and Their Origins     230
Measuring Attitudes     230
Attitude Formation: Why and How?     232
Why Attitudes Form     233
Cultural Differences in Attitude Function     234
The Building Blocks of Attitude     234
Putting It All Together     235
Linking Attitudes to Their Objects     237
Superficial and Systematic Routes to Persuasion: From Snap Judgments to Considered Opinions     238
Superficial Processing: Persuasion Shortcuts     238
Attitudes by Association     239
Moods as Heuristic Cues: If I feel Good, I Must Like It     240
The Familiarity Heuristic: Familiarity Makes the Heart Grow Fonder     241
The Attractiveness Heuristic: Agreeing With Those We Like     242
The Expertise Heuristic: Agreeing with Those Who Know      242
The Message-Length Heuristic: Length Equals Strength     244
Systematic Processing of Persuasive Communications     245
Processing Message Content     246
The Consequences of Systematic Processing     248
Superficial and Systematic Processing: Which Strategy, When?     249
How Motivation Influences Superficial and Systematic Processing     250
How Capacity Influences Superficial and Systematic Processing     252
The Impact of Capacity on Heeding Health-Related Messages     253
How Personality Differences Influence Superficial and Systematic Processing     254
How Moods and Emotions Influence Superficial and Systematic Processing     256
Defending Attitudes: Resisting Persuasion     258
Gathering Defenses: Forewarning, Forearming, and Arguing Back     259
Inoculation: Practice Can Be the Best Resistance Medicine     260
Inoculation and Advertising Effectiveness     261
Subliminal Persuasion     262
How to Resist Subliminal Influence     264
Concluding Comments     266
Summary     267
Attitudes and Behavior     269
Changing Attitudes with Actions     270
From Action to Attitude via Superficial Processing      271
Self-Perception Theory     273
The Foot-in-the-Door Technique: Would You Mind Doing Me A Small Favor?     273
Self-Perception Processes and Volunteering     275
Personality Differences and the Foot-in-the-Door Technique     275
From Actions to Attitudes Superficially     275
Cognitive Dissonance: Changing Attitudes to Justify Behavior     277
The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance     277
Justifying Attitude-Discrepant Behavior: I Have My Reasons!     280
Justifying Effort: I Suffered For It, So I Like It     282
Justifying Decisions: Of Course I was Right!     283
The Processing Payoff: Justifying Inconsistent Actions Creates Persistent Attitudes     284
Dissonance Processes and Resisting Media Influence     285
Alternatives to Attitude Change     285
Cultural Difference and Dissonance     287
Guiding Actions with Attitudes     290
How Attitudes Guide Behavior     291
Attitudes Guide Behavior Without Much Thought     292
Attitudes Guide Behavior Through Considered Intentions     293
When Do Attitudes Influence Action?     296
Attitude Accessibility: Attitudes Must Come to Mind     296
Attitude Accessibility in Clinical Settings      298
Attitude Compatibility: The Right Attitude Must Come to Mind     299
Implicit and Explicit Attitudes as Guides for Behavior     300
When Attitudes Are Not Enough     301
Concluding Comments     303
Summary     304
Groups, Norms, and Conformity     307
Conformity to Social Norms     309
The Formation of Social Norms     309
Public Versus Private Conformity     312
Conformity and False Confessions in the Interrogation Room     313
Conformity and Culture     314
The Dual Functions of Conformity to Norms: Mastery and Connectedness     314
Expecting Consensus     315
The Dual Functions of Conformity to Norms     315
Norms Provide Mastery Insurance     315
Norms Give Us Feelings of Connectedness     317
Mastery, Connectedness, or Both?     318
Whose Consensus? The Impact of Reference Groups     319
How Groups Form Norms: Processes of Social Influence     322
Group Compromise: Taking the Middle Ground     322
Group Polarization: Going to Normative Extremes     322
Polarization in the Jury Room     324
Explaining Polarized Norm Formation      324
Superficial Processing: Relying on Others' Positions     325
Systematic Processing: Attending to Both Positions and Arguments     326
Conformity Pressure: Undermining True Consensus     328
When Consensus Seeking Goes Awry     329
Consensus Without Consideration: Unthinking Reliance on Consensus     330
Consensus Without Independence: Contamination     330
Consensus Without Acceptance: Public Conformity     332
Pluralistic Ignorance and Health Risk Behavior     334
Consensus Seeking at Its Worst: Groupthink     334
Causes and Consequences of Groupthink     335
Remedies for Faulty Consensus Seeking     337
Minority Influence: The Value of Dissent     338
Successful Minority Influence     338
Offering an Alternative Consensus     338
Negotiating Similarity and Difference     339
Promoting Systematic Processing     341
Minority Influence in the Courtroom     343
Processes of Minority and Majority Influence     344
Beyond Minority Influence: Using Norms to Strengthen Consensus     345
Concluding Comments     346
Summary     347
Norms and Behavior     351
Norms: Effective Guides for Social Behavior     353
How Norms Guide Behavior     353
Norms and the Environment     354
Why Norms Guide Behavior So Effectively     355
Enforcement: Do It, Or Else     355
Internalization: It's Right and Proper, So I Do It     356
Consensus and Support: We're All Doing It, So I'll Do It Too     356
Frequent Activation: It Came to Mind (Again), So I Do It (Again)     357
Norms in the Workplace     357
Deindividuation: Making Group Norms More Salient     358
The Norm of Reciprocity: Treating Others as They Treat You     360
Returning Favors     361
The Norm of Reciprocity for Concessions     362
The Door-in-the-Face Technique     362
Reciprocity of Concessions on the Salesfloor     364
The Norm of Commitment: Keeping Your Promises     365
The Low-Ball Technique     366
Long-Term Consequences of Commitment     367
The Norm of Obedience: Submitting to Authority     369
Milgram's Studies of Obedience     370
Attempting to Explain Obedience: Was it the Time, the Place, the People?     371
Obedience in the Workplace     372
The Norm of Obedience to Authority     373
Authority Must Be Legitimate     373
Authority Must Accept Responsibility     374
The Norm of Obedience Must Be Accessible     375
Incompatible Norms Must Be Suppressed     376
Maintaining and Escalating Obedience     377
Normative Trade-Offs: The Pluses and Minuses of Obedience     378
Rebellion and Resistance: Fighting Back     379
Reactance: Enough is Enough     380
Systematic Processing: Thinking Things Through     381
Using Norms Against Norms     383
Putting it All Together: Multiple Guides for Behavior     384
Both Attitudes and Norms Influence Behavior     385
The Direct Route     385
The Indirect Route     385
When Attitudes and Norms Conflict: Accessibility Determines Influence     387
Concluding Comments     389
Summary     390
Liking and Loving     393
Initial Attraction     394
Physical Attractiveness     394
Effects of Physical Attractiveness     395
Who Cares About Physical Attractiveness?     395
Positive Interaction     397
Interaction Spells Liking...Most of the Time     397
Why Interaction Increases Liking      398
What About Negative Interaction?     398
Birds of a Feather: Liking Similar Others     399
Liking, Similarity, and Interaction: Mutually Reinforcing Processes     400
From Acquaintance to Friend: Relationship Development     401
Exchanges of Rewards: What's In It for Me?     402
Self-Disclosure     403
Effects of Self-Disclosure     403
Close Relationships     404
Research on Close Relationships     405
Cognitive Interdependence: The Partner Becomes Part of the Self     406
Insider Versus Outsider Perspectives on Relationships     407
Behavioral Interdependence: Transformations in Exchange     408
Changes in the Distribution of Rewards     408
Attributions in Close Relationships: It's The Thought That Counts     409
Affective Interdependence: Intimacy and Commitment     410
Psychological Intimacy     410
Commitment     411
Types of People, Types of Relationships     413
Attachment Styles     413
Differing Theories About Relationships     415
Gender Differences in Relationships     416
Relationships in Cultural Perspective     416
Effects of Relationships      417
When Things Go Wrong: Intimacy, Social Support, and Health     417
Gender and Social Support     418
When Things Go Right: Capitalizing on Positive Events     419
Romantic Love and Sexuality     419
Passionate Feelings     419
Sexual Attitudes and Behavior     422
Sex in the Context of a Relationship     423
When Relationships Go Wrong     425
Interdependence and Conflicts: Seeds of Trouble     425
Resources for Handling Conflict: Relationship Maintenance     426
Idealization of the Partner     426
Commitment     427
Attachment Styles     427
Conflict Processes     428
Responding to Negative Acts     428
Forgiveness     429
Attribution: You Did It Because You Don't Love Me     429
Cycles of Conflict     430
Handling Conflicts in Everyday Life     430
Jealousy     431
Declining Intimacy and Commitment     431
Relationship Conflict and Social Problems     432
Break-Up and Aftermath     432
The Break-Up: Your Fault, My Decision     432
After the Break-Up: Grief and Distress for Two     433
Till Death Do Us Part     434
Loneliness     434
Unrequited Love     434
Concluding Comments     435
Summary     436
Interaction in Groups     439
The Mere Presence of Others: The Effects of Minimal Interdependence     440
Social Facilitation: Improvement and Impairment     440
Explaining Social Facilitation     441
Evaluation Apprehension     442
Distraction     443
Social Facilitation in the Workplace: Monitoring and Job Performance     444
Crowding: The Presence of Lots of Others     444
Crowding and the Urban Environment     444
Performance in Face-to-Face Groups: Interaction and Interdependence     445
How Groups Change: Stages of Group Development     446
Group Socialization: Becoming a Member of the Group     447
Group Development: Coming Together, Falling Apart     448
Time and Group Development     449
Getting the Job Done: Group Performance     450
Forms of Task Interdependence     450
Gains and Losses in Group Performance     451
Losses from Decreased Motivation: Social Loafing     452
Losses from Poor Coordination     454
Poor Coordination in the Workplace     454
Cures for Group Performance Losses     455
Leadership     458
What Do Leaders Do?     458
Leadership Effectiveness: Person or Situation?     459
Coaching Leadership in Youth Sports     460
Who Becomes Leader?     461
Stereotypes and Leadership     462
Putting the Group first: Transformational Leadership     464
The Dark Side of Leadership     465
Group Communication     466
Mastery- and Connectedness-Focused Communication     466
Patterns of Communication     466
Technology and Communication     467
The Computer as a Group Member     469
Concluding Comments     470
Summary     471
Aggression and Conflict     473
Aggression, Conflict, and Human Nature     474
Defining Conflict and Aggression     474
Origins of Aggression     475
Interpersonal Aggression     476
Studying Aggression     476
What Triggers Aggression?     477
Instrumental Aggression: Counting Material Costs and Rewards     478
Hostile Aggression: Emotional Responses to Provocations      479
Personality Differences in Responses to Provocations     479
Hostile Aggression: The Role of Negative Feelings     480
Norms Promoting and Restraining Aggression     480
Norms Promoting Aggression     480
Cultural Cues to Aggression     482
Models of Aggression     483
Aggressive Models in the Media     483
Norms Restraining Aggression     485
To Hurt or Not to Hurt: Putting It All Together     485
Intergroup Conflict     488
Sources of Intergroup Conflict: The Battle for Riches and Respect     489
Realistic Conflict Theory: Getting the Goods     489
Relative Deprivation: When Is Enough Enough?     490
Social Competition: Getting a Little Respect     491
The Special Competitiveness of Groups: Groups Often Value Respect Over Riches     492
Escalating Conflict: Communication and Interaction That Make Things Worse     492
Talking to the In-Group: Polarization and Commitment     492
The Special Competitiveness of Groups: When Conflict Arises, Groups Close Ranks     493
Talking to the Out-Group: Back Off, Or Else!     493
Threat and Deterrence in International Affairs     495
Coalition Formation: Escalation as Others Choose Sides      496
Perceptions in Conflict: What Else Could You Expect From Them?     496
Polarized Perceptions of In-Group and Out-Group     496
Biased Attributions for Behavior     497
The Impact of Emotion and Arousal: More Heat, Less Light     498
The Special Competitiveness of Groups: People Expect Groups to be Supercompetitive, So They React in Kind     499
"Final Solutions": Eliminating the Out-Group     500
The Special Competitiveness of Groups: Groups Offer Social Support for Competitiveness     501
Final Solutions in History     502
Resolving Conflict and Reducing Aggression     503
Altering Perceptions and Reactions     504
Minimize Cues for Aggression     504
Interpret, and Interpret Again     504
Promote Empathy With Others     504
Reducing Aggression in Society     505
Resolving Conflict Through Negotiation     505
Types of Solutions     505
Achieving Solutions: The Negotiation Process     507
Building Trust     507
Trust and the Norm of Reciprocity     508
GRIT and International Conflicts     508
Negotiating Across Cultural Lines     508
Mediation and Arbitration: Bringing in Third Parties      509
Intergroup Cooperation: Changing Social Identity     509
Superordinate Goals     510
Why Does Intergroup Cooperation Work?     511
Concluding Comments     513
Summary     514
Helping and Cooperation     517
When Do People Help?     518
Is Help Needed and Deserved?     519
Noticing Need     519
Judging Deservingness     520
Should I Help?     521
Is Helping Up to Me? Diffusion of Responsibility     521
When Norms Make Helping Appropriate     522
When Norms Make Helping Inappropriate     523
Why Do People Help? Helping for Mastery and Connectedness     524
Biologically Driven Helping: Is Helping in Our Genes?     524
Helping for Mastery: The Personal Rewards and Costs of Helping     526
Rewards and Costs of Helping     526
Emotional Rewards of Helping     527
Is Helping Pure Egoism?     528
Helping for Connectedness: Empathy and Altruism     529
Helping for Connectedness: Social Identification and Cooperation     532
Social Dilemmas: Self-Interest Versus Group Interest     532
Behavior in Social Dilemmas     534
Structural Solutions in Social Dilemmas     535
Solving Social Dilemmas: Social Identification and Cooperation     536
Role of Superficial or Systematic Processing in Helping and Cooperation     540
The Impact of Processing     540
Spontaneous Helping, Superficial Processing     540
Planned Helping, Systematic Processing     541
Volunteering in the AIDS Epidemic     542
Helping in Organizations     543
Personality Differences in Helping     544
Prosocial Behavior in Society     545
Help that Helps; Help that Hurts     545
Increasing Prosocial Behavior in Society     546
Concluding Comments     548
Summary     550
Epilogue     553
Core Principles of Social Psychology     553
How the Principles Interrelate     555
An Invitation to Social Psychology     556
Photograph Credits     557
Glossary     559
References     563
Author Index     629
Subject Index     645

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