Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches / Edition 2

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H. Russell Bernard’s text provides a comprehensive guide to doing research in the social and behavioral sciences, from the foundations and research design, to collecting and analyzing data. Rich in examples, Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches has been revised and updated to provide today’s students with a conceptual understanding of each technique, as well as showing them how to use it.
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Editorial Reviews

Erica B. Gibson
“The main strength of this text is coverage of both quantitative and qualitative methodology from a broad range of fields. The examples are often my students’ favorite thing to discuss in class.”
Julian Kilker
“Bernard does an excellent job of not only showing how to practice research, but also provides a detailed discussion of broader historical and philosophical contexts that are important for understanding research.”
Monika Ardelt
“The book includes a thorough presentation of quantitative and qualitative methods, including formulas and statistics for quantitative methods. Bernard is one of very few methods authors who includes and explains statistical methods, not just the methods used. Moreover, the book is very comprehensive and uses lots of examples to explain the material in depth.”
Benedict J. Colombi
“The depth of detailed descriptions (foundations of social research; interviewing, participant observation, field notes, and data analysis) go beyond other texts that I’m aware of, and the organization is superb. The text contains strong descriptions of positivist versus humanistic traditions and splits in social research. It also includes great detail on how to successfully operationalize research variables. The discussion on theory as a “mechanism” and how to choose problems is easily understood and effective. Moreover, the author’s emphasis on making personal interest a high priority in choosing a research topic is critical and primary.”
Online Information Review - Maryam Nazari & G.E. Gorman

'There is considerable detail on the history and philosophical foundations of social and behavioural research, ranging from the ‘what’ to the ‘how-to’ of social research.

To make sure the message of each chapter is clearly communicated [Bernard] employs a wealth of examples and reading lists. He also provides the reader with a description of key concepts employed in each chapter.'

Using examples from psychology, sociology, anthropology, health, and education, this textbook provides thorough coverage of both qualitative and quantitative methods for students and future researchers. Expanding his 1994 work , Bernard (anthropology, U. of Florida) presents 16 chapters organized in four sections: background to research, designing research, collecting data, and analyzing data. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781412978545
  • Publisher: SAGE Publications
  • Publication date: 3/2/2012
  • Edition description: Second Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 789
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 10.10 (h) x 1.50 (d)

Meet the Author

H. Russell Bernard is Professor of Anthropology, Emeritus at the University of Florida. He served as editor of the American Anthropologist and Human Organization. He is co-founder (with Pertti Pelto and Stephen Borgatti) of the Cultural Anthropology Methods journal (1989), which became Field Methods in 1999. The five editions of his methods text Research Methods in Anthropology (AltaMira 2006) and his general research methods text Social Research Methods (Sage 2012), have been used by tens of thousands of students. Bernard co-founded (with Pelto) and co-directed (with Pelto and Borgatti) the National Science Foundation's Institute on Research Methods in Cultural Anthropology and has done fieldwork in Greece, Mexico, and the U.S.A. His publications include (with Jesús Salinas Pedraza) Native Ethnography: A Otomí Indian Describes His Culture (Sage, 1989). Bernard is known as well for his work, with Peter Killworth, Eugene Johnsen, Christopher McCarty, and Gene A. Shelley, on network analysis, including work on the network scale-up method for estimating hard-to-count populations. In 2010, Bernard was elected to the National Academy of Sciences.

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Table of Contents

Part I: Background to Research
Chapter 1. About Social Science
Chapter 2. The Foundations of Social Research
Chapter 3. Preparing for Research
Part II: Research Design
Chapter 4. Research Design: Experiments and Experimental Thinking
Chapter 5. Sampling: The Basics
Chapter 6. Sampling Theory
Chapter 7. Nonprobability Sampling
Part III: Data Collection
Chapter 8. Interviewing I: Unstructured and Semistructured
Chapter 9. Interviewing II: Questionnaires
Chapter 10. Interviewing III: Relational Data - Domains and Networks
Chapter 11. Scales and Scaling
Chapter 12: Participant Observation
Chapter 13. Field Notes and Database Management
Chapter 14: Direct and Indirect Observation
Part IV Data Analysis
Chapter 15: Introduction to Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis
Chapter 16: Analyzing Cultural Domains and Proximity Matrices
Chapter 17. Analyzing Qualitative Data I: Applying Logic to Text
Chapter 18. Analyzing Qualitative Data II: Grammar Beyond the Sentence
Chapter 19. Analyzing Qualitative Data III: Grounded Theory and Content Analysis
Chapter 20. Univariate Analysis
Chapter 21. Bivariate Analysis: Testing Relations
Chapter 22. Multivariate Analysis
Appendix A: Table of Areas under a Normal Curve
Appendix B: Student’s t Distribution
Appendix C: Chi-Square Distribution Table
Appendix D: F Table for the .05 Level of Significance
Appendix E: Resources for Social Researchers
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