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In this Fifth Edition of their best-selling Social Statistics for a Diverse Society, Chava Frankfort-Nachmias and Anna Leon-Guerrero use straightforward, conversational prose and emphasize common sense as they demonstrate the link between the practice of statistics and important social issues. The book helps students learn key sociological concepts through real research examples related to the dynamic relationship between race, class, gender, and other social variables. An emphasis on SPSS (version 16.0) throughout the book, in conjunction with General Social Survey data, introduces students to one of the most commonly used analytical software packages. Each chapter ends with a demonstration of a related SPSS procedure, along with a set of useful exercises to help students practice what they learn.
Preface CHAPTER ONE: THE WHAT AND WHY OF STATISTICS The Research Process Asking Research Questions The Role of Theory Formulating the Hypothesis Collecting Data Analyzing Data and Evaluating the Hypotheses Looking at Social Differences CHAPTER TWO: ORGANIZATION OF INFORMATION: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS Frequency Distributions Proportions and Percentages Percentage Distributions Comparisons Statistics in Practice: Labor Force Participation Among Latinos The Construction of Frequency Distributions Cumulative Distributions Rates Statistics in Practice: Marriage and Divorce Rates Over Time Reading the Research Literature: Statistical Tables Conclusion CHAPTER THREE: GRAPHIC PRESENTATION The Pie Chart: Race and Ethnicity of the Elderly The Bar Graph: Living Arrangements and Labor Force Participation of the Elderly The Statistical Map: The Distribution of the Elderly The Histogram Statistics in Practice: The "Graying" of America The Frequency Polygon Time Series Charts Statistics in Practice: Diversity at a Glance CHAPTER FOUR: MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY The Mode The Median The Mean The Shape of the Distribution: Television and Education Considerations for Choosing a Measure of Central Tendency CHAPTER FIVE: MEASURES OF VARIABILITY The Importance of Measuring Variability The Index of Qualitative Variation (IQV): A Brief Introduction The Range The Interquartile Range: Increases in Elderly Population The Box Plot The Variance and the Standard Deviation Considerations for Choosing a Measure of Variation Reading the Research Literature: Differences in College Aspirations and Expectations Among Latino Adolescents CHAPTER SIX: THE NORMAL DISTRIBUTION Properties of the Normal Distribution Standard (Z) Scores The Standard Normal Distribution The Standard Normal Table A Final Note CHAPTER SEVEN: SAMPLING AND SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION Aims of Sampling Some Basic Principles of Probability Probability Sampling The Concept of Sampling Distributions The Sampling Distribution of the Mean The Central Limit Theorem CHAPTER EIGHT: ESTIMATION Estimation Defined Procedures for Estimating Confidence Intervals for Means Statistics in Practice: Hispanic Migration and Earnings Confidence Intervals for Proportions Statistics in Practice: The Democratic Presidential Nomination CHAPTER NINE: TESTING HYPOTHESES Assumptions of Statistical Hypothesis Testing Stating the Research and Null Hypotheses Determining What Is Sufficiently Improbable: Probability Values and Alpha The Five Steps in Hypothesis Testing: A Summary Errors in Hypothesis Testing Testing Hypotheses About Two Samples The Sampling Distribution of the Difference Between Means The Five Steps in Hypothesis Testing About Difference Between Means: A Summary Testing the Significance of the Difference Between Two Sample Proportions CHAPTER TEN: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TWO VARIABLES: CROSS-TABULATION Independent and Dependent Variables How to Construct a Bivariate Table: Race and Home Ownership How to Compute Percentages in a Bivariate Table How to Deal With Ambiguous Relationships Between Two Variables Reading the Research Literature: Place of Death in America The Properties of a Bivariate Relationship Elaboration Statistics in Practice: Family Support fort he Transition From High School CHAPTER 11: THE CHI-SQUARE TEST The Concept of the Chi-Square as a Statistical Test The Concept of Statistical Independence The Structure of Hypothesis Testing With Chi-Square The Limitations of the Chi-Square Test: Sample Size and Statistical Significance Statistics in Practice: Education and Health Assement Reading the Research Literature: Sibling Cooperation and Academic Achievement CHAPTER TWELVE: MEASURES OF ASSOCIATION FOR NOMINAL AND ORDINAL VARIABLES Proportional Reduction of Error: A Brief Introduction Lambda: A Measure of Association for Nominal Variables Gamma: An Ordinal Measure of Association Calculating Gamma Calculating Kendall's Tau-b Using Ordinal Measures with Dichotomous Variables Reading the Research Literature: Worldview and Abortion Beliefs CHAPTER THIRTEEN: REGRESSION AND CORRELATION The Scatter Diagram Linear Relations and Prediction Rules Statistics in Practice: Median Household Income and Criminal Behavior Methods for Assessing the Accuracy of Predictions Statistics in Practice: Teen Pregnancy and Social Inequality Statistics in Practice: The Marriage Penalty in Earnings Multiple Regression CHAPTER FOURTEEN: ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE Understanding Analysis of Variance The Structure of Hypothesis Testing Wwith ANOVA The Five Steps in Hypothesis Testing: A Summary Testing the Significance of r2 Using ANOVA ANOVA for Multiple Linear Regressions Reading the Research Literature: Self-Image and Ethnic Indentification Reading the Research Literature: Effects of Authority Structures and Gender on Interaction in Task Groups Appendix A Table of Random Numbers Appendix B The Standard Normal Table Appendix C Distribution of t Appendix D Distribution of Chi-Square Appendix E Distribution of F Appendix F A Basic Math Review Answers to Odd-Numbered Questions Index