Social Stratification: Class, Race, and Gender in Sociological Perspective / Edition 3

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The field of stratification is being transformed and reshaped by advances in theory and quantitative modeling as well as by new approaches to the analysis of economic, racial, and gender inequality. Although these developments are revolutionary in their implications, until now there has been no comprehensive effort to bring together the classic articles that have defined and redefined the contours of the field. In this up-to-date anthology, the history of stratification research unfolds in systematic fashion, with the introductory articles in each section providing examples of the major research traditions in the field and the concluding essays commissioned from leading scholars providing broader programmatic statements that identify current controversies and unresolved issues. This comprehensive reader is designed as a primary text for introductory courses on social stratification and as a supplementary text for advanced courses on social classes, occupations, labor markets, or social mobility. This volume offers essential reading for undergraduates who require an introduction to the field, for graduate students who wish to broaden their understanding of stratification research, and for advanced scholars who seek a basic reference guide. Although most of the selections are middle range theoretical pieces suitable for introductory courses, the anthology also includes advanced contributions on the cutting edge of research. The editor outlines a modified study plan for undergraduate students requiring a basic introduction to the field.
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Editorial Reviews

Brings together classic and recent articles demonstrating how the field is being transformed by advances in theory and quantitative modeling as well as by new approaches to the analysis of economic, racial, and gender inequality. Introductory articles provide examples of major research traditions in the field, and concluding essays provide broader programmatic statements that identify current controversies and unresolved issues. Can be used as a primary text for introductory courses in social stratification, and as a supplementary text for advanced courses in occupations, labor markets, and social mobility. Grusky directs the Center for the Study of Inequality and teaches sociology at Cornell University. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (
From The Critics
Social Stratification In Sociological Perspective is a college-level treatise on social issues affecting class, race and gender appears in its second edition to discuss the evolving field of stratification. College students will find a survey of stratification research, with articles in different sections examining the field and its broader issues and controversies. This comprehensive reader may well serve as a classroom text on the topic for sociology courses.
From the Publisher

“A clear and in-depth discussion of how social policy has dealt with issues of poverty and inequality, and is a ‘must’ for any college-level collection.”
—The Midwest Book Review

Praise for the prior editions:

"Even America is not immune to the forces that give rise to class warfare. Now in a thoroughly revised, updated, and expanded third edition, Social Stratification: Class, Race, and Gender in Sociological Perspective by David B. Grusky continues to be the primary text comprising contributions by leading academicians and researchers on the issues associated with poverty and inequality within the United States. A standard text for more than a decade, this new third edition is an impressive body of sustained and seminal scholarship continues to insure that Social Stratification is an invaluable and emphatically recommended, core addition to professional and academic library Sociological Studies reference collections and supplemental reading lists."
The Midwest Book Review

"While maintaining the depth and breadth of its predecessor, more than 30 new contributions to the second edition of Social Stratification strengthen its coverage of new theoretical and empirical work in social stratification. It reflects a clear vision of the scientific and intellectual history of the field, but it will also shape research and scholarship for years to come. For researchers, teachers, and students, Social Stratification will be an indispensable resource."
Robert M. Hauser, National Research Council

"The revised edition of Social Stratification is the definitive reader in the field. In this new edition, the author has revised virtually every section, adding both additional classics and new essays. For coverage of the field, this is a must-read."
Barbara Reskin, University of Washington

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780813343730
  • Publisher: Westview Press
  • Publication date: 12/31/2007
  • Edition description: Third Edition
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 1000
  • Product dimensions: 6.90 (w) x 9.90 (h) x 2.30 (d)

Meet the Author

David B. Grusky is professor of sociology at Stanford University, director of the Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality, founder and coeditor of Pathways Magazine, and coeditor of the Stanford University Press Social Inequality Series.  His recent books include Occupy the Future, The New Gilded Age, The Great Recession, The Inequality Reader (Westview Press), The Inequality Puzzle, Poverty and Inequality, Mobility and Inequality, Occupational Ghettos, and The Declining Significance of Gender?.

Katherine Weisshaar is a PhD candidate in the sociology department at Stanford University. Prior to arriving at Stanford, she graduated from Northwestern University. Her research focuses on gender, families, and income inequality.

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Table of Contents

Study Guide x
Preface and Acknowledgments xi
Part I Introduction
The Past, Present, and Future of Social Inequality 1
Part II Forms and Sources of Stratification
The Functions of Stratification
Some Principles of Stratification 55
The Dysfunctions of Stratification
Some Principles of Stratification: A Critical Analysis 65
Inequality by Design 73
Concluding Commentary to Part Two
New Light on Old Issues: The Relevance of "Really Existing Socialist Societies" for Stratification Theory 77
Part III The Structure of Contemporary Stratification
Theories of Class
Marx and Post-Marxists
Alienation and Social Classes 87
Classes in Capitalism and Pre-Capitalism 91
Ideology and Class 101
Value and Surplus Value 103
Class and Class Conflict in Industrial Society 105
Varieties of Marxist Conceptions of Class Structure 112
A General Framework for the Analysis of Class Structure 116
Class Conflict in the Capitalist World Economy 129
Weber and Post-Weberians
Class, Status, Party 132
Status Groups and Classes 142
Open and Closed Relationships 146
The Rationalization of Education and Training 150
The Class Structure of the Advanced Societies 152
Marxism and Class Theory: A Bourgeois Critique 162
Durkheim and Post-Durkheimians
The Division of Labor in Society 178
Are There Big Social Classes? 183
The Ruling Class and Elites
Classic Statements
The Ruling Class 195
The Power Elite 202
Elites and Power 212
Contemporary Elites in "Mass Society," Capitalism, and Post-Capitalism
The Political Class in the Age of Mass Society: Collectivistic Liberalism and Social Democracy 216
The Inner Circle 223
Post-Communist Managerialism 233
Gradational Status Groupings
Reputation, Deference, and Prestige
Social Class in America 240
Deference 247
Occupational Hierarchies
Classic Statements
Measuring the Status of Occupations 255
Occupational Prestige in Comparative Perspective 260
Occupational Grading and Occupational Prestige 264
Prestige or Socioeconomic Scales in the Study of Occupational Achievement? 271
Are Socioeconomic Scales Obselete?
The Measurement of Occupational Status 273
Socioeconomic Indexes for Occupations: A Review, Update, and Critique 281
Concluding Commentary to Part Three
The Basic Concepts of Stratification Research: Class, Status, and Power 287
Part IV Generating Inequality
Social Mobility
Classical Viewpoints
Social and Cultural Mobility 303
Social Mobility in Industrial Society 309
Sponsored and Contest Mobility and the School System 319
Modern Analyses of Class Mobility
A Refined Model of Occupational Mobility 325
Comparative Social Mobility Revisited: Models of Convergence and Divergence in 16 Countries 336
Trends in Class Mobility: The Post-War European Experience 344
Modern Analyses of Income Mobility and Poverty Spells
Inequality, Income Growth, and Mobility: The Basic Facts 373
The Dynamics and Intergenerational Transmission of Poverty and Welfare Participation 378
Status and Income Attainment
Basic Models
The Process of Stratification 390
Inequality: A Reassessment of the Effect of Family and Schooling in America 403
Social Psychological Models
The Educational and Early Occupational Attainment Process 410
Ain't No Makin's It: Leveled Aspirations in a Low-income Neighborhood 421
The "New Structuralism"
The Dual Labor Market: Theory and Implications 435
An Outline of a Theory of the Matching of Persons to Jobs 438
Social Capital, Networks, and Attainment
The Strength of Weak Ties 447
Social Networks and Status Attainment 451
Structural Holes 454
Rational Action Approaches to Mobility and Attainment
Explaining Educational Differentials: Towards a Formal Rational Action Theory 459
Rational Choice and the TSL Model of Occupational Opportunity 471
Concluding Commentary to Part Four
Observations on the Study of Social Mobility and Inequality 477
Part V The Consequences of Stratification
Lifestyles and Consumption Patterns
The Theory of the Leisure Class 491
Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste 499
Interests, Attitudes, and Personalities
The Realignment of U.S. Presidential Voting, 1952-1992 526
Job Complexity and Adult Personality 532
Concluding Commentary to Part Five
Social Stratification, Life-Style, Social Cognition, and Social Participation 542
Part VI Ascriptive Processes
Racial and Ethnic Inequality
Modes of Incorporation
Classic Modes
A Theory of Ethnic Antagonism: The Split Labor Market 555
The Immigrant Enclave: Theory and Empirical Examples 568
A Piece of the Pie: Blacks and White Immigrants Since 1880 580
New Modes
Still the Promised City? African-Americans and New Immigrants in Postindustrial New York 592
The New Second Generation: Segmented Assimilation and Its Variants 597
Black Identities: West Indian Immigrant Dreams and American Realities 608
Are Racial and Ethnic Distinctions Declining in Significance?
The Declining Significance of Race: Blacks and Changing American Institutions 611
The State of the American Dream: Race and Ethnic Socioeconomic Inequality in the United States, 1970-1990 623
Black Wealth / White Wealth: A New Perspective on Racial Inequality 636
The Possibility of a New Racial Hierarchy in the Twenty-first-century United States 642
The Underclass and the Ghetto
Jobless Poverty: A New Form of Social Dislocation in the Inner-City Ghetto 651
American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass 660
Gender Stratification
Gender and Class
The Dialectic of Sex 671
The Unhappy Marriage of Marxism and Feminism: Towards a More Progressive Union 673
The "Woman Problem" in Stratification Theory and Research 681
Sex Segregation
The Structure of Sex Segregation
Is There a Worldwide Sex Segregation Regime? 689
The Sources of Sex Segregation
The Structure and Process of Sex Segregation 703
Revolving Doors: Sex Segregation and Women's Careers 714
Labor Markets as Queues: A Structural Approach to Changing Occupational Sex Composition 719
The Gender Gap in Wages
The Within-Job Gender Wage Gap 734
The Gender Gap in Earnings at Career Entry 743
Is There an Empirical Case for Comparable Worth?
Returns to Skill, Compensating Differentials, and Gender Bias: Effects of Occupational Characteristics on the Wages of White Women and Men 761
Why Do Female Occupations Pay Less? 776
Concluding Commentary to Part Six
Understanding Ascriptive Stratification: Some Issues and Principles 781
Part VII The Future of Stratification
Theories of Industrialism and Modernity
Industrialism and Industrial Man 793
Theories of Post-Industrialism, Post-Socialism, and Post-Modernity
Post-Industrialism and the New Class
The Coming of Post-Industrial Society 805
The Future of Intellectuals and the Rise of the New Class 817
Social Foundations of Postindustrial Economies 830
Postsocialist Stratification 846
Making Capitalism without Capitalists 852
The Meaning of New Times 859
The Death of Class 866
Trends in Income Inequality
Inequality in Earnings: Trends and Implications 875
Concluding Commentary to Part Seven
The Evolution of Modern Stratification Systems 881
Credits 891
Supplementary Information on Sources and Excerpting 897
Index 899
About the Book and Editor 911
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