Social Studies for the Elementary and Middle Grades: A Constructivist Approach / Edition 3

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Overview

Building on the success of previous editions, Social Studies for the Elementary and Middle Grades provides the structure of the knowledge to be learned, strategies to help students attain more control of their own learning, and models for translating theory and recent research into lesson plans and units for teaching 21st century diverse learners. Not only does the text guide pre-service teachers to teach social studies within a constructivist framework, but it also models that framework of guided inquiry in the organization of each chapter. Every chapter begins with an exploratory activity that challenges students to remember and reflect on their prior knowledge on the chapter's topic, moves into the more teacher-guided phase where students find explanations and activities that develop their understanding and social studies pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), and ends in an expansion phase in which students must apply the main ideas of the chapter to other school and life contexts.

New To This Edition: New 2-color design highlights important features for students: Learning Cycle Lesson Plans, "Building on Diversity", "Making a Literature Connection", and "Using Technology" boxes. New Learning Cycle Lesson Plans appropriate for a range of elementary and middle school classrooms have been added to the text (and others moved to the Companion Website) to provide students with a greater selection of fresh ideas for social studies teaching. A chapter on assessment has been moved up earlier in the text to complement the focus on assessment throughout all of the chapters. In addition, Learning Cycle Lesson Plans identify the use of formative assessment and summative evaluation. Newend-of-chapter MyLabSchool feature indicates relevant video and resources on www.mylabschool.com for each chapter. "What You Will Find on the Companion Website" has been added to the end of chapter as a guide to the resources provided on this book's website. Application activities to do in class and in the field now appear in the "Expanding on This Chapter" section at the end of each chapter. Reference to NCSS standards or "thematic strands" highlighted by marginal icons.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205518876
  • Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
  • Publication date: 4/5/2007
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 544
  • Product dimensions: 7.46 (w) x 9.06 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Table of Contents


Preface
Meaningful Social Studies and the Student     1
Exploratory Introduction     1
Chapter Overview     2
Chapter Objectives     2
Social Studies in the Elementary and Middle School     3
Development: What is Powerful Social Studies?     7
Building on Diversity: Meaningful Social Studies     9
Education for Active Citizenship     10
Using Technology: Deciding Whether and When     12
Social Studies is Essential     13
Defining Social Studies     13
Social Studies Curriculum     14
Expansion: Planning Powerful Social Studies Lessons     17
Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: From Tree to Paper     18
Making a Literature Connection: Using Trade Books in Social Studies     23
Summary     23
Expanding On This Chapter     24
Teaching for Meaningful Learning in Social Studies     27
Exploratory Introduction     27
Chapter Overview     28
Chapter Objectives     28
How is Social Studies Best Taught in Today's Classrooms?     29
Development: Applying What We Know About Meaningful Learning to Social Studies Curriculum     29
Using Constructivist Theory in SocialStudies Instruction     29
Using Behavioral Learning Theory in Social Studies Instruction     31
An Effective Strategy to Assist Students in Conceptual Change     32
Phases of a Learning Cycle Lesson     33
Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: Scale     34
Making a Literature Connection: Geography in Literature     36
Exploratory Introduction     38
Development     41
Expansion     44
Lesson Summary     46
Choosing Activities Appropriate to Each Phase of the Learning Cycle Lesson     46
Elementary Lesson Activity Choices     47
Middle Childhood Lesson Activity Choices     48
Building on Diversity: Opportunities to Include Multiple Perspectives     48
Student Assessment in Each Phase of the Learning Cycle     49
Writing Your Own Learning Cycle Lesson     50
The Optimal Length of Time for a Learning Cycle     50
Working With the Learning Cycle     51
Expansion: Principles of Teaching and Learning that Support the Curriculum Standards for Social Studies     54
Summary     54
Expanding On This Chapter     55
Helping Students Learn Through Multiple Assessments and Evaluation     57
Exploratory Introduction     57
Chapter Overview     60
Chapter Objectives     60
Assessing and Evaluating Social Studies Learning     60
When Evaluation and Assessment Are Needed     61
Guiding Principles for Assessment and Evaluation     62
National Testing of Social Studies     64
Assessment and Evaluation Beyond Testing     65
Building on Diversity: Promoting Individual Needs     77
An Interview with Mark High about How He Uses Assessments to Help Improve Instruction     77
Modes of Assessment     81
Identifying Assessments Within a Lesson Plan     84
Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: Making Good Rules     85
Action Research and Reflection: Becoming an Effective Social Studies Teacher     89
Summary     94
Expanding On This Chapter     95
Helping Students Develop Social Studies Inquiry Skills     97
Exploratory Introduction     97
Chapter Overview     98
Chapter Objectives     99
Development: Using Inquiry Skills to Develop Students' Social Studies Ideas     99
Early Inquiry Skills     100
Building on Diversity: Early Inquiry Skills     100
Social Studies Inquiry Skills      101
Data-Gathering Skills     103
Data-Organizing Skills     104
Data-Processing Skills     104
Communicating Skills     105
Observations, Inferences, and Hypotheses     108
Observations     108
Using Technology: Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Literacy     106
Inferences     108
Hypotheses     108
Developing and Using Guiding Hypotheses     110
Attitudes and Dispositions Promoting Powerful Social Studies     113
Curiosity     113
Respect for Evidence     113
Reserving Judgment     114
Flexibility     114
Responsibility to Others and to the Environment     115
Values, Morals, and Aesthetics     115
Making a Literature Connection: Demonstrating Powerful Attitudes and Dispositions     116
Teaching Lessons in Which Students Use Integrative Thinking Skills     117
Critical Thinking     117
Problem Solving and Decision Making     119
Investigating     119
Creative Thinking     120
Using Technology: Fostering Inquiry Skills     121
Creating Conditions that Promote Student Thinking in Social Studies      121
Lesson Characteristics     122
Planning Activities to Teach Inquiry Skills     123
Expansion: A Learning Cycle Lesson Teaching an Inquiry Skill     124
Exploratory Introduction of the Skill     124
Lesson Development     125
Expansion     126
Assessing the Use of Inquiry Skills     128
Hierarchy of Inquiry Skills     130
Summary     132
Expanding On This Chapter     133
Helping Students Construct Concepts     135
Exploratory Introduction     135
Chapter Overview     136
Chapter Objectives     137
Concept Teaching Starts with Reflection and Practice     137
Development: Facts as Social Studies Content     138
Forming Concepts     141
Identifying All Important Attributes of a Concept     141
Types of Concepts     143
Interrelationships Among Concepts     145
Building on Diversity: Defining Concepts     147
Differences in Complexity and Abstractness of Concepts     150
Making a Literature Connection: Recognizing Its Limitations     153
Powerful Concept Teaching     154
Identifying All Essential Attributes of the Social Studies Concept     154
Identifying Examples and Nonexamples of a Concept     155
Identify Students Everyday Thinking About the Concept     155
Using a Learning Cycle to Teach a Concept     155
Teaching Concepts Differs from Teaching Facts     158
Use Operational Definitions in Teaching Concepts     158
Teaching Concepts of Varying Complexity and Abstractness Differently     158
Teaching Interrelationships Among Concepts     159
Building on Diversity: Cultural Factors and Concepts     159
Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: Productive Resources     160
Expansion: Assessment of Concept Learning     162
Using Technology: Examples of Resources for Helping Students Build Concepts     164
Summary     164
Expanding On This Chapter     165
Helping Students Use Inquiry to Build Generalizations     168
Exploratory Introduction     168
Chapter Overview     168
Chapter Objectives     169
Development: Forming Generalizations     169
Defining Generalizations     170
Distinguishing Generalizations from Facts and Concepts     171
Using Generalizations to Make Predictions     172
Making a Literature Connection: The Message Is a Generalization     173
Types of Generalizations     174
Teaching Powerful Generalizations     175
Building on Diversity: Using Resources to Support Learning a Generalization     177
Characteristics of the Exploratory Introduction Phase     177
Characteristics of the Lesson Development Phase     178
Characteristics of the Expansion Phase     178
Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: Using Technology to Investigate a Problem: Why Are Cities Built Where Rivers Come Together?     179
Formative Evaluation and Assessment     182
Inquiry Teaching and the National Standards in Social Studies     182
Summary     183
Expanding On This Chapter     184
Using Instructional Strategies That Help Students Learn     186
Exploratory Introduction     186
Chapter Overview     186
Chapter Objectives     187
Developing Your Social Studies Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK)     187
Teaching Dimensions That Support Meaningful Learning     189
Best Practices: Teaching Strategies That Support Meaningful Learning     190
Using Technology: Creating a Collaborative Classroom     193
An Interview with Mike Yell on Cooperative Learning      194
A Continuum of Knowledge and Instruction     196
Matching Instructional Strategies to Student Needs     197
Expository, or Direct, Instructional Methods: Lower Student Control     198
Guided Discovery Instructional Methods: Mixed Teacher and Student Control     199
Inquiry and Problem-Solving/Decision Making Instructional Methods: Greater Student Control     200
Matching Types of Instructional Activities To Each Phase of the Lesson     201
Useful Instructional Activities for the Exploratory Introduction Phase     202
Useful Instructional Activities for the Lesson Development Phase     204
Making a Literature Connection: Reading Literature     215
Building on Diversity: Prereading Activities     216
Useful Instructional Activities for the Expansion Phase     221
Expansion: Classroom Management Strategies for Powerful Social Studies     222
Advanced Planning     222
Giving Directions     222
Distributing Materials     223
Organizing the Beginning     224
Grouping Students     224
Using Classroom Rules     224
Creating Lesson Smoothness     224
Being a Facilitator     225
Assessment Considerations     225
Summary      226
Expanding On This Chapter     226
Helping All Students Experience Meaningful Social Studies     229
Exploratory Introduction     229
Chapter Overview     229
Chapter Objectives     230
Development: Meaningful Social Studies for All Students     230
An Interview     231
"Best Practices" Giving All Students Greater Control of Their Social Studies Learning     231
Social Studies Education for Students with Disabilities     232
General Instructional Strategies for Inclusive Classrooms     233
Using Technology: Adapting Instruction and Curriculum in the Inclusive Classroom     234
Factors to Be Considered in Adapting Social Studies Curricula and Instruction     240
Social Studies Education in a Culturally Diverse Society     243
Building on Diversity: Variations in Belief Systems     244
Sample Strategies for Multicultural Social Studies     246
Role Models and Relevancy     246
Making a Literature Connection: Role Models     248
Culture and Gender Differences in Student-Teacher Interactions     249
Helping the English Language Learner Participate in Social Studies     250
Recognizing and Scaffolding Language Learning      250
Instructional Strategies for Helping ELL Students Understand Social Studies Content     251
Assessment of Social Studies Learning for All Students     252
Using Technology: Alternative Assessment     253
Summary     254
Expanding On This Chapter     254
Helping Students Relate to Individuals and Communities     256
Exploratory Introduction     256
Chapter Overview     257
Chapter Objectives     257
Respect for Diverse Students and for Oneself as a Teacher     258
The Classroom Environment Encourages Student Control Over Learning     258
Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: Sharing and Negotiation     259
The Curriculum Respects Diversity     263
Development of Self-Concept in Diverse Students     264
Independence and Responsibility     265
Jealousy     266
Fears     267
Aggressive Feelings, Bullying, and Conflict Resolution     268
Using Technology: Protecting Children from Predators     271
Friendship     272
Empathy and Helpful Pro-social Behaviors     273
Self-Esteem     274
Values and Moral Education in a Diverse Society     274
Making a Literature Connection: Supporting Development of Self-Respect     274
Building on Diversity: Learning from the Voices of Our Family and Community     275
Three Aspects of Morality     275
Moral Development Theories     276
Teaching Approaches in Values Education     280
Assessing How Diverse Students Relate to Individuals and Communities     287
Using Technology: Stimulating Discussion     289
Summary     289
Expanding On This Chapter     290
Helping Students Become Citizens in a Democratic Society in an Ever More Interdependent World     292
Exploratory Introduction     292
Chapter Overview     293
Chapter Objectives     294
Development: Defining Citizenship in a Democratic Society     294
Developing Political Awareness     296
Citizenship and Standards     298
Key Concepts and Values     299
Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: Voting Is a Way to Make Decisions     302
Assessing Civic Education in U.S. Schools     307
An Interview with a Teacher: Emily Wood     308
Resources for Citizenship Education     310
Media Resources     311
Making a Literature Connection: Selecting a Trade Book That Stresses Social Studies      312
Law-Related Education     316
Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: Presidential Oath     318
Participating in Democracy     321
School-Based Community Service Projects     323
Participation in Student Government     325
Building on Diversity: The Challenges     326
Using Technology: Discussions That Promote Greater Understanding Through Combining and Evaluating Ideas Against Criteria     327
Political Participation     328
Summary     330
Expanding On This Chapter     331
Helping Students Understand Local and Global Societies     334
Exploratory Introduction     334
Chapter Overview     334
Chapter Objectives     335
Development: Global Education: An Evolving Definition     335
Approaches to Global Education     339
The Cultural Approach to Global Education     339
Building on Diversity: Finding the Views of People in Other Nations     340
The Problems Approach to Global Education     340
Interdisciplinary Connections     343
Teaching Global Education     344
Resources for Teaching Global Education     346
Computers and the Internet      346
Learning Cycle Unit Plan: Teaching About War to Help Create a More Humane World     348
Making a Literature Connection: What Are the People of the World Like?     356
Book Series     356
Using Technology: Civics Impact of Technology Opportunities     357
Resources for Current Events     358
Summary     358
Expanding On This Chapter     359
Helping Students Interpret History     362
Exploratory Introduction     362
Chapter Overview     362
Chapter Objectives     363
Development: Definition of History     363
History in Schools     365
Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: Learning from the Paintings and Drawings of Artists     366
Standards for History     374
Benefits of Studying History     377
Students and the Learning of History     378
Using Timelines to Develop Chronology     380
Resources for Teaching History     381
Locating and Using Historical Resources     381
People as Resources     382
Artifacts and Museums     382
The Community as a Resource     383
Documents as Resources     384
Diaries, Letters, and Pictures as Resources      385
Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: Skills in Picture Analysis     386
Visual Literacy and History     388
Reenactments and Drama     389
Biographies and Historical Literature     391
Building on Diversity: Pitfalls in Selecting Multicultural Books     391
Making a Literature Connection: Using Trade Books to Add Depth to History Units     395
Expanding Your Skills in History     395
Using Technology: An Interview with Jim Shipp     397
Summary     399
Expanding On This Chapter     399
Helping Students Interpret the Earth and Its People Through Geography     402
Exploratory Introduction     402
Chapter Overview     402
Chapter Objectives     402
Development     403
An Interview with Billy Fitzhugh, A Second-Grade Teacher     403
Defining Geography     406
Standards for Geographic Education     406
Geography and the National Social Studies Standards     407
The Five Themes of Geography     407
Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: People Change Their Environments     409
Geography Education Standards and the Six Elements of Geography Education     412
Resources for Teaching Geography     414
Using Technology: An Important Contributor to Learning Geography     415
Developing Geographic Concepts, Generalizations, and Skills     415
Research Findings on Geographic Education     421
Making a Literature Connection: Books Provide Different Cultural Perspectives     423
Research on Map and Globe Skills     425
Helping Students Learn and Use Map and Globe Skills     426
Shapes and Patterns     428
Symbols     429
Direction     429
Distance     429
Grid Systems     431
Remote Sensing and Digital Maps in the Teaching of Geography     431
Numbers: The Amount or Quantity on Maps, in Atlases, and in Textbooks     433
Reading and Maps     435
Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: Latitude and Longitude     436
Summary     442
Expanding On This Chapter     442
Helping Students Make Economic Decisions     445
Exploratory Introduction     445
Chapter Overview     445
Chapter Objectives     446
Development: Economic Literacy     446
An Interview with Nancy Braden about Teaching Economics     447
Defining Economics      449
National Social Studies Standards Related to Economics     451
Voluntary National Standards in Economics     451
Economic Concepts and Values     452
Microeconomic Concepts     452
Making a Literature Connection: Trade Books Illustrating Economic Concepts     457
Macroeconomic Concepts     458
International Economic Concepts     458
Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: Economic Interdependence     459
Measurement Concepts and Methods     463
Economic Decision-Making Skills     463
Economic Goals and Values     466
Children and the Learning of Economics     469
Approaches to Teaching Economics     470
Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: Advertisements and Making Good Choices     472
Using Technology: Investigating How to Use a WebQuest with Your Students     476
Resources for Teaching Economics     477
Summary     477
Expanding On This Chapter     478
Planning Units of Various Lengths and Formats     480
Exploratory Introduction     480
Chapter Overview     480
Chapter Objectives     481
Development: Planning the Appropriate Focus for Social Studies Units      482
Descriptive-Focused Units     484
Thinking Skills-Focused Units     484
Conceptual and Thinking Skills-Focused Units     485
Units that Integrate School Subjects     485
Theme Units     485
Issue and Problem-Solving Units     489
How to Choose Appropriate Topics for Integrated Units     491
Planning Integrated Units     492
Building on Diversity: Units Incorporate Diversity     494
Developing Integrated Units     494
Generating Ideas for the Topic of a Unit     494
Researching the Topic     494
Developing Focus or Guiding Questions     495
Identifying Special Needs Among Students and Making Accommodations     496
Naming the Unit     496
Developing Intended Learning Outcomes     496
Categorizing Intended Learning Outcomes     497
Creating an Idea Web     497
Developing a Rationale and Goals     500
Beginning the KWL Chart     500
Developing Learning Objectives     501
Developing an Assessment Plan     501
Developing Lesson Plans     504
Developing Accommodations for Technology     504
Making a Literature Connection: Incorporating Social Studies Trade Books into Units     505
Implementing the Unit     506
Evaluating Student Learning     506
Reflecting on the Unit     506
Using Technology: Databases and Spreadsheets     507
Summary     509
Expanding On This Chapter     510
References     512
Index     522
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