Social Thought: From the Enlightenment to the Present / Edition 1

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This comprehensive, multicultural, and cross-disciplinary anthology examines social theory and social thought from the major figures of the Enlightenment in France and England through the Postmodernists of the late Twentieth Century. It contains selections from 144 authors, writing between 1690 and the present, who dealt with issues of equality, social justice, gender relations, political structures, family life, ethnic relations, political-economics, and other perennial questions that confront social actors and the societies in which they exist. Sica, who is a leading social theory scholar, offers greater historical scope than other social theory texts and readers; starts with the origins of the modern worldview in Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century Europe.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205394371
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 7/26/2004
  • Series: MySearchLab Series for Sociology Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 624
  • Product dimensions: 7.50 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.70 (d)

Table of Contents




Refashioning the Social Thought Canon.

I . Origins of the Modern Worldview.

John Locke.

Essay Concerning Human Understanding, “On Hermeneutics.”

“Education as Training for Virtue.”

Mary Astell.

Reflections upon Marriage.

Giambattista Vico.

The New Science: “Concerning the Course [of Human Things] Taken by the Nations.”


Philosophical Letters, “Of Persons of Rank Who Cultivate Learning.”Philosophical Dictionary, “Ancients and Moderns,” “Equality,” “Essay on the Manners and Spirit of Nations.”


The Spirit of the Laws, “Of Laws in Relation to the Nature of a Despotic Government,” “In What Manner the Laws of Civil Slavery Relate to the Nature of the Climate,” “Of Laws in Relation to the Principles Which Form the General Spirit, the Morals, and Customs of a Nation.”

Denis Diderot.

Encyclopedié, “Intolerance,” “Character,” “Negroes.”

Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

Discourse on the Origin of Inequality.

Adam Smith.

The Theory of Moral Sentiments, “Of Sympathy,” “Of Justice and

Adam Ferguson.

An Essay on the History of Civil Society, “Of Moral Sentiment,” “Of
Happiness,” “Of Luxury.”

John Millar.

The Origin of the Distinction of Ranks, “Of the Rank and Condition of Women in Different Ages,” “The Usual Effects of Opulence and Civilized Manners.”

“Social Consequences of the Division of Labour.”

Immanuel Kant.

Lectures on Ethics, “Suicide,” “Duties Towards the Body in Respect of Sexual Impulse,” “Wealth.”

Etienne de Condillac.

Commerce and Government Considered in their Mutual Relationship, “Of the Employment of Men in a Society which has Simple Tastes,” “Of Luxury.”

David Hume.

An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals, “Concerning Moral
Sentiment,” “Of National Characters.”

Thomas Jefferson.

Notes on the State of Virginia, “The Particular Manners and Customs that May Happen to be Received in that State?”

Indian Addresses, “Letter for Brother John Baptist de Coigne,” “To the Brothers of the Choctaw Nation.”

Johann G. Herder.

Ideas for a Philosophy of the History of Man, “National Genius and the Environment,” “Humanity the End of Human Nature.”

Jeremy Bentham.

An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, “On the Principle of Utility,” “Of the Four Sanctions or Sources of Pain and Pleasure,” “Value of a Lot of Pleasure or Pain, How to be Measured.”

II. Revolution and Romanticism.

Edmund Burke.

Reflections on the Revolution in France.

A Vindication of Natural Society, “Discontents in the Kingdom.”

Mary Wollstonecraft.

A Vindication of the Rights of Men.

A Vindication of the Rights of Woman.

Thomas Paine.

Rights of Man, “Conclusion.”

Friedrich Schiller.

Letters on the Aesthetic Education of Man.

Marquis de Condorcet.

Sketch for a Historical Picture of the Progress of the Human Mind,
Introduction, “The Tenth Stage: The Future Progress of the Human Mind.”

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel.

Phenomenology of Spirit, “Master and Servant.”

Thomas Robert Malthus.

An Essay on the Principle of Population.

Friedrich Schleiermacher.

On Religion: Speeches to Its Cultured Despisers, “Religion and Reason.” “Sociality and Religion.”

Jean-Charles-Leonard Simonde de Dismondi.

New Principles of Political Economy, “Of Slave Cultivation.”

Johann Gottlieb Fichte.

The Vocation of Man, “Faith”

Characteristics of the Present Age, “The Idea of Universal History.”

Joseph de Maistre.

On God and Society.

Study on Sovereignty, “The Weakness of Human Power,” “The Best Species
of Government,” “On the Nature of Sovereignty.”

Henri Comte de Saint-Simon.

“Essay on the Science of Man.”

“On Social Organization.”

Thomas Carlyle.

“Signs of the Times.”

François-Marie-Charles Fourier.

“Social Evolution.”

“On the Rôle of the Passions.”

“The Condition of Women.”

III: The Invention of Modern Social Theory.

Auguste Comte.

“Plan of the Scientific Operations Necessary for Reorganizing Society.”

“Conclusion: The Religion of Humanity.”

John Stuart Mill.

“The Spirit of the Age.”

“The Subjection of Women.”

Adolphe Quetelet.

Research on the Propensity for Crime at Different Ages.

Alexis Tocqueville.

Democracy in America, “How Equality Suggests to the Americans the Idea of the Indefinite Perfectability of Man,” “Unlimited Power of the Majority in the United States and Its Consequences,” “The Three Races in the United States.”

The Old Regime and the Revolution, “Why Feudalism Had Come to be More Detested in France than in Any Other Country.”

Frederick Douglass.

“The Church and Prejudice.”

“My Slave Experience in Maryland.”

Karl Marx.

“Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy.”

German Ideology.

Contribution to the Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right.

Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844: “Estranged Labour.”

Søren Kierkegaard.

The Present Age, “The Individual and the Public.”

Harriet Taylor Mill.

“Enfranchisement of Women.”

Arthur Schopenhauer.

Parerga and Paralipomena, vol. 2 “Character.”

“On the Wisdom of Life: Aphorisms.”

Herbert Spencer.

Social Statics, “The Evanescence of Evil.”

The Man Versus the State, “The Coming Slavery.”

Principles of Sociology, “The Organic Analogy Reconsidered.”

The Proper Sphere of Government: “Letter XII.”

Harriet Martineau.

Autobiography, “Single Life,” “The Woman Question,” “Women in Ireland,” “Brutality to Women.”

Joseph-Arthur Gobineau, comte de.

Essay on the Inequality of Human Races, “The Inequality of Races,” “The Three Basic Races.”

(Pierre-Gillaume-) Frédéric Le Play.

Les Ouvriers europèens, “The Science of Society as a Theory of Social Reform.”

Social Reform, “Family Types: Patriarchal, Stem, Unstable.”

John Ruskin.

“Modern Manufacture and Design.”

Unto This Last, “The Roots of Honour.”

Sesame and Lilies, “Of Kings’ Treasuries.”

Fors Clavigera, “Communism.”

Matthew Arnold.


Culture and Anarchy, “Doing as One Likes.”


Aleksandr I. Herzen.

My Past and Thoughts, “Second Thoughts on the Woman Question.”

Henry Sumner Maine.

Ancient Law, “Law of Nature and Equity.”

Lectures on the Early History of Institutions, “The Growth and Diffusion of Primitive Ideas.”

Numa Denis Fustel de Coulanges.

The Ancient City, “Marriage,” “Authority in the Family.”

Charles Darwin.

The Descent of Man, “Natural Selection,” “Conclusion.”

Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals.

Edward Burnett Tylor.

Primitive Culture, “The Development of Culture.”

Friedrich Engels.

Anti-Dühring, “On Morality.”

IV . The Classical Period of Modern Social Thought

Friedrich Nietzsche.

Human, All Too Human, “In Relations with Others.”

On the Genealogy of Morals, “What is the Meaning of Ascetic Ideals?”

Wilhelm Dilthey.

Introduction to the Human Sciences, “The Understanding of Others.”

Ferdinand Tönnies.

Community and Society, “Relations Between Human Wills,” “Gemeinschaft by Blood.”

Custom, An Essay on Social Codes.

Gabriel Tarde.

The Laws of Imitation, “Universal Repetition.”

William James.

“The Moral Philosopher and the Moral Life.”

“What Makes a Life Significant?”

“The Moral Equivalent of War.”

Emile Durkheim.

The Division of Labor in Society, “The Division of Labor and Happiness.”

“The Dualism of Human Nature and Its Social Conditions.”

Gustave Le Bon.

The Crowd, “The Mind of Crowds.”

Gaetano Mosca.

The Ruling Class, “The Rule of the Best.”

Charlotte Anna Perkins Gilman.

Women and Economics, “The Eternal Feminine,” “Women as Persons,” “Masculine and Feminine.”

Marcel Mauss.

Sacrifice: Its Nature and Function (with Henri Hubert), “Conclusion.”

A General Theory of Magic, “A Definition of Magic,” “Conclusion.”

Thorstein Veblen.

The Theory of the Leisure Class, “Conspicuous Consumption.”

Vilfredo Pareto.

Mind and Society, “Residues and Elites.”

Charles Horton Cooley.

Human Nature and the Social Order, “The Meaning of ‘I. ’ ”

Social Organization, “Modern Communication: Superficiality and Strain,” “The Organization of the Ill-Paid Classes.”

W. E. B. Du Bois.

The Souls of Black Folk, “The Talented Tenth.”

“What is Civilization?—Africa’s Answer.”

Max Weber.

Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, “Asceticism and the Spirit
of Capitalism.”

“Religious Rejections of the World and Their Directions.”

William Graham Sumner.

Folkways: A Study of the Sociological Importance of Usages, Manners, Customs,
Mores, and Morals, “Fundamental Notions,” “Blacks and Whites
in Southern Society.”

Leon Trotsky.

Results and Prospects, “What is the Permanent Revolution?”

Literature and Revolution, “Proletarian Culture and Proletarian Art.”

Georg Simmel


“The Social and the Individual Level.”

“Individual and Society in 18th and 19th Century Views of Life.”

“On Love.”

“Freedom and the Individual.”

Georges Sorel.

Reflections on Violence, “Political Myths.”

Lucien Lévy-Bruhl.

How Natives Think, “Collective Representations in Primitives’ Perceptions.”

Primitive Mentality.

György Lukács.

Aesthetic Culture.

History and Class Consciousness: “Reification and the Consciousness of the Proletariat.”

James George Frazer.

The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion, “Farewell to Nemi.”

Roberto Michels.

Political Parties: A Sociological Study of the Oligarchical Tendencies of Modern Democracy, “Final Considerations.”

Sexual Ethics: A Study of Borderland Questions, “Conflict Between Profession and Motherhood.”

Ernst Troeltsch.

The Social Teaching of the Christian Churches, “Introduction and Preliminary Questions of Method,” “Sociological Effect of Luther’s Thought: The New Conception of the Church.”

Sigmund Freud.

Totem and Taboo, “Taboo and the Ambivalence of Emotions.”

Civilization and Its Discontents.

Max Scheler.

Formalism in Ethics and Non-formal Ethics of Values, “The Structure of Values and Their Historical Variations.”

The Nature of Sympathy, “Classification of the Phenomena of Fellow-Feeling.”

Antonio Gramsci.

“Socialism and Culture.”

The Prison Notebooks, “What is Man?” “Marxism and Modern Culture.”

Ferdinand de Saussure.

Course in General Linguistics, “The Object of Linguistics,” “Graphic Representation of Language.”

Rudolf Otto.

The Idea of the Holy: An Inquiry into the Non-rational Factor in the Idea of the Divine and Its Relation to the Rational, “The Rational and the Non-Rational.”

W. I. Thomas.

“Rational Control in Social Life.”

The Unadjusted Girl, “The Wishes.”

V . Social Theory Between the Great Wars

Mohandas Gandhi.

“Gandhi’s Message to All Men.”

“Advice to Negroes.”

“How to Enjoy Jail.”

William Fielding Ogburn.

Social Change with Respect to Culture and Original Nature, “The Overemphasis of the Biological Factor.”

“The Great Man Versus Social Forces.”

“Cultural Lag as Theory.”

John Dewey.

Experience and Nature, “Communication and Communal Living.”

The Public and Its Problems, “The Private and the Public.”

Ethics, “Individual and Social Morality.”

Maurice Halbwachs.

The Social Frameworks of Memory, “Conclusion.”

The Psychology of Social Class.

Karl Mannheim.

“The Ideological and Sociological Interpretation of Intellectual Phenomena.”

“The Meaning of Conservatism.”

Ideology and Utopia, “The Sociological Concept of Thought,” “The Contemporary Predicament of Thought.”

Bronislaw Malinowski.

Sex and Repression in Savage Society, “Motherhood and the Temptations of Incest,” “Culture and the ‘Complex ’. ”

Freedom and Civilization, “War Throughout the Ages.”

Martin Buber.

Between Man and Man, “Community,” “Prospect” [for Humankind].

“Society and the State.”

Bertrand Russell.

Marriage and Morals, “Romantic Love.”

Education and the Social Order, “The Herd in Education.”

Authority and the Individual, “Individual and Social Ethics.”

Ludwig Wittgenstein.

Lectures on Ethics, Culture, and Value, “Ethics, Life, and Faith.”

George Herbert Mead.

Mind, Self, and Society from the Standpoint of a Social Behaviorist,
“Meaning,” “The ‘I’ and the ‘Me’.”

Karl Jaspers.

Man in the Modern Age, “Mass-Rule,” “The Tension Between Technical Mass-Order and Human Life.”

Oswald Spengler.

Man and Technics: A Contribution to a Philosophy of Life.

Georges Bataille.

“The Psychological Structure of Fascism.”

“The Meaning of General Economy.”

“The Nature of Society: Social Bonding and Communication.”

Robert King Merton.

“The Unanticipated Consequences of Social Action.”

Norbert Elias.

“An Outline of The Civilizing Process.”

“The Civilizing of Parents.”

Talcott Parsons.

The Structure of Social Action, “Hobbes and the Problem of Order.”

“Death in the Western World.”

Erich Fromm.

Escape from Freedom, “Freedom and Democracy: The Illusion of
Individuality,” “Character and the Social Process.”

The Sane Society, “Consumerism (as a Compensation for Anxiety and Depression) versus the Joy of Life.”

Pitirim Sorokin.

The Crisis of Our Age, “Tragic Dualism, Chaotic Syncretism, Quantitative Colossalism, and the Diminishing Creativeness of the Contemporary Sensate Culture.”

Jean-Paul Sartre.

Being and Nothingness, “Freedom and Responsibility.”

Anti-Semite and Jew.

Critique of Dialectical Reason/Search for a Method, “Reification.”

Ernst Cassirer.

An Essay on Man, “The Definition of Man in Terms of Human Culture.”

The Myth of the State, “The Technique of the Modern Political Myths.”

Henri Lefebvre.

Critique of Everyday Life, “What is Possible.”

Maurice Merleau-Ponty.

The Phenomenology of Perception, “Other Selves and the Human World.”

Signs, “Man and Adversity.”

VI . Theorizing Mass Culture and the Cold War

Max Horkheimer.

Eclipse of Reason, “Rise and Decline of the Individual.”

Karl Popper.

Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge, “Utopia and Violence,” “The History of Our Time: An Optimist’s View.”

Arnold Toynbee.

Civilization on Trial, “The Meaning of History for the Soul.”

Claude Lévi-Strauss.

Elementary Structures of Kinship, “The Principle of Reciprocity,” “The Transition to Complex Structures,” “The Principles of Kinship.”

Theodor Adorno.

Minima Moralia, “Model of Virtue.”

The Culture Industry, “Free Time.”

Gabriel (-Honoré) Marcel.

Man Against Mass Society, “The Universal Against the Masses, I & II.”

The Existential Background of Human Dignity, “Mortality, Hope, and Freedom.”

C. Wright Mills.

White Collar, “The Rhetoric of Competition,” “Work.”

Roland Barthes.

Mythologies, “Myth Today.”

Writing Degree Zero, “Political Modes of Writing.”

Robert Redfield.

The Primitive World and Its Transformation, “Primitive World View,” “Changing Ethical Judgment.”

Peasant Society and Culture, “The Peasant View of the Good Life.”

Herbert Marcuse.

Eros and Civilization, “The Transformation of Sexuality into Eros.”

One-Dimensional Man, “The Paralysis of Criticism: Society Without Opposition.”

Jacques (Marie Emile) Lacan.

The Language of the Self: The Function of Language in Psychoanalysis, “The Empty Word and the Full Word.”

Hannah Arendt.

The Human Condition, “The Social and the Private,” “Reification.”

Roger Caillois.

Man, Play, and Games, “The Definition of Play.”

Harold Garfinkel.

Studies in Ethnomethodology, “Rational Behaviors.”

Raymond Aron.

The Dawn of Universal History.

Frantz Fanon.

The Wretched of the Earth, “Concerning Violence.”

Jürgen Habermas.

“The Public Sphere.”

Theory and Practice, “Dogmatism, Reason, and Decision.”

The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity: Twelve Lectures, “Modernity’s Consciousness of Time and Its Need for Self-Reassurance.”

Mary Douglas.

Purity and Danger: An Analysis of the Concepts of Pollution and Taboo, “Introduction.”

Risk and Blame: Essays in Cultural Theory, “Risk and Danger.”

Susanne Langer.

Mind: An Essay on Human Feeling, “Idols of the Laboratory.”

Walter Benjamin.

Illuminations, “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction.”

VII . Postmodernism, Globalization, and the New Century

Pierre Bourdieu.

Outline of a Theory of Practice, “Structures, Habitus and Practices.”

Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste, “The Taste for Necessity and the Principle of Conformity,” “The ‘Taste of Reflection’ and the ‘Taste of Sense ’. ”

Michel Foucault.

Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, “Panopticism.”

Politics, Philosophy, Culture: Interviews and Other Writings “The Minimalist Self.”

Michael Oakeshott.

On Human Conduct, “On the Understanding of Human Conduct.”

Jacques Derrida.

Writing and Difference, “Structure, Sign and Play in the Discourse of the Human Sciences.”

“Letter to a Japanese Friend.”

“Geschlecht: Sexual Difference, Ontological Difference.”

Christopher Lasch.

The Culture of Narcissism, “The Narcissistic Personality of Our Time.”

Anthony Giddens.

Modernity and Self-Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age, “Ontological Security and Existential Anxiety,” “Tribulations of the Self.”

Jean-François Lyotard.

The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge, “The Nature of the Social Bond: The Postmodern Perspective,” “Delegitimation.”

“One of the Things at Stake in Women’s Struggles.”

Niklas Luhmann.

Political Theory in the Welfare State, “The Representation of Society Within Society.”

Risk: A Sociological Theory, “The Concept of Risk.”

Luce Irigaray.

An Ethics of Sexual Difference, “Sexual Difference.”

Thinking the Difference: For a Peaceful Revolution, “Equal or Different?”

Dorothy E. Smith.

The Everyday World as Problematic: A Feminist Sociology.

Writing the Social: Critique, Theory, and Investigations, “The Ruling Relations.”

Jean Baudrillard.

“Consumer Society.”

“Simulacra and Simulations.”

Lewis Coser.

A Handful of Thistles: Collected Papers in Moral Conviction, “The Notion of Civility in Contemporary Society.”

David Harvey.

The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change, “The Transformative and Speculative Logic of Capital,” “The Work of Art in an Age of Electronic Reproduction and Image Banks,” “Responses to
Time-Space Compression.”

Julia Kristeva.

“Strangers to Ourselves.”

Judith Butler.

Gender Trouble, “Theorizing the Binary, the Unitary, and Beyond.”

Excitable Speech: A Politics of the Performative, “On Linguistic Vulnerability.”

Immanuel Wallerstein.

Unthinking Social Science: The Limits of Nineteenth-Century Paradigms, “World-Systems Analysis: The Second Phase.”

The End of the World as We Know It: Social Science for the Twenty-First Century, “Ecology and Capitalist Costs of Production: No Exit.”

Ernest Gellner.

Reason and Culture: The Historic Role of Rationality and Rationalism, “Rationality as a Way of Life,” “Recapitulation.”

John Rawls.

Political Liberalism,: “The Content of Public Reason.”

The Law of Peoples, “Public Reason and the Law of Peoples,” “Reconciliation to Our Social World.”

Richard Rorty.

Philosophy and Social Hope, “Looking Backwards from the Year 2096.”

Charles Taylor.

Charles Taylor’s Marianist Award Lecture, “A Catholic Modernity?”

Alasdair MacIntyre.

“Rival Conceptions of the Common Good.”

Name Index

Subject Index

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