Societies and Nature in the Sahel

Societies and Nature in the Sahel

by Philippe Lavigne Delville, Emmanuel Gregoire, Pierre Janin, Jean Koechlin
     
 

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ISBN-10: 0415141028

ISBN-13: 9780415141024

Pub. Date: 02/12/1997

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

This book explores the links between environment and social systems in the Sahel, integrating ecological, demographic, economic, technical, social and cultural factors. Examining the conditions for land occupation and natural resource use, it offers a conceptual and practical approach to social organization and environmental management.

Overview

This book explores the links between environment and social systems in the Sahel, integrating ecological, demographic, economic, technical, social and cultural factors. Examining the conditions for land occupation and natural resource use, it offers a conceptual and practical approach to social organization and environmental management.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780415141024
Publisher:
Taylor & Francis
Publication date:
02/12/1997
Series:
Routledge/SEI Global Environment and Development Series
Pages:
376
Product dimensions:
6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 1.00(d)
Lexile:
1560L (what's this?)

Table of Contents

List of figures ix

List of tables xi

List of contributors xii

Foreword P. N. Bradley xiii

Preface xxi

Acknowledgements xxiii

Introduction: The 'Desertification' of the Sahel: A Symbol of the Environmental Crisis Claude Raynaut 1

The difficult route to interdisciplinarity 2

Aims and methods of the study 6

Social dynamics and uses of resources 8

Notes 10

1 Ecological Conditions and Degradation Factors in the Sahel Jean Koechlin 12

Climatic conditions 12

Edaphic conditions 19

Natural vegetation and ecological conditions 20

Vulnerability and risks of land degradation 23

The precipitation gradient 24

Soil diversity and human use 27

Large ecological zones 30

Conclusion 36

2 The Demographic Issue in the Western Sahel from the Global to the Local Scale Claude Raynaut (with the collaboration of Pierre Janin) 37

Demography and environment, a controversial issue 38

Varied population densities 41

Variability of population growth 47

Conclusion 54

Notes 54

3 Populations and Land: Multiple Dynamics and Contrasting Realities Claude Raynaut 56

The natural environment: only a partial explanation 56

The enduring heritage of the past 63

Labour migrations and the rural exodus 69

Large geo-demographic complexes 80

Conclusion 87

Notes 88

4 Major Sahelian Trade Networks: Past and Present Emmanuel Grégoire 90

The Sahel: an ancient trading region 90

The colonial conquest: a profound change in the Sahelian economy 92

Independence: political change, economic continuity 94

The years following the 1973-4 drought: projects and foreign aid 96

The 1980s: the economic and political crisis of the modern sector 98

Sahelian merchants: a permanent presence 100

Current major trade zones 102

Conclusion 106

Notes 108

5 A Shared Land: Complementary and Competing Uses Claude Raynaut Philippe Lavigne Delville 109

Relations with livestock 110

Relations with water 126

Conclusion 136

Notes 136

6 Sahelian Agrarian Systems: Principal Rationales Philippe Lavigne Delville 138

The question of fertility 138

The question of risk 149

Agricultural intensification 151

Conclusion 156

Notes 157

7 The Diversity of Farming Practices Claude Raynaut Philippe Lavigne Delville 159

Principal crop systems 159

Ploughing tools and peasant strategies 167

Management of the environment 174

Conclusion 182

Notes 182

8 Relations between Man and His Environment: The Main Types of Situation in the Western Sahel Claude Raynaut Philippe Lavigne Delville Jean Koechlin 184

An attempt at synthesis 188

Dynamics at work 207

Conclusion 212

Notes 212

9 Sahelian Social Systems: Variety and Variability Claude Raynaut 214

Elusive ethnicities 215

Several axes of differentiation in social systems 219

Three major models of social organization 230

Conclusion 233

Notes 233

10 The Transformation of Social Relations and the Management of Natural Resources 1 The Birth of the Land Question Claude Raynaut 235

Social systems and land systems 237

Systems of production and land systems 244

The dynamic of land change 249

Conclusion 259

Notes 261

11 The Transformation of Social Relations and the Management of Natural Resources 2 The Emancipation of The Workforce Claude Raynaut Philippe Lavigne Delville 262

The diverse forms of control over work 262

The emancipation of the workforce 271

Conclusion 285

Notes 288

12 Conclusion: Relations Between Society and Nature - Their Dynamics, Diversity And Complexity Claude Raynaut 290

Observing diversity: confirmation 290

Order in complexity 299

Sustainability and change 309

Action: several axes for reflection 313

Beyond the Sahel experience 317

Notes 324

Bibliography 325

Index 341

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