Society: The Basics / Edition 12

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Overview


Seeing Sociology in your Everyday Life


Macionis empowers students to understand the world around them through a sociological lens, so they can better understand sociology and their own lives.

Society: The Basics, 12th edition is written to help students find and use sociology in everyday life. With a complete theoretical framework and a global perspective, Society: The Basics offers students an accessible and relevant introduction to sociology.

The new edition continues to grow to meet readers' changing needs. With a newly integrated pedagogical framework, readers are guided through both the text - and optional new MySocLab - to build their critical thinking skills while learning the fundamentals of sociology.

Teaching and Learning Experience
This program will provide a better teaching and learning experience – for you and your students. Here’s how:

  • Personalize Learning - The new MySocLab delivers proven results in helping students succeed, provides engaging experiences that personalize learning, and comes from a trusted partner with educational expertise and a deep commitment to helping students and instructors achieve their goals.
  • Improve Critical Thinking –Six new learning objectives per chapter help readers build critical thinking and study skills.
  • Engage Students – New design, everyday life and pop culture examples make sociology relevant for students today.
  • Explore Theory –Three main theoretical perspectives are discussed in every chapter.
  • Understand Diversity - Contemporary research informed by expert reviewers and cutting edge data sources reflect a broad range of race / class / gender.
  • Support Instructors - Author written activities and assessment in MySocLab, the test bank and instructor's manual help provide support for instructors.

Note: MySocLab does not come automatically packaged with this text. To purchase MySocLab, please visit:

www.mysoclab.com or you can purchase a valuepack of the text + MySocLab (at no additional cost).

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205898916
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 6/12/2012
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 12
  • Pages: 552
  • Sales rank: 61,057
  • Product dimensions: 8.90 (w) x 10.70 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

John J. Macionis was born and raised in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He earned a bachelor’s degree from Cornell University and a doctorate in sociology from the University of Pennsylvania.

John Macionis' publications are wide-ranging, focusing on community life in the United States, interpersonal intimacy in families, effective teaching, humor, new information technology, and the importance of global education.

In addition, John Macionis and Nijole V. Benokraitis have edited the best-selling anthology Seeing Ourselves: Classic, Contemporary, and Cross-Cultural Readings in Sociology. Macionis and Vincent Parrillo have written the leading urban studies text, Cities and Urban Life (Pearson). Macionis’ most recent textbook is Social Problems (Pearson).

John Macionis is Professor and Distinguished Scholar of Sociology at Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio, where he has taught for almost thirty years. During that time, he has chaired the Sociology Department, directed the college’s multidisciplinary program in humane studies, presided over the campus senate and the college’s faculty, and taught sociology to thousands of students.

In 2002, the American Sociological Association presented Macionis with the Award for Distinguished Contributions to Teaching, citing his innovative use of global material as well as the introduction of new teaching technology in his textbooks.

Professor Macionis has been active in academic programs in other countries, having traveled to some fifty nations. He writes, “I am an ambitious traveler, eager to learn and, through the texts, to share much of what I discover with students, many of whom know little about the rest of the world. For me, traveling and writing are all dimensions of teaching. First, and foremost, I am a teacher–a passion for teaching animates everything I do.”

At Kenyon, Macionis teaches a number of courses, but his favorite class is Introduction to Sociology, which he offers every semester. He enjoys extensive contact with students and invites everyone enrolled in each of his classes to enjoy a home-cooked meal.

The Macionis family–John, Amy, and children McLean and Whitney–live on a farm in rural Ohio. In his free time, Macionis enjoys tennis, swimming, hiking, and playing oldies rock-and-roll (he recently released his first CD). Macionis is as an environmental activist in the Lake George region of New York’s Adirondack Mountains, working with a number of organizations, including the Lake George Land Conservancy, where he serves as president of the board of trustees.

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Table of Contents

BRIEF TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1: Sociology: Perspective, Theory, and Method

Chapter 2: Culture

Chapter 3: Socialization: From Infancy to Old Age

Chapter 4: Social Interaction in Everyday Life

Chapter 5: Groups and Organizations

Chapter 6: Sexuality and Society

Chapter 7: Deviance

Chapter 8: Social Stratification

Chapter 9: Global Stratification

Chapter 10: Gender Stratification

Chapter 11: Race and Ethnicity

Chapter 12: Economics and Politics

Chapter 13: Family and Religion

Chapter 14: Education, Health, and Medicine

Chapter 15: Population, Urbanization, and Environment

Chapter 16: Social Change: Modern and Postmodern Societies

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Preface

It was just five or six years ago that people were beginning to talk about the Internet and the Information Revolution. Today, computers and other new technology already play a part in how people entertain themselves, stay in touch with others, shop for everything from gadgets to groceries, teach classes, and study for exams. One can only imagine the extent of the transformation that will unfold over the course of this new century.

Yet there remains a contradiction in calling this the "information age." No one, doubts that students have more information available to them than ever before. But who can deny that students (especially young people just out of high school) still know little about their own society and even less about the larger world? It is here that old-fashioned sociology has a crucial part to play. By developing students' sociological imagination, we help them see the shape of the society that guides their lives, as well as appreciate ever-present forces of change. This same imagination also lets them place this society in a global context, highlighting the worldwide structures and systems that affect us all.

The daily e-mail I receive from students across the United States and around the world is testimony to the power of sociology to transform people's way of seeing the world. All instructors know the deep satisfaction of making a difference in the lives of our students. Indeed, there is no greater reward for our work, and, in my case, there is no better reason for reaching ever further with each new edition of the text. In this spirit, I am delighted to offer this revision of Society: The Basics, the discipline's most popular text, and abook that never stands still.

The heart of this high-technology learning package is, of course, the book. As in the past, this sixth edition of Society is authoritative, comprehensive, stimulating, and—as student e-mail messages testify—plain fun to read. This major revision elevates sociology's most popular text to a still higher standard of excellence, and offers an unparalleled resource to today's students as they learn about both our diverse society and the changing world.

But the book is only one part of a complete learning package. Found in the back of every new copy of Society: The Basics, Sixth Edition, is a CD-ROM, included at no additional cost to the student. This CD-ROM is the best of its kind—not only does it contain a full study guide and approximately 80 percent of the textbook, but it also includes fully interactive study features such as author's tip videos, video applications, multimedia chapter introductions, interactive maps, a full glossary, and hundreds of links to Web sites around the world. Simply put, no other CD-ROM offers students a better opportunity for review, assessment, and feedback.

In addition, students using Society: The Basics, Sixth Edition, can log on to a full-featured Web site, http://www.prenhall.com/macionis, also at no cost to them, using the access code packaged with this new textbook. From the main page, simply click on the cover of this text to reach a learning site that includes chapter overviews and learning objectives, suggested essay questions and paper topics as well as multiple-choice and true-false questions that the server will grade, chapter-relevant Web destinations with learning questions, and a chat room where students can share experiences and opinions with others taking the course. Faculty will find a full complement of resources as well, including the syllabus manager system that allows posting a course syllabus to the Internet without having to learn hypertext markup language (HTML); the Prentice Hall server does the work for you. Prentice Hall and EBSCO, the world leader in online journal subscription management, have come together to develop an innovative new feature of our Companion Website—ContentSelect. With database access to more than 100 academic journals and leading popular sources, ContentSelect provides a twenty-four-hour-a-day window into the most reputable content in the discipline of sociology.

Textbook, CD-ROM, and Web site: A three-part, multimedia package that is the foundation for sound learning in this new information age. We invite you to examine all three!

ORGANIZATION OF THIS TEXT

Society: The Basics carries students through sociology's basic ideas, research, and insights in sixteen logically organized chapters. Chapter 1 ("Sociology: Perspective, Theory, and Method") explains how the discipline's distinctive point of view illuminates the world in a new and exciting way. In addition, the first chapter introduces major theoretical approaches and explains the key methods sociologists use to test and refine their knowledge.

The next six chapters examine core sociological concepts. Chapter 2 ("Culture") explores the fascinating diversity of human living that marks our world. Chapter 3 ("Socialization: From Infancy to Old Age") investigates how people everywhere develop their humanity as they learn to participate in society. While highlighting the importance of the early years to the socialization process, this chapter describes significant transformations that occur over the entire life course, including old age. Chapter 4 ("Social Interaction in Everyday Life") takes a micro-level look at how people construct the daily realities that we often take for granted. Chapter 5 ("Groups and Organizations") focuses on social groups, within which we have many of our most meaningful experiences. It also highlights the expansion of formal organization and points up some of the problems of living in a bureaucratic age. Chapter 6 ("Deviance") analyzes how the routine operation of society promotes deviance as well as conformity. Chapter 7 ("Sexuality"), which is new to this edition, explains the social foundations of human sexuality. Based on recent research, this chapter surveys sexual patterns in the United States and also explores variations in sexual practices through history and around the world today.

The next four chapters provide more coverage of social inequality than is found in any other brief text. Chapter 8 ("Social Stratification") introduces basic concepts that describe social hierarchy throughout history and around the world. The chapter then highlights dimensions of social difference in the United States today. Chapter 9 ("Global Stratification") extends this text's commitment to global education by analyzing the social ranking of nations themselves. Why, in other words, do people in some societies have abundant wealth while, in others, people struggle every day just to survive? Society: The Basics also provides full-chapter coverage of two additional dimensions of social difference. Chapter 10 ("Gender Stratification") describes how gender is a central element of social stratification in the United States, as it is worldwide. Chapter 11 ("Race and Ethnicity") explores racial and ethnic diversity in the United States, explaining how societies use physical and cultural traits to construct and rank categories of people in a hierarchy.

Next are three chapters that survey social institutions. Chapter 12 ("Economics and Politics") looks at the economy of U.S. society, beginning with how the Industrial Revolution transformed the Western world. This chapter contrasts capitalist and socialist economic models, and investigates how economic systems are linked to a society's distribution of power. This chapter also contains coverage of the military and the important issues of war and peace. Chapter 13 ("Family and Religion") spotlights two institutions central to the symbolic organization of social life. The chapter begins by focusing on the diversity of families in the United States, making frequent comparisons to kinship systems in other parts of the world. Basic elements of religious life come next, with an overview of recent religious trends. Chapter 14 ("Education and Medicine") examines two institutions with special importance in the modern world. The chapter looks first at the historical expansion of schooling, noting many ways in which the scope and kind of education are linked to other social institutions. Next, we look at medicine, which also has become a central institution during the last century and a half. The chapter concludes by explaining the distinctive strategies various countries—including the United States—employ to promote public health.

The final two chapters of the text focus on dimensions of social change. Chapter 15 ("Population, Urbanization, and Environment") is a new synthesis that begins by spotlighting the growth of population in the world. Then, our attention turns to the rise of cities in the United States and to the urban explosion now taking place in poor nations of the world. Finally, the chapter explains how the state of the natural environment reflects social organization. Chapter 16 ("Social Change: Modern and Postmodern Societies") concludes the text with summaries of major theories of social change, a look at how people forge social movements to encourage or resist change, analysis of various benefits and liabilities of modern social patterns, and the emergence of a "postmodern" way of life.

CONTINUITY: ESTABLISHED FEATURES OF SOCIETY THE BASICS

Society: The Basics is no standard textbook: In sociology, it represents the standard of excellence. How else can one explain the fact that this book is selected by far more faculty than any other? The extraordinary success of Society: The Basics, as well as Sociology—the market leader among comprehensive hardback texts—results from a combination of the following distinctive features.

The best writing style. Most important, this text offers a writing style widely praised by students and faculty, alike as elegant and inviting. Society is an enjoyable text that encourages students to read-even beyond their assignments. No one says it better than the students themselves, whose recent e-mail includes testimonials such as these:

I'm a college student in California and my sociology class used your book, Sociology, 8th edition. It was by far the best textbook I have ever used. I actually liked to read it for pleasure as well as to study. I just wanted to say it was great.

Thanks for writing such a brilliant book. It has sparked my sociological imagination. This was the first textbook that I have ever read completely and enjoyed. From the moment that I picked the book up I started reading nonstop.

I have read four chapters ahead; it's like a good novel I can't put down! I just wanted to say thank you.

Your book is extremely well written and very interesting. I find myself reading it for pleasure, something I have never done with college texts. It is going to be the only collegiate textbook that I ever keep simply to read on my own. I am also thinking of picking up sociology as my minor due to the fact that I have enjoyed the class as well as the text so much. Your writing has my highest praise and utmost appreciation.

I am taking a Sociology 101 class using your text, a book that I have told my professor is the best textbook that I have ever seen, bar none. I've told her as well that I will be more than happy to take more sociology classes as long as there is a Macionis text to go with them.

A global perspective. Society has taken a leading role in expanding the horizons of our discipline beyond the United States. Society was the first brief text to mainstream global content, introduce global maps, and offer comprehensive coverage of global topics like stratification and the environment. No wonder this text has been adapted and translated into half a dozen languages for use around the world. Each chapter explores the social diversity of the entire world as well as explains why social trends in the United States—from musical tastes, to the price of wheat, to the growing disparity of income— are influenced by what happens elsewhere. Just as important, students will learn ways in which social patterns and policies in the United States affect poor nations around the world.

A celebration of social diversity. Society: The Basics invites students from all social backgrounds to discover a fresh and exciting way to see themselves within the larger social world. Readers will discover in this text the diversity of U.S. society—people of African, Asian, European, and Latino ancestry, as well as women and men of various class positions and at all points in the life course. Just as important, without flinching from the problems that marginalized people confront, this text does not treat minorities as social problems but notes their achievements. A scholarly comparison of sociology texts published in the American Sociological Association's journal Teaching Sociology evaluated Macionis's Sociology (the hardback edition of this text) as the best of all the leading texts in terms of integrating racial and ethnic material throughout (Stone, 1996).

Emphasis on critical thinking. Critical-thinking skills include the ability to challenge common assumptions by formulating questions, to identify and weigh appropriate evidence, and to reach reasoned conclusions. This text not only teaches but encourages Students to discover on their own.

Engaging and instructive chapter openings. One of the most popular features of earlier editions of Society has been the engaging vignettes that begin each chapter. These openings—for instance, using the tragic sinking of the Titanic to illustrate the life and death consequences of social inequality, telling the story of Linda Brown to explore racial inequality in the United States, or describing textile sweatshops on U.S. controlled Pacific islands to examine the extent of social inequality worldwide—spark the interest of readers as they introduce important themes. This revision retains five of the best chapter-opening vignettes found in earlier editions and offers eleven new ones as well.

Inclusive focus on women and men. Beyond devoting two full chapters to the important concepts of sex and gender, Society mainstreams gender into every chapter, showing how the topic at hand affects women and men differently, and explaining how gender operates as a basic dimension of social organization.

Theorectically clear and balanced. This text makes theory easy. The discipline's major theoretical approaches are introduced in Chapter 1 and are carried through later chapters. The text highlights the social-conflict, structural-functional, and symbolic-interaction paradigms, and also incorporates other theoretical approaches including social-exchange analysis, ethnomethodology, and sociobiolgy.

Focus on new information technology. One of the strengths of this text is the focus on computers and new information technology in every chapter. In addition, the text offers five cyber.scopes, a series of essays spread throughout the text. Cyber.scope essays start by explaining what the Information Revolution is all about and go on to show how computers and new information technology are changing the shape of people's lives here and around the world. The five cyber.scope essays are titled:

I: Welcome to the Information Revolution!
II: How New Technology Is Changing Our Way of Life
III: New Information Technology and Social Stratification
IV New Information Technology and Social Institutions
V New Information Technology and Social Change

These essays, illustrated with photos, figures, and maps, provide an opportunity for instructors to pause at several points during the course to consider new information technology or, alternatively, to assign the essays together as a "chapter" on new technology and society.

Recent research and the latest data. Society: The Basics, Sixth Edition, blends classic sociological statements with the latest research, as reported in the leading publications in the field. More than 1,000 research citations support this revision, and more than one-third of them were published since 1990. We have used the latest sources to ensure that—chapter to chapter—the text's content and statistical data are the most recent available.

Learning aids. This text has many features to help students learn. In each chapter, Key Concepts are identified by boldfaced type, and following each appears aprecise, italicized definition. A listing of key concepts with their definitions appears at the end of each chapter, and a complete Glossary is found at the end of the book. Each chapter also contains a numbered Summary and four Critical-Thinking Questions that help students review material and assess their understanding. Following these are a number of Applications and Exercises, which provides students with activities to do on or near the campus. Finally, each chapter ends with an annotated listing of worthwhile Sites to See on the Internet.

Outstanding images: photography and fine art. Society: The Basics, Sixth Edition, offers the finest and most extensive program of photography and artwork available in any comparable book. The author searches extensively to obtain the finest images of the human condition and presents them with thoughtful captions, often in the form of questions.

Moreover, both photographs and artwork present people of various social backgrounds and historical periods. For example, alongside art by well-known Europeans such as Vincent Van Gogh and U.S. artists including George Tooker, this edition has paintings by celebrated African American artists Jacob Lawrence and Henry Ossawa Tanner, outstanding Latino artists Frank Romero and Diego Rivers, renowned folk artists including Anna Bell Lee Washington, and the engaging Australian painter and feminist Sally Swain.

Thought-provoking theme boxes. Although boxed material is common to introductory texts, Society: The Basics, Sixth Edition, provides a wealth of uncommonly good boxes. Each chapter typically contains three boxes, which fall into four types that amplify central themes of the text. Global Sociology boxes provoke readers to think about their own way of life by examining the fascinating social diversity that characterizes our world. Social Diversity boxes, which have been expanded for this revision, focus on multicultural issues and present the voices of women and people of color. Critical Thinking boxes teach students to ask sociological questions about their surroundings, and help them evaluate important, controversial issues. Each Critical-Thinking box is followed by three "What do you think?" questions. Controversy & Debate boxes present several points of view on hotly debated issues and conclude with "Continue the debate" questions to stimulate thought and generate spirited class discussion.

Society: The Basics, Sixth Edition, contains fifty-one boxes in all, including thirteen that are new to this edition. A complete listing of this text's boxes appears after the table of contents.

An unparalleled program of forty-six global and national maps. Another popular feature of Society: The Basics is the program of global and national maps. Window on the World global maps—twenty in all—are truly sociological maps offering a comparative look at income disparity, favored languages, the extent of prostitution, permitted marriage forms, the degree of political freedom, the incidence of HIV infection, and a host of other issues. The global maps use the non-Eurocentric projection devised by cartographer Arno Peters that accurately portrays the relative size of all the continents.

Seeing Ourselves national maps—twenty-six in all—help to illuminate the social diversity of the United States. Most of these maps offer a closeup look at all 3,014 U.S. counties, highlighting suicide rates, per capita income, college attendance, divorce rates, most widespread religious affiliation, the 2000 presidential election, and, as measures of popular culture, where baseball fans live and where households drink wine or beer. Each national map includes an explanatory caption that poses several questions to stimulate students' thinking about social forces. A complete listing of the Seeing Ourselves national maps as well as the Window on the World global maps follows the table of contents. All of the global and national maps are interactive on both the CD-ROM and the Companion Website.

An annotated instructor's edition. This is the only brief text available in an instructor's edition with a full program of annotations—written by the author—on every page. These annotations provide additional data, notable quotations, suggestions for class discussions, and comments about maps and end-of-chapter study questions.

INNOVATION: CHANGES IN THE SIXTH EDITION

Each new edition of Society: The Basics and Sociology has broken new ground, one reason that almost 3 million students have learned from these sociological bestsellers. A revision raises high expectations, but, after two years of planning and hard work, we are pleased to offer a major revision that sets a new standard for brief texts. Here is an overview of the innovations that define Society: The Basics, Sixth Edition.

New technology that keeps getting better! Last time around, we offered the first complete high-tech learning package, combining a text, CD-ROM, and Companion Website. Put the text, the CD-ROM, and the Web site together for more information and more ways to learn than ever before. When combined with our new online journal research database, ContentSelect, students have unparalleled resources to enhance their studies. For additional details on all our textbooks as well as quick links to dozens of sociology sites, visit the author's personal Web site: http://www.thesociologypage.com or http://www.macionis.com.

A new chapter on sexuality. This revision offers a new chapter. Chapter 7 ("Sexuality") is a sociological look at a central dimension of human existence. The chapter begins by explaining the biological and cultural foundations of sexuality, surveys changing sexual attitudes in the United States, explores the myths and realities surrounding sexual orientation, and then provides balanced discussion of sexual controversies including teen pregnancy, pornography, prostitution, and sexual violence. The chapter concludes with various theoretical analyses of sexuality.

A new synthesis: population, urbanization, and the environment. This revision draws three closely related issues together into a new synthesis. Chapter 15 begins by outlining the study of population, moves to the steady rise in the share of humanity residing in cities, and then links both topics to the state of the physical environment.

A greater emphasis on social diversity. A long-time strength of this text is its emphasis on social diversity. In this revision, from chapter to chapter, race, class, and gender receive even more attention, with more discussions, more Diversity Snapshot figures, and more Social Diversity boxes.

Sites to See. Another new feature is a listing of worthwhile Internet sites. Placed at the end of each chapter along with explanatory annotations, these sites will introduce students to a wide range of organizations involved in relevant research or social action.

New chapter-opening vignettes. This revision keeps the best of the popular chapter-opening vignettes and adds eleven new ones. All vignettes add interest as students begin a chapter, and provide important lessons about the topic at hand.

The latest statistical data. Instructors count on this text for including the very latest statistical data. The sixth edition comes through again, making use of the latest data from the Internet as well as conventional bound publications of various government agencies and private organizations. The author guarantees that the newest available statistics are used throughout the text—in many cases for 1999 and even for 2000. In addition, the author regularly reviews more than one dozen journals as well as a wide range of media publications. The result: Readers will find several hundred new research citations as well as many familiar current events that elevate the interest of students.

New topics. The sixth edition of Society: The Basics is completely updated with new and expanded discussions in every chapter. Here is a partial listing, by chapter:

Chapter 1 Sociology: Perspective, Theory, and Method: A new chapter opening contrasts the rich and poor in Boston, Massachusetts; there are updates of suicide patterns in the United States; the discussion of social change and the emergence of sociology has been reorganized; find an update on women in professional sports as well as a new Diversity Snapshot figure on race and football; the sociological methodology section has been heavily revised to contrast three approaches: scientific sociology, interpretive sociology, and critical sociology; the chapter ends with an updated and expanded list of Applications and Exercises as well as new Sites to See.

Chapter 2 Culture: A new chapter opening traces the rise of hip-hop culture; two new national maps showing beer and wine consumption illustrate high and popular culture; many updated examples and illustrations are found throughout the chapter; the chapter ends with an expanded list of Applications and Exercises as well as new Sites to See.

Chapter 3 Socialization: This chapter includes an update on U.S. television watching, a new national map on newspaper readership, and recent research on television and violence; a new figure highlights young people's trust in parents; expanded and updated Applications and Exercises are included as well as numerous new Sites to See.

Chapter 4 Social Interaction in Everyday Life: This chapter now has more emphasis on applications throughout; an expanded Applications and Exercises section includes new on-campus activities; there are also several new Web destinations in the Sites to See.

Chapter 5 Groups and Organizations: A major reorganization of this chapter adds discussion of early scientific management and traces the evolution of organization toward a flatter, flexible, "intelligent" form; the chapter also contrasts the rise of intelligent organizations doing highly skilled postindustrial work with the countertrend toward low-skill service work, often called "McJobs."

Chapter 6 Deviance: A new chapter opening points out weaknesses in the criminal justice system; there are new sections on corporate crime and organized crime; all crime statistics are updated; a new Critical Thinking box explains the recent decline in violent crime; the chapter ends with new Applications and Exercises as well as new Sites to See.

Chapter 7 Sexuality: This new chapter highlights the socially constructed character of human sexuality; the chapter takes a global view of sexuality, and also surveys a number of sexuality issues, from sexual orientation to sexual violence; there are several new boxes, a new national map on births to teenage women, and new Applications and Exercises as well as new Sites to See.

Chapter 8 Social Stratification: This chapter has a reorganized discussion of caste and class; recent changes in the British aristocracy are noted; find updates on income and wealth disparity in the United States; there are new data tracking rising African American affluence; new Applications and Exercises and new Sites to See conclude the chapter.

Chapter 9 Global Stratification: A new opening profiles wage slavery in the sweatshops of a Pacific territory controlled by the United States; a dramatic new Global Sociology box describes the culture of slavery in North Africa; the chapter includes updates on global wealth and well-being; several new Sites to See direct students to sources of global data and further study.

Chapter 10 Gender Stratification: A new chapter opening highlights the 1848 Seneca Falls convention and the women's movement it began; the chapter includes statistical updates on women's pay, schooling, and jobs; a new Diversity Snapshot figure details who does the housework in the United States; many of the Applications and Exercises as well as Sites to See are new.

Chapter 11 Race and Ethnicity: A new Social Diversity box highlights the role played by immigrants in the U.S. economy; the chapter adds a set of four national maps showing the diminishing lands controlled by American Indians; updated statistics reflect the social standings of all racial and ethnic categories in the United States; several new Applications and Exercises as well as new Sites to See end the chapter.

Chapter 12 Economics and Politics: There is a new chapter opening on the trend toward using temporary workers; find updated statistics on the U.S. labor force—including unemployment rates and the gender, racial, and ethnic composition of the labor force; a new Controversy & Debate box highlights corporate welfare; we've added another national map showing where jobs will be a decade from now; the chapter includes an update on political freedoms around the world; a new national map shows the popular vote by county in the 2000 presidential election; there is an update on nuclear proliferation worldwide; several new Applications and Exercises as well as Sites to See complete the chapter.

Chapter 13 Family and Religion: A new chapter opening presents the "family values" debate in terms of a new Vermont law establishing civil unions for same-sex couples; a research update reports on the causes and consequences of cohabiting; a new Critical Thinking box evaluates the covenant marriage law in Louisiana; the chapter notes the rising number of Muslims in the United States; a new Controversy & Debate box looks at the resurgence of prayer in school; find many statistical updates on various measures of religiosity; a new national map shows membership in religious organizations across the United States; there are statistical updates on all the trends regarding family and religious life, as well as new Exercises and Applications and Sites to See.

Chapter 14 Education and Medicine: A new chapter opening looks at a controversial school-funding law in Vermont; a new national map shows life expectancy for women and men across the country; a new Global Sociology box describes the free-fall in life expectancy among men following the collapse of the former Soviet Union; statistical updates are included for all measures of educational achievement and health, and the chapter ends with a number of worthwhile Web sites on these important issues.

Chapter 15 Population, Urbanization, and Environment: This chapter is a new combination of population, urbanization, and environment; a new chapter opening reports on the rapid urban development in Atlanta; find the latest global population figures as well as new demographic data for the United States; there is an update on the development of urban regions and sprawl; throughout the chapter the focus is on the interplay of population, urbanization, and the physical environment; many new Applications and Exercises as well as Sites to See complete the chapter.

Chapter 16 Social Change: Modern and Postmodern Societies: A new chapter-opening vignette illustrates the extent of social change over the course of the twentieth century; expanded coverage of the theories of social movements includes a new discussion of culture theory; a new Critical Thinking box evaluates the changing quality of life in the United States; there are many Applications and Exercises as well as new Sites to See.

A WORD ABOUT LANGUAGE

This text's commitment to representing the social diversity of the United States arid the world carries with it the responsibility to use language thoughtfully. In most cases, we prefer the terms African American and person of color to the word black. We use the terms Hispanic and Latino to refer to people of Spanish descent. Most tables and figures refer to "Hispanics" because this is the term the Census Bureau uses when collecting statistical data about our population.

Students should realize, however, that many individuals do not describe themselves using these terms. Although the term "Hispanic" is commonly used in the eastern part of the United States, and "Latino" and the feminine form "Latina" are widely heard in the West, across the United States people of Spanish descent identify with a particular ancestral nation, whether it be Argentina, Mexico, some other Latin American country, or Spain or Portugal in Europe.

The same holds for Asian Americans. Although this term is a useful shorthand in sociological analysis, most people of Asian descent think of themselves in terms of a specific country of origin (say, Japan, the Philippines, Taiwan, or Vietnam).

In this text, the term "Native American" refers to all the inhabitants of the Americas (including the Hawaiian Islands) whose ancestors lived here prior to the arrival of Europeans. Here again, however, most people in this broad category identify with their historical society (for example, Cherokee, Hopi, or Zuni). The term "American Indian" designates only those Native Americans who live in the continental United States, not including Native peoples living in Alaska or Hawaii.

Learning to think globally also leads us to use language carefully. This text avoids using the word "American"—which literally designates two continents—to refer to just the United States. For example, referring to this country, the term "U.S. economy" is more correct than the "American economy." This convention may seem a small point, but it implies the significant recognition that we in this country represent only one society (albeit a very important one) in the Americas.

A WORD ABOUT WEB SITES

Because of the increasing importance of the Internet, each chapter of this new edition of Society: The Basics ends with a listing of Sites to See. The goal is to provide sites that are current, informative, and, above all, relevant to the topic at hand.

However, students should be mindful of several potential problems. First, Web sites change all the time. Prior to publication, we make every effort to ensure that the sites listed meet our high standards. But readers may find that sites have changed substantially and some may have gone away entirely.

Second, sites have been selected in order to provide different perspectives on various issues. The listing of a site does not imply that the author or publisher agrees with everything—or even anything—on the site. Indeed, we urge students to examine all sites critically.

Third, many of the Web sites listed in this text are popular. Because many people visit them, the sites may be slow in responding. Please be patient or, if a site is too busy, simply move on.

SUPPLEMENTS

Society: The Basics, Sixth Edition, is the heart of an unprecedented multimedia learning package that includes a wide range of proven instructional aids as well as several new ones. As the author of the text, I maintain a keen interest in all the supplements to ensure their quality and integration with the text. The supplements for this revision have been thoroughly updated, improved, and expanded.

FOR THE INSTRUCTOR

Annotated Instructor's Edition. The AIE is a complete student text annotated by the author on every page. Annotations, which have been thoroughly revised for this edition, have won praise from instructors for enriching class presentations. Margin notes include summaries of research findings, statistics from the United States or other nations, insightful quotations, information highlighting patterns of social diversity in the United States, and high-quality survey data from the National Opinion Research Center's (NORC) General Social Survey and from the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (CPSR) World Values Survey.

Data File. This is the "instructor's manual" that is of interest even to those who have never used one before. The Data File provides far more than detailed chapter outlines and discussion questions; it contains statistical profiles of the United States and other nations, summaries of important developments and significant research, and supplemental lecture material for every chapter. The Data File is available in Windows format as well as the traditional print version.

Test Item File. A revised test item file is available in both printed and computerized forms. The file contains 1600 items—100 per chapter—in multiple-choice, true-false, and essay formats. Questions are identified as simple "recall" items or more complex inferential issues, and the answers to all questions are page-referenced to the text. Prentice Hall Custom Test is a test generator designed to allow the creation of personalized exams. It is available in 1aOS, Windows, and Macintosh formats. Prentice Hall also provides a test preparation service to users of this text that is as easy as a call to our toll-free 800 number. Please contact your local Prentice Hall representative for this number.

Film/Video Guide: Prentice Hall Introductory Sociology, Sixth Edition. Keyed to the chapters of this text, this guide describes more than 300 films and videos appropriate for classroom viewing. It also provides summaries, discussion questions, and rental sources for each film and video.

ABC News/Prentice Hall Video Library for Sociology. Few will dispute that video is the most dynamic supplement you can use to enhance a class. However, the quality of the video material and how well it relates to your course still make all the difference. Prentice Hall and ABC News are working together to bring you the best and most comprehensive video ancillaries available in the college market.

Through its wide variety of award-winning programs—Nightline, Business World, On Business, This Week, World News Tonight, 20/20, and The Health Show—ABC offers a resource for feature and documentary-style videos related to the chapters in Society: The Basics, Sixth Edition. The programs have high production quality, present substantial content, and are hosted by well-versed, well-known anchors.

The authors and editors of Prentice Hall have carefully selected videos on topics that complement Society: The Basics, Sixth Edition, and have included notes on how to use them in the classroom. An excellent video guide in the Data File carefully and completely integrates the videos into your lecture. The guide has a synopsis of each video, which shows its relation to the chapter and offers discussion questions to help students focus on how concepts and theories apply to real-life situations.

Volume I—Social Stratification
Volume II—Marriage/Families
Volume III—Race/Ethnic Relations
Volume IV—Criminology
Volume V—Social Problems Volume
VI—Intro to Sociology I Volume
VII—Intro to Sociology II Volume
VIII—Intro to Sociology III
Volume IX—Social Problems II
Volume X—Marriage/Families II
Volume XI—Race and Ethnic Relations II
Volume XII—Institutions
Volume XIII—Introductory Sociology IV
Volume XIV—Introductory Sociology V

Prentice Hall Introductory Sociology PowerPoint Transparencies. Created by Roger J. Eich of Hawkeye Community College, this PowerPoint slide set combines graphics and text in a colorful format to help you convey sociological principles in a new and exciting way. Created in PowerPoint, an easy-to-use, widely available software program, this set contains over 300 slides keyed to each chapter in the text. They are easily downloadable from the Companion Website.

Prentice Hall Color Transparencies: Sociology Series VI. Full-color illustrations, charts, and other visual materials from the text as well as outside sources have been selected to make up this useful in-class tool.

Instructor's Guide to Prentice Hall Color Transparencies: Sociology Series VI. This guide offers suggestions for effectively using each transparency in the classroom.

MEDIA SUPPLEMENTS

Companion Website. In tandem with the text, students and professors can now take full advantage of the Internet to enrich their study of sociology. The Macionis Companion Website continues to lead the way in providing students with avenues for delving deeper into the topics covered in the text. Features of the Companion Website include chapter objectives, study questions, and faculty resources, as well as links to interesting material and information from other sites on the Web that will reinforce and enhance the content of each chapter. Visit the site at http://www.prenhaIl.com/macionis, click on the cover of the Sixth Edition, and enter the access code that is packaged with this new textbook. An innovative new feature of the Companion Website is a research database—ContentSelect—developed by Prentice Hall and EBSCO, the world leader in online journal subscription management. With instant access to more than 100 sociological journals and leading popular magazines and newspapers, students have a twenty-four-hour-a-day window into the leading content in sociology from their own home computer.

Online Learning Solutions. Prentice Hall is committed to helping instructors offer courses over the Internet by developing relationships with the leading vendors—Blackboard and Web CTTM—as well as our own course management system, Course Compass, powered by Blackboard. Through these relationships, we provide premium, book-specific content in the delivery method of your choice. Please contact your local Prentice Hall representative to find out more about our solutions in this area.

Sociology on the Internet: A Critical Thinking Guide, 2001. This guide focuses on developing the critical thinking skills necessary to evaluate and use online sources. The guide also provides a brief introduction to navigating the Internet, along with references related specifically to the discipline of sociology and instructions on how to use the Companion Website for Society: The Basics, Sixth Edition. It is free to students when shrinkwrapped as a package with Society: The Basics, Sixth Edition. Please contact your local Prentice Hall representative for your packaging options.

Society: The Basics, Interactive Edition. Believing strongly that equal access to learning resources is as important as ever, Society: The Basics, Interactive Edition, offers students review and study material in a rich multimedia environment. The CD-ROM includes multimedia chapter introductions, author's tip videos, video application exercises, interactive U.S. and global maps, substantial portions of the text, review questions, chapter summaries, and text-specific Web links. When purchasing a new textbook, the CD-ROM is free to each student.

FOR THE STUDENT

Study Guide. This complete guide helps students review and reflect on the material presented in Society: The Basics, Sixth Edition. Each of the sixteen chapters in the study guide provides an overview of the corresponding chapter in the text, summarizes its major topics and concepts, and offers applied exercises and end-of-chapter tests with solutions.

Seeing Ourselves: Classic, Contemporary, and Cross-Cultural Readings in Sociology, Fifth Edition. Create an even more powerful learning package by combining this text with the fifth edition of the best-selling anthology, Seeing Ourselves, edited by John J. Macionis and Nijole V Benokraitis (University of Baltimore). Instructors favor this reader's unique format: Clusters of readings—classic works, well-rounded contemporary research, and cross-cultural comparisons—correspond to all the major topics included in this text.

The New York Times supplement, Themes o f the Times, for Introductory Sociology. The New York Times and Prentice Hall are sponsoring Themes of the Times, a program designed to enhance student access to current information relevant to the classroom. Through this program, the core subject matter provided in this text is supplemented by a collection of timely articles from one of the world's most distinguished newspapers, The New York Times. These articles demonstrate the vital, ongoing connection between what is learned in the classroom and what is happening in the world around us.

To enjoy the wealth of information of The New York Times daily, a reduced subscription rate is available. For information, call toll-free 1-800631-1222. Prentice Hall and The New York Times are proud to co-sponsor Themes of the Times. We hope it will make the reading of both textbooks and newspapers a more dynamic and involving process.

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Introduction

It was just five or six years ago that people were beginning to talk about the Internet and the Information Revolution. Today, computers and other new technology already play a part in how people entertain themselves, stay in touch with others, shop for everything from gadgets to groceries, teach classes, and study for exams. One can only imagine the extent of the transformation that will unfold over the course of this new century.

Yet there remains a contradiction in calling this the "information age." No one, doubts that students have more information available to them than ever before. But who can deny that students (especially young people just out of high school) still know little about their own society and even less about the larger world? It is here that old-fashioned sociology has a crucial part to play. By developing students' sociological imagination, we help them see the shape of the society that guides their lives, as well as appreciate ever-present forces of change. This same imagination also lets them place this society in a global context, highlighting the worldwide structures and systems that affect us all.

The daily e-mail I receive from students across the United States and around the world is testimony to the power of sociology to transform people's way of seeing the world. All instructors know the deep satisfaction of making a difference in the lives of our students. Indeed, there is no greater reward for our work, and, in my case, there is no better reason for reaching ever further with each new edition of the text. In this spirit, I am delighted to offer this revision of Society: The Basics, the discipline's most popular text, and abook that never stands still.

The heart of this high-technology learning package is, of course, the book. As in the past, this sixth edition of Society is authoritative, comprehensive, stimulating, and—as student e-mail messages testify—plain fun to read. This major revision elevates sociology's most popular text to a still higher standard of excellence, and offers an unparalleled resource to today's students as they learn about both our diverse society and the changing world.

But the book is only one part of a complete learning package. Found in the back of every new copy of Society: The Basics, Sixth Edition, is a CD-ROM, included at no additional cost to the student. This CD-ROM is the best of its kind—not only does it contain a full study guide and approximately 80 percent of the textbook, but it also includes fully interactive study features such as author's tip videos, video applications, multimedia chapter introductions, interactive maps, a full glossary, and hundreds of links to Web sites around the world. Simply put, no other CD-ROM offers students a better opportunity for review, assessment, and feedback.

In addition, students using Society: The Basics, Sixth Edition, can log on to a full-featured Web site, http://www.prenhall.com/macionis, also at no cost to them, using the access code packaged with this new textbook. From the main page, simply click on the cover of this text to reach a learning site that includes chapter overviews and learning objectives, suggested essay questions and paper topics as well as multiple-choice and true-false questions that the server will grade, chapter-relevant Web destinations with learning questions, and a chat room where students can share experiences and opinions with others taking the course. Faculty will find a full complement of resources as well, including the syllabus manager system that allows posting a course syllabus to the Internet without having to learn hypertext markup language (HTML); the Prentice Hall server does the work for you. Prentice Hall and EBSCO, the world leader in online journal subscription management, have come together to develop an innovative new feature of our Companion Website—ContentSelect. With database access to more than 100 academic journals and leading popular sources, ContentSelect provides a twenty-four-hour-a-day window into the most reputable content in the discipline of sociology.

Textbook, CD-ROM, and Web site: A three-part, multimedia package that is the foundation for sound learning in this new information age. We invite you to examine all three!

ORGANIZATION OF THIS TEXT

Society: The Basics carries students through sociology's basic ideas, research, and insights in sixteen logically organized chapters. Chapter 1 ("Sociology: Perspective, Theory, and Method") explains how the discipline's distinctive point of view illuminates the world in a new and exciting way. In addition, the first chapter introduces major theoretical approaches and explains the key methods sociologists use to test and refine their knowledge.

The next six chapters examine core sociological concepts. Chapter 2 ("Culture") explores the fascinating diversity of human living that marks our world. Chapter 3 ("Socialization: From Infancy to Old Age") investigates how people everywhere develop their humanity as they learn to participate in society. While highlighting the importance of the early years to the socialization process, this chapter describes significant transformations that occur over the entire life course, including old age. Chapter 4 ("Social Interaction in Everyday Life") takes a micro-level look at how people construct the daily realities that we often take for granted. Chapter 5 ("Groups and Organizations") focuses on social groups, within which we have many of our most meaningful experiences. It also highlights the expansion of formal organization and points up some of the problems of living in a bureaucratic age. Chapter 6 ("Deviance") analyzes how the routine operation of society promotes deviance as well as conformity. Chapter 7 ("Sexuality"), which is new to this edition, explains the social foundations of human sexuality. Based on recent research, this chapter surveys sexual patterns in the United States and also explores variations in sexual practices through history and around the world today.

The next four chapters provide more coverage of social inequality than is found in any other brief text. Chapter 8 ("Social Stratification") introduces basic concepts that describe social hierarchy throughout history and around the world. The chapter then highlights dimensions of social difference in the United States today. Chapter 9 ("Global Stratification") extends this text's commitment to global education by analyzing the social ranking of nations themselves. Why, in other words, do people in some societies have abundant wealth while, in others, people struggle every day just to survive? Society: The Basics also provides full-chapter coverage of two additional dimensions of social difference. Chapter 10 ("Gender Stratification") describes how gender is a central element of social stratification in the United States, as it is worldwide. Chapter 11 ("Race and Ethnicity") explores racial and ethnic diversity in the United States, explaining how societies use physical and cultural traits to construct and rank categories of people in a hierarchy.

Next are three chapters that survey social institutions. Chapter 12 ("Economics and Politics") looks at the economy of U.S. society, beginning with how the Industrial Revolution transformed the Western world. This chapter contrasts capitalist and socialist economic models, and investigates how economic systems are linked to a society's distribution of power. This chapter also contains coverage of the military and the important issues of war and peace. Chapter 13 ("Family and Religion") spotlights two institutions central to the symbolic organization of social life. The chapter begins by focusing on the diversity of families in the United States, making frequent comparisons to kinship systems in other parts of the world. Basic elements of religious life come next, with an overview of recent religious trends. Chapter 14 ("Education and Medicine") examines two institutions with special importance in the modern world. The chapter looks first at the historical expansion of schooling, noting many ways in which the scope and kind of education are linked to other social institutions. Next, we look at medicine, which also has become a central institution during the last century and a half. The chapter concludes by explaining the distinctive strategies various countries—including the United States—employ to promote public health.

The final two chapters of the text focus on dimensions of social change. Chapter 15 ("Population, Urbanization, and Environment") is a new synthesis that begins by spotlighting the growth of population in the world. Then, our attention turns to the rise of cities in the United States and to the urban explosion now taking place in poor nations of the world. Finally, the chapter explains how the state of the natural environment reflects social organization. Chapter 16 ("Social Change: Modern and Postmodern Societies") concludes the text with summaries of major theories of social change, a look at how people forge social movements to encourage or resist change, analysis of various benefits and liabilities of modern social patterns, and the emergence of a "postmodern" way of life.

CONTINUITY: ESTABLISHED FEATURES OF SOCIETY THE BASICS

Society: The Basics is no standard textbook: In sociology, it represents the standard of excellence. How else can one explain the fact that this book is selected by far more faculty than any other? The extraordinary success of Society: The Basics, as well as Sociology—the market leader among comprehensive hardback texts—results from a combination of the following distinctive features.

The best writing style. Most important, this text offers a writing style widely praised by students and faculty, alike as elegant and inviting. Society is an enjoyable text that encourages students to read-even beyond their assignments. No one says it better than the students themselves, whose recent e-mail includes testimonials such as these:

I'm a college student in California and my sociology class used your book, Sociology, 8th edition. It was by far the best textbook I have ever used. I actually liked to read it for pleasure as well as to study. I just wanted to say it was great.

Thanks for writing such a brilliant book. It has sparked my sociological imagination. This was the first textbook that I have ever read completely and enjoyed. From the moment that I picked the book up I started reading nonstop.

I have read four chapters ahead; it's like a good novel I can't put down! I just wanted to say thank you.

Your book is extremely well written and very interesting. I find myself reading it for pleasure, something I have never done with college texts. It is going to be the only collegiate textbook that I ever keep simply to read on my own. I am also thinking of picking up sociology as my minor due to the fact that I have enjoyed the class as well as the text so much. Your writing has my highest praise and utmost appreciation.

I am taking a Sociology 101 class using your text, a book that I have told my professor is the best textbook that I have ever seen, bar none. I've told her as well that I will be more than happy to take more sociology classes as long as there is a Macionis text to go with them.

A global perspective. Society has taken a leading role in expanding the horizons of our discipline beyond the United States. Society was the first brief text to mainstream global content, introduce global maps, and offer comprehensive coverage of global topics like stratification and the environment. No wonder this text has been adapted and translated into half a dozen languages for use around the world. Each chapter explores the social diversity of the entire world as well as explains why social trends in the United States—from musical tastes, to the price of wheat, to the growing disparity of income— are influenced by what happens elsewhere. Just as important, students will learn ways in which social patterns and policies in the United States affect poor nations around the world.

A celebration of social diversity. Society: The Basics invites students from all social backgrounds to discover a fresh and exciting way to see themselves within the larger social world. Readers will discover in this text the diversity of U.S. society—people of African, Asian, European, and Latino ancestry, as well as women and men of various class positions and at all points in the life course. Just as important, without flinching from the problems that marginalized people confront, this text does not treat minorities as social problems but notes their achievements. A scholarly comparison of sociology texts published in the American Sociological Association's journal Teaching Sociology evaluated Macionis's Sociology (the hardback edition of this text) as the best of all the leading texts in terms of integrating racial and ethnic material throughout (Stone, 1996).

Emphasis on critical thinking. Critical-thinking skills include the ability to challenge common assumptions by formulating questions, to identify and weigh appropriate evidence, and to reach reasoned conclusions. This text not only teaches but encourages Students to discover on their own.

Engaging and instructive chapter openings. One of the most popular features of earlier editions of Society has been the engaging vignettes that begin each chapter. These openings—for instance, using the tragic sinking of the Titanic to illustrate the life and death consequences of social inequality, telling the story of Linda Brown to explore racial inequality in the United States, or describing textile sweatshops on U.S. controlled Pacific islands to examine the extent of social inequality worldwide—spark the interest of readers as they introduce important themes. This revision retains five of the best chapter-opening vignettes found in earlier editions and offers eleven new ones as well.

Inclusive focus on women and men. Beyond devoting two full chapters to the important concepts of sex and gender, Society mainstreams gender into every chapter, showing how the topic at hand affects women and men differently, and explaining how gender operates as a basic dimension of social organization.

Theorectically clear and balanced. This text makes theory easy. The discipline's major theoretical approaches are introduced in Chapter 1 and are carried through later chapters. The text highlights the social-conflict, structural-functional, and symbolic-interaction paradigms, and also incorporates other theoretical approaches including social-exchange analysis, ethnomethodology, and sociobiolgy.

Focus on new information technology. One of the strengths of this text is the focus on computers and new information technology in every chapter. In addition, the text offers five cyber.scopes, a series of essays spread throughout the text. Cyber.scope essays start by explaining what the Information Revolution is all about and go on to show how computers and new information technology are changing the shape of people's lives here and around the world. The five cyber.scope essays are titled:

I: Welcome to the Information Revolution!
II: How New Technology Is Changing Our Way of Life
III: New Information Technology and Social Stratification
IV New Information Technology and Social Institutions
V New Information Technology and Social Change

These essays, illustrated with photos, figures, and maps, provide an opportunity for instructors to pause at several points during the course to consider new information technology or, alternatively, to assign the essays together as a "chapter" on new technology and society.

Recent research and the latest data. Society: The Basics, Sixth Edition, blends classic sociological statements with the latest research, as reported in the leading publications in the field. More than 1,000 research citations support this revision, and more than one-third of them were published since 1990. We have used the latest sources to ensure that—chapter to chapter—the text's content and statistical data are the most recent available.

Learning aids. This text has many features to help students learn. In each chapter, Key Concepts are identified by boldfaced type, and following each appears aprecise, italicized definition. A listing of key concepts with their definitions appears at the end of each chapter, and a complete Glossary is found at the end of the book. Each chapter also contains a numbered Summary and four Critical-Thinking Questions that help students review material and assess their understanding. Following these are a number of Applications and Exercises, which provides students with activities to do on or near the campus. Finally, each chapter ends with an annotated listing of worthwhile Sites to See on the Internet.

Outstanding images: photography and fine art. Society: The Basics, Sixth Edition, offers the finest and most extensive program of photography and artwork available in any comparable book. The author searches extensively to obtain the finest images of the human condition and presents them with thoughtful captions, often in the form of questions.

Moreover, both photographs and artwork present people of various social backgrounds and historical periods. For example, alongside art by well-known Europeans such as Vincent Van Gogh and U.S. artists including George Tooker, this edition has paintings by celebrated African American artists Jacob Lawrence and Henry Ossawa Tanner, outstanding Latino artists Frank Romero and Diego Rivers, renowned folk artists including Anna Bell Lee Washington, and the engaging Australian painter and feminist Sally Swain.

Thought-provoking theme boxes. Although boxed material is common to introductory texts, Society: The Basics, Sixth Edition, provides a wealth of uncommonly good boxes. Each chapter typically contains three boxes, which fall into four types that amplify central themes of the text. Global Sociology boxes provoke readers to think about their own way of life by examining the fascinating social diversity that characterizes our world. Social Diversity boxes, which have been expanded for this revision, focus on multicultural issues and present the voices of women and people of color. Critical Thinking boxes teach students to ask sociological questions about their surroundings, and help them evaluate important, controversial issues. Each Critical-Thinking box is followed by three "What do you think?" questions. Controversy & Debate boxes present several points of view on hotly debated issues and conclude with "Continue the debate" questions to stimulate thought and generate spirited class discussion.

Society: The Basics, Sixth Edition, contains fifty-one boxes in all, including thirteen that are new to this edition. A complete listing of this text's boxes appears after the table of contents.

An unparalleled program of forty-six global and national maps. Another popular feature of Society: The Basics is the program of global and national maps. Window on the World global maps—twenty in all—are truly sociological maps offering a comparative look at income disparity, favored languages, the extent of prostitution, permitted marriage forms, the degree of political freedom, the incidence of HIV infection, and a host of other issues. The global maps use the non-Eurocentric projection devised by cartographer Arno Peters that accurately portrays the relative size of all the continents.

Seeing Ourselves national maps—twenty-six in all—help to illuminate the social diversity of the United States. Most of these maps offer a closeup look at all 3,014 U.S. counties, highlighting suicide rates, per capita income, college attendance, divorce rates, most widespread religious affiliation, the 2000 presidential election, and, as measures of popular culture, where baseball fans live and where households drink wine or beer. Each national map includes an explanatory caption that poses several questions to stimulate students' thinking about social forces. A complete listing of the Seeing Ourselves national maps as well as the Window on the World global maps follows the table of contents. All of the global and national maps are interactive on both the CD-ROM and the Companion Website.

An annotated instructor's edition. This is the only brief text available in an instructor's edition with a full program of annotations—written by the author—on every page. These annotations provide additional data, notable quotations, suggestions for class discussions, and comments about maps and end-of-chapter study questions.

INNOVATION: CHANGES IN THE SIXTH EDITION

Each new edition of Society: The Basics and Sociology has broken new ground, one reason that almost 3 million students have learned from these sociological bestsellers. A revision raises high expectations, but, after two years of planning and hard work, we are pleased to offer a major revision that sets a new standard for brief texts. Here is an overview of the innovations that define Society: The Basics, Sixth Edition.

New technology that keeps getting better! Last time around, we offered the first complete high-tech learning package, combining a text, CD-ROM, and Companion Website. Put the text, the CD-ROM, and the Web site together for more information and more ways to learn than ever before. When combined with our new online journal research database, ContentSelect, students have unparalleled resources to enhance their studies. For additional details on all our textbooks as well as quick links to dozens of sociology sites, visit the author's personal Web site: http://www.thesociologypage.com or http://www.macionis.com.

A new chapter on sexuality. This revision offers a new chapter. Chapter 7 ("Sexuality") is a sociological look at a central dimension of human existence. The chapter begins by explaining the biological and cultural foundations of sexuality, surveys changing sexual attitudes in the United States, explores the myths and realities surrounding sexual orientation, and then provides balanced discussion of sexual controversies including teen pregnancy, pornography, prostitution, and sexual violence. The chapter concludes with various theoretical analyses of sexuality.

A new synthesis: population, urbanization, and the environment. This revision draws three closely related issues together into a new synthesis. Chapter 15 begins by outlining the study of population, moves to the steady rise in the share of humanity residing in cities, and then links both topics to the state of the physical environment.

A greater emphasis on social diversity. A long-time strength of this text is its emphasis on social diversity. In this revision, from chapter to chapter, race, class, and gender receive even more attention, with more discussions, more Diversity Snapshot figures, and more Social Diversity boxes.

Sites to See. Another new feature is a listing of worthwhile Internet sites. Placed at the end of each chapter along with explanatory annotations, these sites will introduce students to a wide range of organizations involved in relevant research or social action.

New chapter-opening vignettes. This revision keeps the best of the popular chapter-opening vignettes and adds eleven new ones. All vignettes add interest as students begin a chapter, and provide important lessons about the topic at hand.

The latest statistical data. Instructors count on this text for including the very latest statistical data. The sixth edition comes through again, making use of the latest data from the Internet as well as conventional bound publications of various government agencies and private organizations. The author guarantees that the newest available statistics are used throughout the text—in many cases for 1999 and even for 2000. In addition, the author regularly reviews more than one dozen journals as well as a wide range of media publications. The result: Readers will find several hundred new research citations as well as many familiar current events that elevate the interest of students.

New topics. The sixth edition of Society: The Basics is completely updated with new and expanded discussions in every chapter. Here is a partial listing, by chapter:

Chapter 1 Sociology: Perspective, Theory, and Method: A new chapter opening contrasts the rich and poor in Boston, Massachusetts; there are updates of suicide patterns in the United States; the discussion of social change and the emergence of sociology has been reorganized; find an update on women in professional sports as well as a new Diversity Snapshot figure on race and football; the sociological methodology section has been heavily revised to contrast three approaches: scientific sociology, interpretive sociology, and critical sociology; the chapter ends with an updated and expanded list of Applications and Exercises as well as new Sites to See.

Chapter 2 Culture: A new chapter opening traces the rise of hip-hop culture; two new national maps showing beer and wine consumption illustrate high and popular culture; many updated examples and illustrations are found throughout the chapter; the chapter ends with an expanded list of Applications and Exercises as well as new Sites to See.

Chapter 3 Socialization: This chapter includes an update on U.S. television watching, a new national map on newspaper readership, and recent research on television and violence; a new figure highlights young people's trust in parents; expanded and updated Applications and Exercises are included as well as numerous new Sites to See.

Chapter 4 Social Interaction in Everyday Life: This chapter now has more emphasis on applications throughout; an expanded Applications and Exercises section includes new on-campus activities; there are also several new Web destinations in the Sites to See.

Chapter 5 Groups and Organizations: A major reorganization of this chapter adds discussion of early scientific management and traces the evolution of organization toward a flatter, flexible, "intelligent" form; the chapter also contrasts the rise of intelligent organizations doing highly skilled postindustrial work with the countertrend toward low-skill service work, often called "McJobs."

Chapter 6 Deviance: A new chapter opening points out weaknesses in the criminal justice system; there are new sections on corporate crime and organized crime; all crime statistics are updated; a new Critical Thinking box explains the recent decline in violent crime; the chapter ends with new Applications and Exercises as well as new Sites to See.

Chapter 7 Sexuality: This new chapter highlights the socially constructed character of human sexuality; the chapter takes a global view of sexuality, and also surveys a number of sexuality issues, from sexual orientation to sexual violence; there are several new boxes, a new national map on births to teenage women, and new Applications and Exercises as well as new Sites to See.

Chapter 8 Social Stratification: This chapter has a reorganized discussion of caste and class; recent changes in the British aristocracy are noted; find updates on income and wealth disparity in the United States; there are new data tracking rising African American affluence; new Applications and Exercises and new Sites to See conclude the chapter.

Chapter 9 Global Stratification: A new opening profiles wage slavery in the sweatshops of a Pacific territory controlled by the United States; a dramatic new Global Sociology box describes the culture of slavery in North Africa; the chapter includes updates on global wealth and well-being; several new Sites to See direct students to sources of global data and further study.

Chapter 10 Gender Stratification: A new chapter opening highlights the 1848 Seneca Falls convention and the women's movement it began; the chapter includes statistical updates on women's pay, schooling, and jobs; a new Diversity Snapshot figure details who does the housework in the United States; many of the Applications and Exercises as well as Sites to See are new.

Chapter 11 Race and Ethnicity: A new Social Diversity box highlights the role played by immigrants in the U.S. economy; the chapter adds a set of four national maps showing the diminishing lands controlled by American Indians; updated statistics reflect the social standings of all racial and ethnic categories in the United States; several new Applications and Exercises as well as new Sites to See end the chapter.

Chapter 12 Economics and Politics: There is a new chapter opening on the trend toward using temporary workers; find updated statistics on the U.S. labor force—including unemployment rates and the gender, racial, and ethnic composition of the labor force; a new Controversy & Debate box highlights corporate welfare; we've added another national map showing where jobs will be a decade from now; the chapter includes an update on political freedoms around the world; a new national map shows the popular vote by county in the 2000 presidential election; there is an update on nuclear proliferation worldwide; several new Applications and Exercises as well as Sites to See complete the chapter.

Chapter 13 Family and Religion: A new chapter opening presents the "family values" debate in terms of a new Vermont law establishing civil unions for same-sex couples; a research update reports on the causes and consequences of cohabiting; a new Critical Thinking box evaluates the covenant marriage law in Louisiana; the chapter notes the rising number of Muslims in the United States; a new Controversy & Debate box looks at the resurgence of prayer in school; find many statistical updates on various measures of religiosity; a new national map shows membership in religious organizations across the United States; there are statistical updates on all the trends regarding family and religious life, as well as new Exercises and Applications and Sites to See.

Chapter 14 Education and Medicine: A new chapter opening looks at a controversial school-funding law in Vermont; a new national map shows life expectancy for women and men across the country; a new Global Sociology box describes the free-fall in life expectancy among men following the collapse of the former Soviet Union; statistical updates are included for all measures of educational achievement and health, and the chapter ends with a number of worthwhile Web sites on these important issues.

Chapter 15 Population, Urbanization, and Environment: This chapter is a new combination of population, urbanization, and environment; a new chapter opening reports on the rapid urban development in Atlanta; find the latest global population figures as well as new demographic data for the United States; there is an update on the development of urban regions and sprawl; throughout the chapter the focus is on the interplay of population, urbanization, and the physical environment; many new Applications and Exercises as well as Sites to See complete the chapter.

Chapter 16 Social Change: Modern and Postmodern Societies: A new chapter-opening vignette illustrates the extent of social change over the course of the twentieth century; expanded coverage of the theories of social movements includes a new discussion of culture theory; a new Critical Thinking box evaluates the changing quality of life in the United States; there are many Applications and Exercises as well as new Sites to See.

A WORD ABOUT LANGUAGE

This text's commitment to representing the social diversity of the United States arid the world carries with it the responsibility to use language thoughtfully. In most cases, we prefer the terms African American and person of color to the word black. We use the terms Hispanic and Latino to refer to people of Spanish descent. Most tables and figures refer to "Hispanics" because this is the term the Census Bureau uses when collecting statistical data about our population.

Students should realize, however, that many individuals do not describe themselves using these terms. Although the term "Hispanic" is commonly used in the eastern part of the United States, and "Latino" and the feminine form "Latina" are widely heard in the West, across the United States people of Spanish descent identify with a particular ancestral nation, whether it be Argentina, Mexico, some other Latin American country, or Spain or Portugal in Europe.

The same holds for Asian Americans. Although this term is a useful shorthand in sociological analysis, most people of Asian descent think of themselves in terms of a specific country of origin (say, Japan, the Philippines, Taiwan, or Vietnam).

In this text, the term "Native American" refers to all the inhabitants of the Americas (including the Hawaiian Islands) whose ancestors lived here prior to the arrival of Europeans. Here again, however, most people in this broad category identify with their historical society (for example, Cherokee, Hopi, or Zuni). The term "American Indian" designates only those Native Americans who live in the continental United States, not including Native peoples living in Alaska or Hawaii.

Learning to think globally also leads us to use language carefully. This text avoids using the word "American"—which literally designates two continents—to refer to just the United States. For example, referring to this country, the term "U.S. economy" is more correct than the "American economy." This convention may seem a small point, but it implies the significant recognition that we in this country represent only one society (albeit a very important one) in the Americas.

A WORD ABOUT WEB SITES

Because of the increasing importance of the Internet, each chapter of this new edition of Society: The Basics ends with a listing of Sites to See. The goal is to provide sites that are current, informative, and, above all, relevant to the topic at hand.

However, students should be mindful of several potential problems. First, Web sites change all the time. Prior to publication, we make every effort to ensure that the sites listed meet our high standards. But readers may find that sites have changed substantially and some may have gone away entirely.

Second, sites have been selected in order to provide different perspectives on various issues. The listing of a site does not imply that the author or publisher agrees with everything—or even anything—on the site. Indeed, we urge students to examine all sites critically.

Third, many of the Web sites listed in this text are popular. Because many people visit them, the sites may be slow in responding. Please be patient or, if a site is too busy, simply move on.

SUPPLEMENTS

Society: The Basics, Sixth Edition, is the heart of an unprecedented multimedia learning package that includes a wide range of proven instructional aids as well as several new ones. As the author of the text, I maintain a keen interest in all the supplements to ensure their quality and integration with the text. The supplements for this revision have been thoroughly updated, improved, and expanded.

FOR THE INSTRUCTOR

Annotated Instructor's Edition. The AIE is a complete student text annotated by the author on every page. Annotations, which have been thoroughly revised for this edition, have won praise from instructors for enriching class presentations. Margin notes include summaries of research findings, statistics from the United States or other nations, insightful quotations, information highlighting patterns of social diversity in the United States, and high-quality survey data from the National Opinion Research Center's (NORC) General Social Survey and from the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (CPSR) World Values Survey.

Data File. This is the "instructor's manual" that is of interest even to those who have never used one before. The Data File provides far more than detailed chapter outlines and discussion questions; it contains statistical profiles of the United States and other nations, summaries of important developments and significant research, and supplemental lecture material for every chapter. The Data File is available in Windows format as well as the traditional print version.

Test Item File. A revised test item file is available in both printed and computerized forms. The file contains 1600 items—100 per chapter—in multiple-choice, true-false, and essay formats. Questions are identified as simple "recall" items or more complex inferential issues, and the answers to all questions are page-referenced to the text. Prentice Hall Custom Test is a test generator designed to allow the creation of personalized exams. It is available in 1aOS, Windows, and Macintosh formats. Prentice Hall also provides a test preparation service to users of this text that is as easy as a call to our toll-free 800 number. Please contact your local Prentice Hall representative for this number.

Film/Video Guide: Prentice Hall Introductory Sociology, Sixth Edition. Keyed to the chapters of this text, this guide describes more than 300 films and videos appropriate for classroom viewing. It also provides summaries, discussion questions, and rental sources for each film and video.

ABC News/Prentice Hall Video Library for Sociology. Few will dispute that video is the most dynamic supplement you can use to enhance a class. However, the quality of the video material and how well it relates to your course still make all the difference. Prentice Hall and ABC News are working together to bring you the best and most comprehensive video ancillaries available in the college market.

Through its wide variety of award-winning programs—Nightline, Business World, On Business, This Week, World News Tonight, 20/20, and The Health Show—ABC offers a resource for feature and documentary-style videos related to the chapters in Society: The Basics, Sixth Edition. The programs have high production quality, present substantial content, and are hosted by well-versed, well-known anchors.

The authors and editors of Prentice Hall have carefully selected videos on topics that complement Society: The Basics, Sixth Edition, and have included notes on how to use them in the classroom. An excellent video guide in the Data File carefully and completely integrates the videos into your lecture. The guide has a synopsis of each video, which shows its relation to the chapter and offers discussion questions to help students focus on how concepts and theories apply to real-life situations.

Volume I—Social Stratification
Volume II—Marriage/Families
Volume III—Race/Ethnic Relations
Volume IV—Criminology
Volume V—Social Problems Volume
VI—Intro to Sociology I Volume
VII—Intro to Sociology II Volume
VIII—Intro to Sociology III
Volume IX—Social Problems II
Volume X—Marriage/Families II
Volume XI—Race and Ethnic Relations II
Volume XII—Institutions
Volume XIII—Introductory Sociology IV
Volume XIV—Introductory Sociology V

Prentice Hall Introductory Sociology PowerPoint Transparencies. Created by Roger J. Eich of Hawkeye Community College, this PowerPoint slide set combines graphics and text in a colorful format to help you convey sociological principles in a new and exciting way. Created in PowerPoint, an easy-to-use, widely available software program, this set contains over 300 slides keyed to each chapter in the text. They are easily downloadable from the Companion Website.

Prentice Hall Color Transparencies: Sociology Series VI. Full-color illustrations, charts, and other visual materials from the text as well as outside sources have been selected to make up this useful in-class tool.

Instructor's Guide to Prentice Hall Color Transparencies: Sociology Series VI. This guide offers suggestions for effectively using each transparency in the classroom.

MEDIA SUPPLEMENTS

Companion Website. In tandem with the text, students and professors can now take full advantage of the Internet to enrich their study of sociology. The Macionis Companion Website continues to lead the way in providing students with avenues for delving deeper into the topics covered in the text. Features of the Companion Website include chapter objectives, study questions, and faculty resources, as well as links to interesting material and information from other sites on the Web that will reinforce and enhance the content of each chapter. Visit the site at http://www.prenhaIl.com/macionis, click on the cover of the Sixth Edition, and enter the access code that is packaged with this new textbook. An innovative new feature of the Companion Website is a research database—ContentSelect—developed by Prentice Hall and EBSCO, the world leader in online journal subscription management. With instant access to more than 100 sociological journals and leading popular magazines and newspapers, students have a twenty-four-hour-a-day window into the leading content in sociology from their own home computer.

Online Learning Solutions. Prentice Hall is committed to helping instructors offer courses over the Internet by developing relationships with the leading vendors—Blackboard and Web CTTM—as well as our own course management system, Course Compass, powered by Blackboard. Through these relationships, we provide premium, book-specific content in the delivery method of your choice. Please contact your local Prentice Hall representative to find out more about our solutions in this area.

Sociology on the Internet: A Critical Thinking Guide, 2001. This guide focuses on developing the critical thinking skills necessary to evaluate and use online sources. The guide also provides a brief introduction to navigating the Internet, along with references related specifically to the discipline of sociology and instructions on how to use the Companion Website for Society: The Basics, Sixth Edition. It is free to students when shrinkwrapped as a package with Society: The Basics, Sixth Edition. Please contact your local Prentice Hall representative for your packaging options.

Society: The Basics, Interactive Edition. Believing strongly that equal access to learning resources is as important as ever, Society: The Basics, Interactive Edition, offers students review and study material in a rich multimedia environment. The CD-ROM includes multimedia chapter introductions, author's tip videos, video application exercises, interactive U.S. and global maps, substantial portions of the text, review questions, chapter summaries, and text-specific Web links. When purchasing a new textbook, the CD-ROM is free to each student.

FOR THE STUDENT

Study Guide. This complete guide helps students review and reflect on the material presented in Society: The Basics, Sixth Edition. Each of the sixteen chapters in the study guide provides an overview of the corresponding chapter in the text, summarizes its major topics and concepts, and offers applied exercises and end-of-chapter tests with solutions.

Seeing Ourselves: Classic, Contemporary, and Cross-Cultural Readings in Sociology, Fifth Edition. Create an even more powerful learning package by combining this text with the fifth edition of the best-selling anthology, Seeing Ourselves, edited by John J. Macionis and Nijole V Benokraitis (University of Baltimore). Instructors favor this reader's unique format: Clusters of readings—classic works, well-rounded contemporary research, and cross-cultural comparisons—correspond to all the major topics included in this text.

The New York Times supplement, Themes o f the Times, for Introductory Sociology. The New York Times and Prentice Hall are sponsoring Themes of the Times, a program designed to enhance student access to current information relevant to the classroom. Through this program, the core subject matter provided in this text is supplemented by a collection of timely articles from one of the world's most distinguished newspapers, The New York Times. These articles demonstrate the vital, ongoing connection between what is learned in the classroom and what is happening in the world around us.

To enjoy the wealth of information of The New York Times daily, a reduced subscription rate is available. For information, call toll-free 1-800631-1222. Prentice Hall and The New York Times are proud to co-sponsor Themes of the Times. We hope it will make the reading of both textbooks and newspapers a more dynamic and involving process.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted September 2, 2000

    Solid work but it has problems

    This text is solid. It attempts to examine sociological issues concisely. It is not loaded with difficult jargon and students can follow along. The problem with the text is that it does not incorporate enough information about people of color (e.g., blacks, latinos, asians). Nor does it include discussions about disabled persons. I did not use the CD rom.

    1 out of 2 people found this review helpful.

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  • Posted December 5, 2009

    more from this reviewer

    A Beautiful Mind

    This book is for everyone, from the general reader to the scholar. Macionis capitalizes on all aspects of society as a whole. He reminds you how society can be great and how far from perfect, we really are. This book is not only compelling but is a book that will have you thinking about real world problems and if you are a person who is blessed to be doing well it will make you think about how you can help others who are not. Nevertheless, if you are person who is looking for a book that never slows down this is for you.

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
  • Anonymous

    Posted June 21, 2012

    No text was provided for this review.

  • Anonymous

    Posted July 14, 2010

    No text was provided for this review.

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