Sociolinguistic Theory / Edition 3

Sociolinguistic Theory / Edition 3

by J. K. Chambers
     
 

ISBN-10: 140515246X

ISBN-13: 9781405152464

Pub. Date: 12/28/2008

Publisher: Wiley

The revised edition of Sociolinguistic Theory presents a critical synthesis of sociolinguistics, centering on the study of language variation and change.

  • A revised introduction to sociolinguistic theory by one of the top scholars in the field
  • Provides a critical synthesis of sociolinguistics that centres on the

Overview

The revised edition of Sociolinguistic Theory presents a critical synthesis of sociolinguistics, centering on the study of language variation and change.

  • A revised introduction to sociolinguistic theory by one of the top scholars in the field
  • Provides a critical synthesis of sociolinguistics that centres on the study of language variation and change, now incorporating the latest developments in the field
  • Shows how empirical explorations have made sociolinguistics the most stimulating field in the contemporary study of language
  • Discusses the linguistic variable and its significance, crucial social variables such as social stratification, sex,
    and age, and the cultural significance of linguistic variation

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781405152464
Publisher:
Wiley
Publication date:
12/28/2008
Series:
Language in Society Series
Edition description:
Revised
Pages:
332
Product dimensions:
6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 0.80(d)

Table of Contents

List of Figures xiii

List of Tables xv

Series Editor's Preface xvii

Preface to the First Edition xviii

Preface to the Second Edition xxi

Preface to the Revised Edition xxii

Acknowledgments xxiii

1 Correlations 1

1.1 The Domain of Sociolinguistics 2

1.1.1 Personal characteristics 2

1.1.2 Linguistic styles 4

1.1.3 Social characteristics 6

1.1.4 Sociocultural factors 8

1.1.5 Sociological factors 9

1.1.6 Sociolinguistics and the sociology of language 10

1.2 The Variable as a Structural Unit 11

1.2.1 Coexistent systems and free variation 12

1.2.2 The sociolinguistic enterprise 14

1.2.2.1 Precursors 14

1.2.2.2 Labov's New York survery 16

1.2.2.3 Linguistic variables 17

1.2.2.4 Independent variables 17

1.2.2.5 Speech in the community 18

1.2.2.6 One subject, Susan Salto 19

1.2.2.7 All subjects in three social classes 21

1.2.3 Figures and tables 22

1.3 Variation and the Tradition of Categoricity 25

1.3.1 Langue and parole 25

1.3.2 The axiom of categoricity 26

1.3.3 Communicative competence 28

1.3.4 Linguistics without categoricity 32

1.3.5 Categorical theory and variation theory 34

1.3.6 Categoricity in other disciplines 35

2 Class, Network, and Mobility 38

2.1 Social Class and Sociolinguistic Sampling 40

2.1.1 Blue collar and white collar 41

2.1.2 Judgment samples 42

2.1.3 Random samples 43

2.2 Indexing Social Class 45

2.2.1 Socioeconomic indices 46

2.2.2 Subject indices 48

2.2.3 The primacy of occupation as a determinant of class 50

2.3 Class Markers 53

2.3.1 Spreading the news in Westerntown 53

2.3.2 Boston "short o" 55

2.3.3 Norwich (a:) 55

2.3.4 Grammatical variables 56

2.3.5 Montrealque-deletion 57

2.4 The Effects of Mobility 58

2.4.1 Caste and class 58

2.4.2 Comparative mobility 58

2.4.3 Mobility in language variation 59

2.4.4 Decline of Briticisms in Canadian English 60

2.4.5 New York (th) and (dh) 62

2.4.6 Mobility as a leveling force 64

2.5 Homogenization 65

2.5.1 /a/-deletion in Sheshatshiu 66

2.5.2 /ou/ in Milton Keynes 67

2.5.3 The persistence of homogenization 70

2.5.4 (aw)-fronting in Canada 71

2.5.5 Dialect laws of mobility and isolation 73

2.6 Networks 74

2.6.1 Norm enforcement 74

2.6.2 Network and class 75

2.6.3 Some network studies 76

2.6.4 Measures of network bonds 79

2.6.5 Sociometrics 81

2.6.6 Measures of network integration 83

2.7 Linguistic Correlates of Network Integration 85

2.7.1 Phonological markers in Martha's Vineyard 86

2.7.2 Grammatical markers in the Reading playgrounds 87

2.8 Interaction of Network and Other Independent Variables 89

2.8.1 Social class 89

2.8.2 Sex 89

2.8.3 Age 90

2.8.3.1 Network change in Detroit 90

2.9 Oddballs and Insiders 92

2.9.1 Outsiders 96

2.9.1.1 Lames in Harlem 96

2.9.1.2 Ignaz in Grossdorf 99

2.9.2 Aspirers 100

2.9.2.1 A, B, and C in Articlave 100

2.9.2.2 Samson in Anniston 104

2.9.3 Interlopers 106

2.9.3.1 Mr J in Toronto 106

2.9.3.2 Newcomers in King of Prussia 108

2.9.4 Insiders 109

2.9.4.1 A "typical" boy in a New England village 109

2.9.4.2 Elizabeth in Toronto 110

2.9.4.3 Insiders as language leaders 112

2.9.5 The linguistic limits of individuation 113

3 Expressing Sex and Gender 115

3.1 The Interplay of Biology and Sociology 116

3.1.1 Sex and gender 116

3.1.2 Some sex differences 118

3.1.3 Probabilistic, not absolute, differences 119

3.1.4 Vocal pitch as a sex difference 119

3.2 Sex Patterns with Stable Variables 120

3.2.1 Variable (ng) 120

3.2.1.1 The regional variant [in] 121

3.2.1.2 Variant [characters not reproducible n] as a sex marker 122

3.2.2 Norwich (ng) 122

3.2.3 Sydney (ng) 123

3.3 Language, Gender, and Mobility in Two Communities 125

3.3.1 Inner-city Detroit 125

3.3.1.1 Variable (th) 126

3.3.1.2 Variable (r) 126

3.3.1.3 Multiple negation 128

3.3.1.4 Copula deletion 129

3.3.1.5 Gender roles in inner-city Detroit 130

3.3.2 Ballymacarrett, Belfast 132

3.3.2.1 Variable ([Lambda]) 134

3.3.2.2 Variable (th) 134

3.3.2.3 Variable ([epsilon]) 135

3.3.2.4 Variable ([characters not reproducible]) 135

3.3.2.5 Gender roles in Ballymacarrett 135

3.4 Sex and Gender Differences in Language 136

3.4.1 Gender-based variability 136

3.4.1.1 Isolation and gender roles 138

3.4.1.2 Shifting roles in coastal South Carolina 139

3.4.1.3 Mobility and gender roles 140

3.4.2 Sex-based variability 141

3.4.2.1 MC blurring of gender roles 141

3.4.2.2 "Status consciousness" 142

3.4.2.3 "Face" 144

3.4.2.4 Sociolinguistic ability 145

3.4.2.5 Verbal ability 146

3.4.2.6 Psychological explanations 147

3.4.2.7 Sex differences 148

3.4.2.8 Insignificance of individual differences 149

3.5 Male and Female Speech Patterns in Other Societies 151

3.5.1 Limits on female-male differences 151

3.5.2 Putative differences in Japan 152

3.5.3 The Middle East 154

3.5.3.1 (q) in Cairo, Amman, and elsewhere 155

3.5.3.2 A gender-based explanation 156

3.5.3.3 Prestige and standard varieties 157

3.6 Linguistic Evidence for Sex and Gender Differences 158

4 Accents in Time 159

4.1 Aging 160

4.1.1 Physical and cultural indicators 160

4.1.2 Some linguistic indicators 162

4.2 The Acquisition of Sociolects 165

4.2.1 Three formative periods 166

4.2.2 Development of stylistic and social variants 166

4.2.2.1 Style-shifting by Edinburgh schoolboys 167

4.2.2.2 Communal patterns in Scottish 10-year-olds 168

4.2.2.3 Emerging African American phonology in Washington 169

4.3 Family and Friends 170

4.3.1 Dialect acquisition 172

4.3.1.1 Six Canadians in England 172

4.3.1.2 British twins in Australia 174

4.3.2 Generational differences in bilingual situations 175

4.3.2.1 Language shift in Oberwart, Austria 175

4.3.2.2 Loan words in Spanish Harlem 177

4.3.3 Parents versus peers 180

4.4 Declarations of Adolescence 181

4.4.1 An adolescent majority 181

4.4.2 Outer markings including slang 182

4.4.3 Adolescent networks and linguistic variation 184

4.4.3.1 Jocks and Burnouts in Detroit 185

4.4.3.2 Burnouts and Rednecks in Farmer City 187

4.5 Young Adults in the Talk Market 189

4.5.1 The marche linguistique 190

4.5.2 "Legitimized language" in Montreal 191

4.5.2.1 Auxiliary avoir and etre 192

4.5.3 Playing the talk market 194

4.5.4 Linguistic stability in middle and old age 197

4.6 Changes in Progress 198

4.6.1 Age-grading 200

4.6.1.1 Zee and zed in southern Ontario 201

4.6.1.2 Glottal stops in Glasgow 203

4.6.2 Real time and apparent time 206

4.6.2.1 Real-time changes in Tsuruoka 207

4.6.2.2 An apparent-time change in Milwaukee 211

4.6.3 Testing the apparent-time hypothesis 213

4.6.3.1 Slower progress at higher frequencies: (e) in Norwich 213

4.6.3.2 Verifying inferences about change: (CH) in Panama 217

5 Adaptive Significance of Language Variation 220

5.1 The Babelian Hypothesis 221

5.1.1 The evidence of subjective reaction tests 222

5.1.1.1 Teachers' evaluations of students 223

5.1.1.2 Employers' evaluations of job candidates 223

5.1.2 Dialect as a source of conflict 224

5.2 Global Counteradaptivity and Local Adaptivity 225

5.2.1 Counteradaptivity and power 226

5.2.2 Adaptivity and community 227

5.3 Dialects in Lower Animals 229

5.3.1 Buzzy and Clear white-crowned sparrows 229

5.3.2 The theory of genetic adaptation 231

5.3.3 The theory of social adaptation 233

5.4 The Persistence of the Non-Standard 234

5.4.1 Covert prestige 235

5.4.2 Status and solidarity 238

5.4.2.1 Jewish and MC accents in Montreal 238

5.4.2.2 High and low accents in Guangzhou 239

5.5 Traditional Theories of the Sources of Diversity 240

5.5.1 Variation and climates 241

5.5.2 Variation and contact 243

5.5.3 The prevalence of diversity 244

5.6 A Sociolinguistic Theory of the Sources of Diversity 245

5.6.1 Linguistic diversity and social strata 246

5.6.2 Two tenets about standard dialects 247

5.6.2.1 Naturalness and economy 248

5.6.2.2 Medial /t/ 249

5.6.2.3 Economy as a general linguistic force 250

5.6.2.4 Morpheme-final consonant clusters 251

5.6.2.5 Standard and non-standard (CC) 251

5.6.3 Naturalness beyond phonetics 252

5.6.3.1 The principle of conjugation regularization 253

5.6.3.2 Standard and non-standard conjugation regularization 255

5.6.4 Two constraints on variation in standard dialects 257

5.7 Vernacular Roots 258

5.7.1 Diffusionist and structural explanations 259

5.7.2 Problems with the diffusionist position 259

5.7.3 The internal-structural position 261

5.7.4 Primitive and learned features 263

5.7.4.1 Obstruent devoicing in second-language learning 263

5.7.4.2 Devoicing and voicing medial /t/ 264

5.7.5 Sociolinguistic implications 265

5.8 Linguistic Variation and Social Identity 266

Notes 270

References 274

Index 294

Customer Reviews

Average Review:

Write a Review

and post it to your social network

     

Most Helpful Customer Reviews

See all customer reviews >