Sociology / Edition 1

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Overview

For one-quarter/semester Introductory Sociology courses at 4-year schools.

With a straight-forward, one-color presentation, Jonathan Turner offers the most comprehensive and theoretical introduction to sociology. This format allows students to read and focus on what is most important . The extensive table of contents offers choices when considering the material to be covered in a typical course in a modular, yet integrated way. With uncommon depth and breadth of coverage, Sociology covers the most important key concepts and ideas from the world of sociology.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780131134966
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 9/1/2005
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 432
  • Product dimensions: 7.95 (w) x 9.84 (h) x 1.02 (d)

Meet the Author

Jonathan H. Turner, the Distinguished Professor of Sociology at the University of California at Riverside, has taught numerous courses throughout the years, but always enjoyed introducing students to sociology through teaching the introductory course. Professor Turner received a B.A. with honors from University of California at Santa Barbara, a M.A. and doctorate in sociology from Cornell University.

Dr. Turner has authored, co-authored, edited, or co-edited a number of works, including The Structure of Sociological Theory, The Emergence of Sociological Theory, Patterns of Social Organization, Inequality: Privilege and Poverty in America (with Charles Starnes), and many others. His areas of specialization touch many areas within the discipline of sociology such as sociological theory, human and societal evolution, social stratification and inequality, philosophy of science, and historical sociology.

Professor Turner is a member of the American Sociological Association and a former president of the Pacific Sociological Society. He has been the journal editor for Sociological Perspectives and is currently the journal editor for Sociological Theory.

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Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Prologue: Gaining Perspective from a Timeline of Human Society

PART I: THE SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION

Chapter 1: The Origins and Nature of Sociology

Auguste Comte

Harriet Martineau

Sociology and the Enlightenment

Herbert Spencer

Émile Durkheim

Karl Marx

Max Weber

The Early American Tradition

George Herbert Mead

The Chicago School of Sociology and its Competitors

The Early Emphasis on Sociological Practice

Jane Adams and Hull House

William E. B. Du Bois

The Study of Sociology Today

Chapter 2: The Scientific Method and Sociology

The Nature of Science

Methods in Sociology

Experiments

Surveys

Observations

Histories

Does Science Take Away Humanism?

Scientific Sociology and Social Practice

Chapter 3: Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology

Problems in Developing Scientific Theories

Theoretical Orientations in Sociology

Functional Theorizing

Evolutionary Theories

Ecological Theories

Conflict Theories

Critical Theories

Postmodern Theories

Interactionist Theories

Utilitarian Theories

The State of Theory in Sociology

PART II: BASIC ELEMENTS OF SOCIAL ORGANIZATION

Chapter 4: Biology

Natural Selection as a Driving Force

The Evolution of Primates

The Biological Parameters of Human Organization

The Consequences of Visual Dominance

The Consequences of Having a Large Brain

The Consequences of Being Bi-pedal

Human Nature

Human Biological Capacities

Large Brains and Culture

The Brain and Emotions

The Brain and Vision

The Brain and Language

The Body and Culture

Human Biology and Behavioral Propensities

Sex and Behavior

Human Sociality

Reciprocity

Attention to Face

Attention to Emotions

Rationality

Nature vs. Nurture

Chapter 5: Culture

A World of Symbols

Symbols and Society

Systems of Symbols

Language

Technology

Values

Beliefs

Norms

Stocks of Knowledge

Cultural Variations

Cultural Conflict

Subcultures

Cultural Contradictions

Ethnocentrism

Culture and Media

Chapter 6: Social Structure

Basic Building Blocks of Social Structure

Positions

Roles

Status-sets

Role-sets

Role-Strain and Role-Conflict

Networks of Positions

Dimensions of Structure

Types of Social Structures

Corporate Units

Encounters

Groups

Organizations

Communities

Categoric Structures

Stratification Systems

Institutional Systems

Societies

Inter-societal Systems

Levels of Social Structure

The Power of Social Structure

Summary

Key Terms

Chapter 7: Social Interaction

Symbolic Interaction

The Dramatic Presentation of Self

The Implicit Use of Folk Methods

Interaction in Roles

Interaction with Reference Groups

Interaction and the Social Order

Summary

Key Terms

Chapter 8: Socialization

Socialization and Society

The Process of Socialization

Stages of Socialization

Socialization into Early Adulthood

Adult Socialization

Agents of Socialization

Individuals

Groups

Organizations

Categories

Community

Media

Institutional Spheres

Stability and Change in the Social Order

Chapter 9: Social Control

The Problem of Order

Forces of Disorder

Population Size

Differentiation

Inequality

Macro Forces of Social Control: Markets and Government

Micro-level Forces of Social Control

Socialization

Sanctioning

Rituals

Segregation of Activities

Meso-level Forces of Social Control

Organizations

Communities

Deviance

The Functional Theory of Structural Strain

The Conflict Perspective on Deviance

Interactionist Approaches to Deviance

Utilitarian Theories of Deviance

Summary

Key Terms

PART III: TYPES OF SOCIAL STRUCTURES: CORPORATE UNITS

Chapter 10: Encounters

Focused Encounters

Rituals

Forms of Talk

Frames

Categorization

Body Language

Emotions

Roles

Self and Identity

Props

Demography and Ecology

The Person, Culture, and Social Structure

Unfocused Encounters

Chapter 11: Groups

The Power of Groups

Primary and Secondary Groups

The Effects of Group Size

Size and the Changing Structure of the Group

The Respective Power of Primary and Secondary Groups

Group Dynamics

Leadership

Decision-making

Cohesiveness and Solidarity

Free Riding

Clique and Subgroup Formation

Expectation States

Referencing and Reference Groups

Virtual Groups

Bottlenecks

Chapter 12: Organizations

Max Weber’s Ideal Type of Formal Organizations

Types of Formal Organizations

The Ecology of Organizations

The Internal Dynamics of Organizations

The Informal System

Authority

Authority and Conflict

Tasks and Authority

Control and Authority

Organizational Culture

Problems of Personnel

Parkinson’s Law

The “Peter Principle”

Ritualism

Alienation

The Changing Structure of Formal Organizations

Pressures from Technology

Pressures from Globalization

Hyperrationality

Chapter 13: Communities

Urbanization

Agriculture and Urbanization

Industrialization and Urbanization

Early Studies of City Life

The Chicago School and Urban Ecology

The Study of Urban Life

Suburbanization

The Emergence of Suburbs

Studies of Suburban Life

Early Studies of Suburban Life

Later Studies of Suburban Life

Exurbia

Metropolitan Regions

New Urban Trends

Resettlement of the Core City

Mega and World Cities

PART IV: TYPES OF SOCIAL STRUCTUES: STRATIFICATION OF CATEGORIC UNITS

Chapter 14: Class Stratification

Stratification

What is Class Stratification?

Analyzing Stratification

Karl Marx on Stratification

Max Weber on Stratification

The Functional Theory of Stratification

Evolutionary Theories of Stratification

Class Systems

Pierre Bourdieu’s Analysis of “Distinction”

The Class System and Public Behavior

Class Stratification in America

Inequalities of Resources

Class Formation

Poverty in America

Summary

Key Terms

Chapter 15: Ethnic Stratification

Race and Ethnicity

Race as a Social Construct

Prejudice and Discrimination

The Dynamics of Ethnic Stratification

The Relative Resources of Ethnic Populations

The Identifiability of an Ethnic Population

The Level and Type of Discrimination

The Degree of Threat Posed by an Ethnic Population

Prejudicial Beliefs about an Ethnic Population

A Model of Ethnic Antagonism

Ethnic Discrimination in America

Native Americans

African Americans

Latinos

Mexican-Americans

Puerto Ricans

Cuban Americans

Asian Americans

White Americans

The United States as a Multi-ethnic Society

Chapter 16: Gender Stratification

Sex and Gender

Explanations for Gender Stratification

Sociobiological Theories

Functional Theories

Conflict Theories

Interactionist Theories

A General Model of Gender Stratification

Gender Stratification in America

The Cycles of the Gender Stratification System

The Feminist Movement

PART V: INSTITUTIONAL SYSTEMS

Chapter 17: Economy

Basic Elements of All Economies

Technology

Labor

Capital

Entrepreneurship

Types of Economies

Hunting and Gathering Economies

Horticultural Economies

Agrarian Economies

Industrial Economies

Post-industrial Economies

Trends in Post-industrial Economies

The Reorganization of Production

The Production of Services

The Expansion of Markets

Hyperdifferentiation

Hyperrationality

Post-industrial Economies: An Overview

The American Economy

Oligopoly

Multinationalization of Corporations

Declining Union Membership

Professionalization

Government and the Economy

Growing Inequality

Increasing Risk for Workers

Chapter 18: Government

The Emergence of Polity

Basic Elements of All Polities

The Bases of Power

The Coercive Base of Power

The Symbolic Base of Power

The Administrative Base of Power

The Material Incentive Base of Power

The Rise of the State

Trends in Governmental Organization

The Growing Scale of Government

The Bureaucratization of Government

Centralization of Government

The Importance of Law

The Increasing Reliance on Material Incentives

The Decline in Coercive Repression

Democratization

Government in America

The Structure of American Government

The Growth in Government

Government and Taxation

Problems and Dilemmas in American Governance

Is There A Power Elite?

Voting and Political Power

Legislative Decision-making

Centralization of Power

Americans’ Ambivalence about Government

Chapter 19: Kinship and Family

Explanations of Kinship

Sociobiological Explanations

Functional Explanations

Basic Elements of Kinship

Marriage Rules

Descent Rules

Residence Rules

Rules of Family Size and Composition

Rules on the Division of Labor

Rules of Authority

Rules of Dissolution

Historical Trends in the Structure of Kinship

From Relative Equality

Toward Growing Inequality and Patriarchy

A Conflict Perspective on Family

Kinship in America

The Basic Structure

Romantic Love and Marriage

Divorce and Dissolution in American Families

Single-parent Households

Family Violence

An Empty Nest Syndrome?

Emerging Alternative Families

Gay and Lesbian Couples

Cohabitation

Families without Children

Being Single

The Future of the Family in America

Chapter 20: Religion

Basic Elements of Religion

The Sacred and Profane

Beliefs and Values

Rituals

Cult Structures

The Evolution of Religion

Religion in Simple Hunting-gathering Societies

The Elaboration of Religion

The Trend Toward Simplification of Religions

A Conflict Perspective on Religion

Religion in America

The History of Religion in America

The Ecology of Religion in America

Religious Conflict in America

Religiosity in America

Social Characteristic of Religious Memberships

Religion and Income

Religion and Education

Religion and Family

Religion and Politics

Race, Ethnicity, and Religion

Chapter 21: Education

The Emergence of Formal Education

Explaining the Dynamics of Education

A Functionalist Explanation

The Conflict Theory Corrective to Functional Analysis

A Further Corrective from an Interactionist Perspective

The Structure of Educational Systems

Education in America

The Structure of Lower American Education

Mass Education

Education and Democracy

Decentralization

Privatization

Home Schooling

Year-Round Schooling

Higher Education in America

The Scale of the System

The Diversity of the System

The Research Mission

Students in the System

Enduring Problems and Dilemmas of Lower Education

Schools and Stratification

Discipline and Violence

School Finances

Vouchers and School Choice

Declining Academic Standards

Enduring Problems in Higher Education

Credentialism

Funding

Teaching vs. Research

Corporatization

Affirmative Action, Diversity, and Equity

PART VI: SOCIAL CHANGE AND TRANSFORMATION

Chapter 22: Social Movements

Preconditions of Social Movements

Conditions Leading to the Emergence of a Social Movement

Conditions Increasing Participation in Social Movements

The Intensification of Dissent

Social Networks and Recruiting Members

Justifying Movement Participation: Beliefs and Frames

Resources and Social Movement Organizations

Collective Behavior

Theoretical Approaches to Crowd Behavior

Types of Crowds

The Context of Crowd Behavior

Social Movements and Change

The Aftermath of Dissent

Chapter 23: Revolution, War, and Terrorism

Collective Violence in Societies

Revolutions

Civil Wars

War

A Brief History of Warfare

Modern Warfare

The Consequences of Mass Violence

The Aftermath of Mass Violence

The Effects of War and War Preparedness

Terrorism

Is Terrorism Increasing?

Explaining Terrorism

World System Dynamics and Terrorism

Chapter 24: Globalization

Forces of Globalization

Technological Innovations

Warfare and the State

Markets

Problems with Globalization

Outsourcing and the Loss of Jobs

Stalled Development

Environmental Degradation

World Inequality

World-level Misery

Determining the Level of World Inequality

Trends in Inequality

Problems Posed by World Inequality

Malthusian Problems

Geopolitical Problems

Geoeconomic Problems

Explaining Global Inequality

Modernization Approaches

Dependency Approaches

World Systems Approaches

Factors Favoring or Retarding Economic Growth

Chapter 25: Population and Ecology

Population and Demography

Population Size and Growth

The Demographic Transition

Characteristics of the Population

Population Movements

Ecology and the Environment

Ecosystem Processes

Ecological Disruption

Population, Pollution, and Sociocultural Organization

Glossary

Index

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