Sociology of Organizations: Structures and Relationships

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Sociology of Organizations: Structures and Relationships is a timely and unique collection of both classic and contemporary studies of organizations. Designed around competing theoretical frameworks, this cutting-edge book examines organizations with attention to structure and objectives, interactions among members and among organizations, the relationship between the organization and its environment and the social significance or social meaning of the organization. This volume sheds light on some of the most interesting changes and challenges facing organizations today: the integration of new media, the implementation of diversity and inclusion, and the promotion of sustainable workforce engagement. Lively and provocative, this textbook is theoretically rigorous, disciplinarily informed and representative of heterogeneity within organization studies.

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Editorial Reviews

Albert J. Mills
"Sociology of Organizations: Structures and Relationships is a timely and unique book. It is timely given the growing interest in sociology in the field of management and organization studies — sparked not only by the continued success of sociologically inspired schools of thought (e.g., contingency theory and new institutionalism) but also by the rapid growth of critical management studies. The book is unique in the way it builds its theoretical/historical account through a relational rather than a formal bureaucratic approach. To me this is, quite simply, cutting edge. The centering of Mary Parker Follett in the account is inspired. Overall the book challenges current wisdom about the history of management thought and its bureaucratic roots – and this is a good thing! "
Rosabeth Moss Kanter
"Sociology of Organizations is a far-reaching collection of classics and contemporary studies, insightfully organized around competing frameworks that spring to life in the capable hands of Professors Godwyn and Gittell. More comprehensive than the usual textbook, it not only builds on the past but also sheds light on some of the most pressing problems facing organizations today: new media, diversity and inclusion, and workforce engagement. This valuable book should reach a wide audience. "
Lotte Bailyn
"What a great collection! By adding Follett to the classics and including contemporary organizational issues like diversity and new technology, Godwyn and Gittell provide for students and professionals a nuanced and compelling insight into organizational life. In addition, their general and section introductions wonderfully interweave a substantive and theoretical web across all these topics. Sociology of Organizations is an important book that transcends simplistic understandings of bureaucracy and individualistic rational theories of action. Its emphasis on a relational perspective highlights the role of people and their interactions in understanding organizations. Altogether a significant new look at key issues in modern society. "
Ofer Sharone
“Sociology of Organizations: Structures and Relationships masterfully weaves together classic and current texts to bring to life the most pressing modern day issues that organizations face, from managing diversity within organizations to how the latest technologies, such as social media, are reshaping the boundaries of organizations. This extremely well thought out and unique book includes penetrating and immensely readable syntheses throughout, clarifying distinct theoretical lenses and creating a rich understanding of organizations. By bringing to the fore the relational organizational form, which traces back to Mary Parker Follett, this book provides a compelling counterpoint to purely bureaucratic analyses and thereby provides a way to understand the direction of the most innovative and cutting edge contemporary organizations. This highly engaging and original book is a must read for anyone interested in understanding modern organizations.”
Richard Boettcher
"The Sociology of Organizations by Mary Godwyn and Jody Gittell is an absolute must read for social work educators and their students because their highly integrated and stimulating text is built on the writings and teachings of one of social work's most significant and original thinkers: Mary Parker Follett. "
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781412991964
  • Publisher: SAGE Publications
  • Publication date: 6/28/2011
  • Pages: 768
  • Product dimensions: 7.10 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.30 (d)

Meet the Author

Mary Godwyn teaches in the History and Society Division at Babson College. She holds a B.A. in Philosophy from Wellesley College and a Ph.D. in Sociology from Brandeis University. She has lectured at Harvard University and taught at Brandeis University and Lasell College, where she was also the Director of the Donahue Institute for Public Values. Godwyn focuses on social theory as it applies to issues of inequality in formal and informal organizations. She studies entrepreneurship as a vehicle for the economic and political advancement of marginalized populations, especially women and minorities. She has published in journals such as Symbolic Interaction (University of California Press), Research in Social Stratification and Mobility (Elsevier), and the Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship. Her books include Minority Women Entrepreneurs: How Outsider Status Can Lead to Better Business Practices (2011), co-authored with Donna Stoddard, D.B.A., published by Greenleaf Publishing and Stanford University Press, and Sociology of Organizations: Structures and Relationships (2011), co-authored with Jody Hoffer Gittell, published by SAGE Publications/Pine Forge Press.

Godwyn served on the executive committee of the Critical Management Studies Division of the Academy of Management from 2008-2011, and was also the 2008 winner of the Dark Side Case Competition for her case "Hugh Connerty and Hooters: What is Successful Entrepreneurship?" Her research has been funded by the Coleman Foundation, the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, the Harold S. Geneen Charitable Trust and the Babson College Board of Research Fund. In addition to scholarship and teaching, Godwyn consults to colleges and universities about the integration of entrepreneurship and liberal arts programs.

Jody Hoffer Gittell teaches human resource management and organizational theory at Brandeis University’s Heller School for Social Policy and Management. She serves as Director of the Relational Coordination Research Collaborative, and Acting Director of the MIT Leadership Center.

Gittell’s research explores how coordination by front-line workers contributes to quality and efficiency outcomes in service settings, with a particular focus on the airline and healthcare industries. She has developed a theory of relational coordination, proposing that highly interdependent work is most effectively coordinated through relationships of shared goals, shared knowledge and mutual respect, and demonstrating how organizations can support (or undermine) relational coordination through the design of their work systems.

Gittell is the author of dozens of articles and chapters, and several books that translate her findings for practitioners. Her books include The Southwest Airlines Way: Using the Power of Relationships to Achieve High Performance (Mc Graw-Hill, 2003), Up in the Air: How the Airlines Can Improve Performance by Engaging Their Employees (Cornell University Press, 2009), High Performance Healthcare: Using the Power of Relationships to Achieve Quality, Efficiency and Resilience (Mc Graw-Hill, 2009), and most recently Sociology of Organizations: Structures and Relationships (co-authored with Mary Godwyn, Ph.D.) (SAGE, 2011).

Gittell won the Outstanding Young Scholar of the Year Award in 2004 from the Labor and Employment Relations Association, a Best Book Award for Industry Studies in 2005 from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, a Best Paper Award in 2008 from the Human Resources Division of the Academy of Management, and the Douglas Mc Gregor Award for Best Paper of the Year in 2008 from the Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. Before joining the faculty at Brandeis University, Gittell received her Ph D from the MIT Sloan School of Management and taught at the Harvard Business School.

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Table of Contents

Introduction PART I. THE RELATIONAL ORGANIZATIONAL FORM Business as an Integrative Unity - Mary Parker Follett Mechanistic and Organic Systems of Management - Tom Burns and G.M. Stalker Markets, Bureaucracies and Clans - William G. Ouchi Neither Market Nor Hierarchy: Network Forms of Organization - Walter Powell Organizational Social Capital and Employment Practices - Carrie Leana and Harry Van Buren Doing Your Job and Helping Your Friends: Universalistic Norms About Obligations to Particular Others - Carol Heimer Social Exchange and Micro Social Order - Edward J. Lawler, Shane R. Thye and Jeongkoo Yoon Part II. THE BUREAUCRATIC ORGANIZATIONAL FORM Bureaucracy - Mary Parker Follett Coordination - Mary Parker Follett The Horizontal Dimension in Bureaucracy - Henry Landsberger The Social Embeddedness of Labor Markets and Cognitive Processes - Michael Piore Defining the Post-Bureaucratic Type - Charles Heckscher Two Types of Bureaucracy: Enabling and Coercive - Paul Adler and Brian Borys Organized Dissonance: Feminist Bureaucracy as Hybrid Form - Karen Ashcraft PART III. COORDINATION OF WORK The Process of Control - Mary Parker Follett Organizations - James March and Herbert Simon Organization Design: An Information Processing View - Jay Galbraith Input Uncertainty and Organizational Coordination in Hospital Emergency Units - Linda Argote Collective Mind in Organizations: Heedful Interrelating on Flight Decks - Karl Weick and Karlene Roberts Coordination in Fast Response Organizations - Samer Faraj and Yin Xiao A Relational Model of How High-Performance Work Systems Work - Jody Hoffer Gittell, Rob Seidner and Julian Wimbush PART IV. AUTONOMY AND CONTROL Fundamentals of Scientific Management - Frederick Winslow Taylor The Basis of Authority - Mary Parker Follett Theory Y: The Integration of Individual and Organizational Goals - Douglas McGregor Toward an Economic Model of the Japanese Firm - Masahiko Aoki Work Organization, Technology and Performance in Customer Service and Sales - Rose Batt Connective Leadership: Female Leadership Styles in the 21st Century Workplace - Jean Lipman-Blumen Trust and Influence in Combat: An Interdependence Model - Patrick Sweeney, Vaida Thompson and Hart Blanton PART V. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE What is Culture? - Edgar A. Schein The Organizational Culture Wars: A Struggle for Intellectual Dominance - Joanne Martin and Peter Frost Moral Economy and Cultural Work - Mark Banks Representing Blue: Representative Bureaucracy and Racial Profiling in the Latino Community - Vicky M. Wilkins and Brian N. Williams This Place Makes Me Proud to be a Woman’: Theoretical Explanation for Success in Entrepreneurship Education for Low-Income Women - Mary Godwyn Hospitals as Cultures of Entrapment: Re-Analysis of the Bristol Royal Infirmary - Karl E. Weick and Kathleen M. Sutcliffe Representative Bureaucracy and Policy Tools: Ethnicity, Student Discipline and Representation in Public Schools - Christine H. Roch, David W. Pitts and Ignaciao Navarro PART VI. ORGANIZATIONAL CONFLICT Capital: A Critique of Political Economy - Karl Marx Constructive Conflict - Mary Parker Follett Organizational Conflict; Concepts and Models - Louis Pondy Marx, Globalization and Alienation: Received and Underappreciated Wisdoms - W. Peter Archibald Racial Inequality in the Workplace: How Critical Management Studies Can Inform Current Approaches - Brenda Johnson Mythicizing and Reification in Entrepreneurial Discourse: Ideology-Critique of Entrepreneurial Studies - John O. Ogbor PART VII. DIVERSITY WITHIN ORGANIZATIONS Women’s Careers in Static and Dynamic Organizations - Elin Kvande and Bente Rasmussen We Have to Make a MANagement Decision: Challenger and the Dysfunctions of Corporate Masculinity - Mark Maier Just One of the Guys: How TransMen Make Gender Visible at Work - Kristen Schilt The Emperor has no Clothes: Rewriting ‘Race in Organizations - Stella Nkomo The Colonizing Consciousness and Representations of the Other: A Postcolonial Critique of the Discourse of Oil - Anshuman Prasad The Disclosure Dilemma for Gay Men and Lesbians: ‘Coming Out’ at Work - Kirstin H. Griffin and Michelle R. Hebl Identification of Work Environments and Employers Open to Hiring and Accommodating People with Disabilities - Dennis Gilbride, Robert Stensrud, David Vandergoot and Kristie Golden PART VIII. ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING AND CHANGE Single-Loop and Double-Loop Models in Research on Organizational Decision-Making - Chris Argyris The Iron Cage Revisited: Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Rationality in Organization Fields - Paul DiMaggio and Walter Powell Organizational Learning - Barbara Levitt and James March The Local and Variegated Nature of Learning in Organizations: A Group-Level Perspective - Amy Edmondson Practical Pushing: Creating Discursive Space in Organizational Narratives - Joyce K. Fletcher, Lotte Bailyn and Stacy Blake Beard Operating Room: Relational Spaces and Micro-institutional Changes in Surgery - Katherine Kellogg PART IX. NEW TECHNOLOGY, SOCIAL MEDIA AND EMERGING COMMUNITIES Constructions and Reconstructions of Self in Virtual Reality: Playing in the MUDs - Sherry Turkle Link, Search, Interact: The Co-Evolution of NGOs and Interactive Technology - Jonathan Bach and David Stark Tweeting the Night Away: Using Twitter to Enhance Social Presence - Joanna C. Dunlap and Patrick R. Lowenthal E-mail in Government: Not Post-Bureaucratic but Late Bureaucratic Organizations - Albert Jacob Meijer On-line Dating in Japan: A Test of Social Information Processing Theory - James Farrer and Jeff Gavin Online Organization of the LGBT Community in Singapore - Joe Phua

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