Sociology: Your Compass for a New World, Brief Edition / Edition 2

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Overview

This balanced,, mainstream, beautifully written and totally up-to-date text is unrivalled in its ability to get students to see the connection between themselves and the social world. It teaches students "how" to think sociologically, not just "what" to think,, and emphasizes the importance of diversity and a global perspective.. It has been heralded for its inclusion of pop culture examples that instantly connect with today's students, and for its presentation of sociological concepts in a fresh, contemp

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780495096337
  • Publisher: Cengage Learning
  • Publication date: 12/19/2006
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 600
  • Product dimensions: 8.40 (w) x 9.90 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Robert J. Brym is Professor of Sociology at the University of Toronto and the 2007 winner of the Northrop Frye Award, given annually to a faculty member for innovation in teaching and conveying the importance of research to students. Brym's favorite course is introductory sociology, which he teaches regularly. He has published widely on politics and society in Russia, Canada, and the Middle East and is currently researching collective and state violence in Israel, the West Bank, and Gaza. He was elected to the Royal Society of Canada (Canada's National Academy) in 2008. Sociology: Your Compass for a New World has appeared in American, Canadian, and Brazilian editions.

John Lie was born in South Korea, grew up in Japan and Hawaii, and attended Harvard University. Currently Professor of Sociology at the University of California, Berkeley, he has taught at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, Harvard University, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and Harvard University in the United States, as well as universities in Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and New Zealand. His main research interests are comparative macrosociology and comparative race and ethnic relations. He has taught introductory sociology classes ranging in size from three to over seven hundred students in several countries, and hopes that this book will stimulate your sociological imagination!

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Table of Contents


Foundations
A Sociological Compass     xxxiv
Introduction     1
Robert Brym's Indirect Road to Sociology     1
A Change of Mind     2
The Sociological Perspective     3
The Sociological Explanation of Suicide     3
The Sociological Imagination     5
Origins of the Sociological Imagination     6
Sociology at the Movies: Minority Report (2002)     7
Sociological Theory and Theorists     9
Functionalism     9
Conflict Theory     10
Symbolic Interactionism     12
Feminist Theory     14
Conducting Research     16
The Research Cycle     17
Ethics in Sociological Research     18
The Main Methods of Sociological Research     19
Experiments     19
Surveys     21
Field Research     22
Analysis of Existing Documents and Official Statistics     23
The Points of the Compass     24
Equality versus Inequality of Opportunity     26
Individual Freedom versus Individual Constraint     26
Where Do You Fit In?     27
Social Policy: What Do You Think? Are Corporate Scandals a Problem ofIndividual Ethics or Social Policy?     28
Chapter Summary     28
Questions to Consider     29
Web Resources     30
Basic Social Processes
Culture     32
Culture as Problem Solving     33
The Origins and Components of Culture     34
Symbols     35
Norms and Values     35
Material and Nonmaterial Cultures     35
Sanctions, Taboos, Mores, and Folkways     36
Language and the Sapir-Whorf Thesis     37
Sociology at the Movies: Paradise Now (2005)     38
Culture as Freedom and Constraint     38
Culture and Ethnocentrism: A Functionalist Analysis of Culture     38
Culture as Freedom     40
Cultural Production and Symbolic Interactionism     40
Cultural Diversity     41
Multiculturalism     41
Social Policy: What Do You Think? Female Genital Mutilation: Cultural Relativism or Ethnocentrism?     43
The Rights Revolution: A Conflict Analysis of Culture     44
From Diversity to Globalization     44
Aspects of Postmodernism     45
Mass Media and Society: English, Globalization, and the Internet     46
Culture as Constraint      50
Values     50
Consumerism     54
You and the Social World: Ads 'R Us     55
From Counterculture to Subculture     55
The Points of the Compass     56
Chapter Summary     57
Questions to Consider     58
Web Resources     58
Socialization     60
Social Isolation and Socialization     61
The Crystallization of Self-Identity     62
Theories of Childhood Socialization     63
Freud     64
Cooley's Symbolic Interactionism     65
Mead     65
Gilligan and Gender Differences     66
Civilizational Differences     66
Agents of Socialization     67
Families     67
Schools     67
Sociology at the Movies: Monster (2003)     68
Class, Race, and Conflict Theory     69
The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy     70
Peer Groups     71
The Mass Media     72
Self-Socialization     73
Gender Roles, the Mass Media, and the Feminist Approach to Socialization     74
Mass Media and Society: Learning Gender Roles through Popular Romance Novels      75
Resocialization and Total Institutions     75
Socialization across the Life Course     76
Adult Socialization and the Flexible Self     76
Identity and the Internet     78
Dilemmas of Childhood and Adolescent Socialization     79
The Emergence of Childhood and Adolescence     79
Problems of Childhood and Adolescent Socialization Today     80
You and the Social World: Your Adolescent Socialization     81
Social Policy: What Do You Think? Socialization versus Gun Control     82
The Points of the Compass     83
Chapter Summary     84
Questions to Consider     84
Web Resources     85
Social Interaction     86
What Is Social Interaction?     87
The Structure of Social Interaction     88
Case Study: Stewardesses and Their Clientele     89
What Shapes Social Interaction?     91
The Sociology of Emotions     91
Laughter and Humor     91
Emotion Management     93
Emotion Labor     94
Emotions in Historical Perspective     94
Modes of Social Interaction     96
Interaction as Competition and Exchange     96
Exchange and Rational Choice Theories     96
You and the Social World: Competing for Attention     97
Interaction as Symbolic     98
Sociology at the Movies: Miss Congeniality (2000)     100
Verbal and Nonverbal Communication     101
Power and Conflict Theories of Social Interaction     104
Mass Media and Society: The Problem of Domination     106
Social Policy: What Do You Think? Allocating Time Fairly in Class Discussions     107
The Points of the Compass     107
Chapter Summary     108
Questions to Consider     109
Web Resources     109
Networks, Groups, and Organizations     110
Beyond Individual Motives     111
The Holocaust     111
How Social Groups Shape Our Actions     112
Social Policy: What Do You Think? Group Loyalty or Betrayal     114
Social Networks: It's a Small World     116
Mass Media and Society: Six Degrees of Kevin Bacon     117
The Value of Network Analysis     117
You and the Social World: Social Networks and Illness     120
The Building Blocks of Social Networks: The Dyad and the Triad     120
Groups     121
Primary and Secondary Groups      122
Group Conformity     122
Groupthink     123
Inclusion and Exclusion: In-Groups and Out-Groups     124
Groups and Social Imagination     126
Bureaucracy     127
Bureaucratic Inefficiency     127
Sociology at the Movies: Ikiru (1952)     128
Bureaucracy's Informal Side     131
Leadership Styles     131
Overcoming Bureaucratic Inefficiency     132
Organizational Environments     133
The Points of the Compass     134
Chapter Summary     135
Questions to Consider     136
Web Resources     136
Deviance, Crime, and Social Control     138
The Social Definition and Social Construction of Deviance     139
The Difference between Deviance and Crime     140
Sanctions     140
Types of Deviance and Crime     141
Power and the Social Construction of Deviance     142
Measuring Crime     144
Crime Rates     145
Criminal Profiles     147
Social Policy: What Do You Think? The War on Drugs     150
Explaining Deviance and Crime     150
Learning the Deviant Role: The Case of Marijuana Users     151
Motivational Theories     152
Constraint Theories     154
Punishment     156
The Medicalization of Deviance     158
The Prison     160
Moral Panic     161
You and the Social World: Moral Panic     162
Alternative Forms of Punishment     163
Sociology at the Movies: Bowling for Columbine (2002)     164
The Points of the Compass     167
Chapter Summary     168
Questions to Consider     169
Web Resources     169
Inequality
Social Stratification: United States and Global Perspectives     170
Social Stratification: Shipwrecks and Inequality     171
Patterns of Social Inequality     172
Wealth     172
Income     174
Sociology at the Movies: Sweet Home Alabama (2002)     176
Global Inequality     178
International Differences     178
Mass Media and Society: The Internet and Social Stratification     179
Measuring Internal Stratification     179
Economic Development     180
Is Stratification Inevitable? Three Theories     183
Marx     183
Critical Evaluation of Marx's Conflict Theory     184
Functionalism: The Davis-Moore Thesis     184
Critical Evaluation of Functionalism     184
Weber     186
Social Mobility     187
Blau and Duncan: The Status Attainment Model     187
Group Barriers: Race and Gender     189
Noneconomic Dimensions of Class     190
Prestige and Power     190
Politics and the Plight of the Poor     191
Government Policy and the Poverty Rate in the United States     192
Poverty Myths     194
Perception of Class Inequality in the United States     195
Social Policy: What Do You Think? Redesigning Welfare     196
You and the Social World: Your Attitudes to Social Inequality     197
The Points of the Compass     198
Chapter Summary     198
Questions to Consider     199
Web Resources     199
Globalization, Inequality, and Development     200
Introduction     201
The Creation of a Global Village     201
The Triumphs and Tragedies of Globalization     202
Globalization     205
Globalization in Everyday Life     205
The Sources of Globalization     206
A World Like the United States?     208
Social Policy: What Do You Think? Should the United States Promote World Democracy?     209
Mass Media and Society: Globalization or Cultural Imperialism?     210
Globalization and Its Discontents: Antiglobalization and Anti-Americanism     211
Global Inequality     213
Levels of Global Inequality     214
Theories of Development and Underdevelopment     217
Modernization Theory: A Functionalist Approach     217
Dependency Theory: A Conflict Approach     217
Effects of Foreign Investment     219
Core, Periphery, and Semiperiphery     220
Neoliberal versus Democratic Globalization     221
Globalization and Neoliberalism     221
Globalization Reform     223
You and the Social World: Foreign Aid and Personal Responsibility     224
Sociology at the Movies: Syriana (2005)     226
The Points of the Compass     226
Chapter Summary     227
Questions to Consider     227
Web Resources     228
Race and Ethnicity     230
Defining Race and Ethnicity     231
Race, Biology, and Society      231
Prejudice, Discrimination, and Sports     232
The Social Construction of Race     233
Ethnicity, Culture, and Social Structure     235
Race and Ethnic Relations     236
Labels and Identity     236
The Formation of Racial and Ethnic Identities     236
Case Study: The Diversity of the "Hispanic American" Community     237
Social Policy: What Do You Think? Bilingual Education     240
Ethnic and Racial Labels: Choice versus Imposition     240
Theories of Race and Ethnic Relations     241
Ecological Theory     241
Internal Colonialism and the Split Labor Market     242
Sociology at the Movies: Crash (2005)     243
Some Advantages of Ethnicity     248
Economic Advantages     248
Political Advantages     249
Emotional Advantages     250
The Future of Race and Ethnicity     250
The Declining Significance of Race?     251
Mass Media and Society: Minority Representation on Television     253
Immigration and the Renewal of Racial and Ethnic Groups     254
A Vertical Mosaic     256
The Points of the Compass     257
Chapter Summary      258
Questions to Consider     259
Web Resources     259
Sexuality and Gender     260
Sex versus Gender     261
Is It a Boy or a Girl?     261
Gender Identity and Gender Role     262
Theories of Gender     263
Essentialism     264
Functionalism and Essentialism     264
A Critique of Essentialism from the Conflict and Feminist Perspectives     264
Social Constructionism and Symbolic Interactionism     266
The Mass Media and Body Image     269
Mass Media and Society: Why Thinner?     271
Male-Female Interaction     273
Homosexuality     273
Social Policy: What Do You Think? Hate Crime Law and Homophobia     276
Sociology at the Movies: Brokeback Mountain (2005)     277
Gender Inequality     278
The Earnings Gap Today     278
Male Aggression against Women     280
Toward 2050     283
Child Care     285
Comparable Worth     285
The Women's Movement     286
The Points of the Compass     288
Chapter Summary     289
Questions to Consider     290
Web Resources     290
Institutions
Families     292
Introduction     293
Is the Family in Decline?     294
Sociology at the Movies: Walk the Line (2005)     295
Functionalism and the Nuclear Ideal     297
Functional Theory     297
Functions of the Nuclear Family     298
The American Middle Class in the 1950s     298
Conflict and Feminist Theories     301
Power and Families     302
Love and Mate Selection     302
Marital Satisfaction     304
Divorce     306
Reproductive Choice     308
Reproductive Technologies     308
You and the Social World: The Abortion Issue     309
Housework and Child Care     310
Domestic Violence     311
Family Diversity     313
Heterosexual Cohabitation     313
Same-Sex Unions and Partnerships     314
Single-Mother Families: Racial and Ethnic Differences     316
Zero-Child Families     318
Social Policy: What Do You Think? The Pro-Fatherhood Campaign     319
Family Policy     319
Crossnational Differences: The United States and Sweden      320
The Points of the Compass     322
Chapter Summary     323
Questions to Consider     324
Web Resources     324
Religion and Education     326
Religion     327
Classical Approaches in the Sociology of Religion     328
Durkheim: A Functionalist Approach     328
Religion, Conflict Theory, and Feminist Theory     329
Weber and the Problem of Social Change: A Symbolic Interactionist Interpretation     332
The Rise, Decline, and Partial Revival of Religion     333
Secularization     333
Religious Revival     334
Religious Fundamentalism in the United States     335
Sociology at the Movies: Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (2005)     336
Religious Fundamentalism Worldwide     337
Fundamentalism and Extremist Politics in the Arab World     337
The Revised Secularization Thesis     338
The Structure of Religion in the United States and the World     339
Types of Religious Organization     339
Religiosity     342
The Future of Religion     343
Education     343
Affirmative Action and Meritocracy     344
You and the Social World: Affirmative Action     345
Macrosociological Processes     345
The Functions of Education     345
The Effect of Economic Inequality from the Conflict Perspective     346
Standardized Tests     347
Case Study: Functionalist versus Conflict Theories of the American Community College     350
Gender and Education: The Feminist Contribution     351
Microsociological Processes     351
The Stereotype Threat: A Symbolic Interactionist Perspective     351
Cultural Capital     352
Education and Globalization     353
Crisis and Reform in U.S. Schools     354
Social Policy: What Do You Think? The No Child Left Behind Act     355
The Points of the Compass     358
Chapter Summary     358
Questions to Consider     359
Web Resources     359
Politics, Work, and the Economy     360
Politics     361
The Tobacco War     361
Politics, Social Structure, and Political Institutions     363
Power and Authority     363
Types of Authority     364
Types of Political System     364
Sociology at the Movies: Gangs of New York (2002)      367
Mass Media and Society: Television and Politics     368
Theories of Democracy     369
Pluralist Theory     369
Elite Theory     369
The Elitist Critique of Pluralism     370
Power Resource Theory     370
State-Centered Theory     372
Politics by Other Means     375
War     375
Terrorism and Related Forms of Political Violence     376
World and the Economy     378
Economic Sectors     378
The Division and Hierarchy of Labor     379
The Quality of Work     379
The Deskilling Thesis     380
A Critique of the Deskilling Thesis     380
Worker Resistance and Management Response     381
Labor Market Segmentation     382
Free versus Regulated Markets     384
Economic Systems     384
Capitalism     384
Social Policy: What Do You Think? The Minimum wage     385
Communism     386
Democratic Socialism     387
The Corporation     387
Globalization     388
Globalization and the Less Developed Countries     390
The Future of Work and the Economy      391
The Points of the Compass     391
Chapter Summary     392
Questions to Consider     393
Web Resources     393
Health, Medicine, Disability, and Aging     394
Health and Medicine     395
The Black Death     395
Sociological Issues of Health, Medicine, Disability, and Aging     396
Defining and Measuring Health     397
The Social Causes of Illness and Death     398
Global Health Inequalities     399
Class Inequalities and Health Care     401
Racial and Ethnic Inequalities in Health Care     402
Gender Inequalities in Health Care: The Feminist Contribution     403
Health and Politics: The United States from Conflict and Functionalist Perspectives     404
Social Policy: What Do You Think? The High Cost of Prescription Drugs     405
Problems with Private Health Insurance and Health Maintenance Organizations     406
Advantages of Private and For-Profit Health Care Institutions     406
You and the Social World: What Kind of Health System Do You Prefer?     407
The Professionalization of Medicine     408
Recent Challenges to Traditional Medical Science     409
Patient Activism      409
Alternative Medicine     410
Holistic Medicine     410
Disability     411
The Social Construction of Disability     411
Rehabilitation and Elimination     412
Ablism     413
Challenging Ablism: The Normality of Disability     413
Sociology at the Movies: Shallow Hal (2001)     415
Aging     415
Age Stratification     416
Theories of Age Stratification     417
The Functionalist View     417
Conflict Theory     417
Symbolic Interactionist Theory     418
Social Problems of Elderly People     418
Aging and Poverty     419
A Shortage of Caregivers     419
Ageism     419
Death and Dying     421
Euthanasia     421
The Business of Dying     422
The Points of the Compass     423
Chapter Summary     423
Questions to Consider     424
Web Resources     424
Social Change
Collective Action and Social Movements     426
How to Spark a Riot     427
The Study of Collective Action and Social Movements     428
Nonroutine Collective Action     429
The Lynching of Claude Neal     429
Breakdown Theory     431
Deprivation, Crowds, and the Breakdown of Norms     431
Assessing Breakdown Theory     432
Social Organization and Collective Action     435
Social Movements     437
Solidarity Theory     437
Case Study: Strikes and the Union Movement in the United States     438
Social Policy: What Do You Think? Government Surveillance of Social Movements     439
Strikes and Resource Mobilization     441
Strikes and Political Opportunities     442
Framing Discontent     444
Examples of Frame Alignment     444
An Application of Frame Alignment Theory: Back to 1968     445
Sociology at the Movies: The Day after Tomorrow (2004)     446
The Future of Social Movements     446
You and the Social World: Organizing for Change     448
Goals of New Social Movements     449
Membership in New Social Movements     450
Globalization Potential of New Social Movements     450
An Environmental Social Movement     450
Mass Media and Society: "The First Postmodern Revolution"     451
The Points of the Compass      452
Chapter Summary     452
Questions to Consider     452
Web Resources     453
Population, Urbanization, and the Environment     454
The City of God     455
Population     456
The Population "Explosion"     456
Social Policy: What Do You Think? How Can We Find 100 Million Missing Women?     458
Theories of Population Growth     459
The Malthusian Trap     459
A Critique of Malthus     460
Demographic Transition Theory     461
A Critique of Demographic Transition Theory     462
Population and Social Inequality     463
Karl Marx     463
Gender Inequality and Overpopulation     463
Class Inequality and Overpopulation     464
Summing Up     464
Urbanization     465
From the Preindustrial to the Industrial City     466
The Chicago School and the Industrial City     467
After Chicago: A Critique     468
Mass Media and Society: The Mass Media and the Establishment of Community     469
The Conflict View and New Urban Sociology     470
The Corporate City     470
Sociology at the Movies: 8 Mile (2002)      472
The Postmodern City     472
The Environment     475
Environmental Degradation     475
The Social Construction of Environmental Problems     477
The Case of Global Warming     478
The Social Distribution of Environmental Risk     479
What Is to Be Done?     482
The Market and High-Tech Solutions     482
The Cooperative Alternative     483
The Points of the Compass     485
Chapter Summary     486
Questions to Consider     487
Web Resources     487
Glossary     489
References     499
Credits     535
Indexes     537
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