Socrates to Sartre: A History of Philosophy / Edition 6

Socrates to Sartre: A History of Philosophy / Edition 6

by Samuel Enoch Stumpf

ISBN-10: 0072898682

ISBN-13: 9780072898682

Pub. Date: 07/28/1998

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies, The

For the student beginning philosophy,Socrates to Sartre provides a comprehensive introduction taking an historical approach. Because philosophers in each succeeding period write with the knowledge of what has gone on before,the historical approach illustrates the development and interplay of philosophical ideas. The Fifth Edition introduces additional 20th century


For the student beginning philosophy,Socrates to Sartre provides a comprehensive introduction taking an historical approach. Because philosophers in each succeeding period write with the knowledge of what has gone on before,the historical approach illustrates the development and interplay of philosophical ideas. The Fifth Edition introduces additional 20th century philosophers such as Richard Rorty and Maurice Merleau-Ponty and shows the impact of their ideas on today's world.

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Table of Contents

PART ONE THE ANCIENT PERIOD: The Shaping of the Philosophic Mind 1(120)
1 Socrates' Predecessors: Philosophy and the Natural Order What Is Permanent in Existence? Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes The Mathematical Basis of All Things Pythagoras Attempts to Explain Change Heraclitus, Parmenides, Zeno, Empedocles, Anaxagoras The Atomists Leucippus and Democritus
2 Socrates and the Sophists: The Problems of Truth and Goodness The Sophists Protagoras, Gorgias, Thrasymachus Socrates the Intellectual Midwife--as a Philosopher, His Theory of Knowledge, Moral Thought, Trial and Death
3 Plato Plato's Theory of Knowledge Cave, Divided Line, Doctrine of Forms Moral Philosophy Concept of Soul, Cause of Evil, Recovering Lost Morality, Virtue as Fulfillment of Function Political Philosophy State as Man Writ Large, The Philosopher-King, Virtues in the State, Decline of the Ideal State The Cosmos
4 Aristotle His Life Logic The Categories, The Syllogism Metaphysics Substance, Matter and Form, Change, Potentiality, and Actuality, Unmoved Mover The Place of Man Physics, Biology, Psychology Ethics Types of Ends Function of Man Happiness as End, Golden Mean, Deliberation and Choice, The Virtues Contemplation Politics Types of States, Differences and Inequalities, Good Government and Revolution Philosophy of Art
5 Classical Philosophy After Aristotle Epicurus: Perfecting the Pleasure Principle Stoicism: Distinguishing between What We Can and Cannot Control Skepticism: How to Behave without a Criterion of Truth Plotinus: Salvation in Mystical Union with God
PART TWO THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD: The Confluence of Philosophy and Theology 121(66)
6 St. Augustine's Christian Philosophy His Life Human Knowledge Overcoming Skepticism, Knowledge and Sensation, Doctrine of Illumination God The Created World Creatio ex Nihilo, The Rationes Seminales Moral Philosophy The Role of Love, Evil and Disordered Love, Free Will as Cause of Evil, Justice The Two Cities and History
7 Philosophy in the Dark Ages: Boethius, Pseudo-Dionysius, Erigena Boethius Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, John Scotus Erigena
8 Early Statements of Major Problems The Problem of Universals Boethius States Problem, "Exaggerated Realism," Nominalism, Conceptualism Proving the Existence of God: Anselm's Ontological Argument Faith and Reason in Arabian and Jewish Thought Avicenna, Averroes, Maimonides
9 The Apex of Medieval Philosophy: The Scholastic System of St. Thomas Aquinas His Life Philosophy and Theology Proofs of God's Existence Knowledge of God's Nature Creation Morality and Natural Law The State Man and Knowledge Some Reactions to Aquinas: Voluntarism, Nominalism, and Mysticism
PART THREE THE MODERN PERIOD: Philosophy and the Unfolding World of Science 187(164)
10 The Renaissance Interlude Early Elements Erasmus and Luther Machiavelli Montaigne Pascal Science
11 Advocates of the Method of Science: Bacon and Hobbes Francis Bacon Distempers of Learning, Idols of the Mind, Inductive Method Thomas Hobbes Influence of Geometry, Bodies in Motion: The Object of Thought, Mechanical View of Human Thought, Political Philosophy and Morality
12 Rationalism on the Continent: Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz Descartes Methodic Doubt, Existence of Self, Criterion of Truth, Mind and Body Spinoza Method, God, Substance and Attributes, The Modes, No Final Cause, Levels of Knowledge, Mind and Body, Ethics Leibniz Substance, Extension versus Force, Monads, Preestablished Harmony, Principle of Sufficient Reason, Evil and the Best of All Possible Worlds
13 Empiricism in Britain: Locke, Berkeley, and Hume Locke Theory of Knowledge, Moral and Political Theory Berkeley Esse Est Percipi, Spiritual Substances Hume Theory of Knowledge, Causality, The Self, Existence of God, Ethics
14 Rousseau: A Romantic in the Age of Reason His Life The Paradox of Learning The Social Contract
15 Kant: Critical Mediator between Dogmatism and Skepticism The Shaping of Kant's Problem Critical Philosophy and His Copernican Revolution The Structure of Rational Thought Practical Reason Aesthetics: The Beautiful
16 Hegel: Absolute Idealism Dealing with the Legacy of Kant The Nature of Reality Logic and Dialectic Process, Philosophy of Nature, The Philosophy of Spirit Ethics and Politics Concept of Right, The State, World History Absolute Spirit
17 Schopenhauer: Prophet of Pessimism The Principle of Sufficient Reason The World as Will and Idea The Ground of Pessimism
18 Comte: The Rise of Positivism in France His Life Positivism Defined The Law of the Three Stages Comte's Sociology and "Religion of Humanity"
19 Utilitarianism of Bentham and Mill Jeremy Bentham Principle of Utility, Law and Punishment, Radicalism John Stuart Mill Qualitative versus Quantitative Calculus, Desire versus Desirable, Liberty
PART FOUR THE CONTEMPORARY PERIOD: The Reshaping of the Philosophic Mind 351(138)
20 Pragmatism Charles Sanders Peirce A Theory of Meaning, The Role of Belief, Elements of Method William James Pragmatism as a Method, Theory of Truth, Role and Status of the Will, The Relevance of the Will to Believe John Dewey The Spectator versus Experience, Habit, Intelligence, and Learning, Value in a World of Fact
21 Karl Marx: Dialectical Materialism The Epochs of History: Marx's Dialectic The Substructure: The Material Order The Alienation of Labor The Superstructure: The Origin and Role of Ideas
22 Nietzsche Nietzche and Moral Facts "God Is Dead" Apollonian versus Dionysian Master Morality versus Slave Morality and the Will to Power Revaluation of All Morals The Superman
23 Two Twentieth-Century Metaphysicians: Bergson and Whitehead Bergson Analysis versus Intuition The Way of Analysis Duration The Way of Intuition Elan Vital Morality and Religion Whitehead The Error of Simple Location, Self-Consciousness Prehension Eternal Objects
24 Analytic Philosophy Bertrand Russell Logical Atomism Rudolph Carnap and W. V. O. Quine Logical Positivism Ludwig Wittgenstein Wittgenstein's Road to Philosophy The "New" Wittgenstein Ryle and Austin Gilbert Ryle John Austin Richard Rorty Richard Rorty's Pragmatic Turn Contingency
25 Existentialism Soren Kierkegaard What It Means to Think Existentially Truth as Subjectivity The Existential Situation The Three Stages Edmund Husserl Husserl's Phenomenology The Crisis of Western Man Jaspers and Marcel Karl Jaspers Gabriel Marcel Martin Heidegger Humanity as "Dasein" Sartre and Merleau-Ponty Jean-Paul Sartre Existence Precedes Essence Individual Responsibility Atheism and Man's Abandonment Contingency, Necessity, and Freedom Sartre's Existentialism versus Marx's Materialism Maurice Merleau-Ponty Theories of Truth and Political Philosophy Primacy of Perception The Relativity of Knowledge The Self and Others

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