Software Systems Architecture: Working With Stakeholders Using Viewpoints and Perspectives / Edition 2

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Software Systems Architecture, Second Edition is a highly regarded, practitioner-oriented guide to designing and implementing effective architectures for information systems. It is both a readily accessible introduction to software architecture and an invaluable handbook of well-established best practices.

With this book you will learn how to

  • Design and communicate an architecture that reflects and balances the different needs of its stakeholders
  • Focus on architecturally significant aspects of design, including frequently overlooked areas such as performance, resilience, and location
  • Use scenarios and patterns to drive the creation and validation of your architecture
  • Document your architecture as a set of related views

Reflecting new standards and developments in the field, this new edition extends and updates much of the content, and

  • Adds a “system context viewpoint” that documents the system’s interactions with its environment
  • Expands the discussion of architectural principles, showing how they can be used to provide traceability and rationale for architectural decisions
  • Explains how agile development and architecture can work together
  • Positions requirements and architecture activities in the project context
  • Presents a new lightweight method for architectural validation

Whether you are an aspiring or practicing software architect, you will find yourself referring repeatedly to the practical advice in this book throughout the lifecycle of your projects. A supporting Web site containing further information can be found at

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780321718334
  • Publisher: Addison-Wesley
  • Publication date: 11/11/2011
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 704
  • Sales rank: 818,338
  • Product dimensions: 7.18 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 1.62 (d)

Meet the Author

Nick Rozanski has worked in IT since 1980 for several large and small systems integrators, including Logica, Capgemini, and Sybase, and end user organizations including Marks and Spencer and Barclays Global Investors. He has taken senior roles on a wide range of programs in finance, retail, manufacturing, and government. His technology background includes enterprise application integration, package implementation, relational database, data replication, and object-oriented software development. He is also an experienced technical instructor and certified internal project auditor.

Eoin (pronounced “Owen”) Woods is a lead system architect in the equities technology group of a major European investment bank with architecture and design responsibility for a number of the organization’s key systems. Prior to this, he led the application architecture group at Barclays Global Investors and has worked as a software engineer for Group Bull, Sybase, InterTrust, and Zuhlke, as well as through his own consultancy company, Artechra.

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Table of Contents

Preface to the Second Edition xv

Acknowledgments for the Second Edition xvi

Preface to the First Edition xvii

Acknowledgments xx

Chapter 1: Introduction 1

Stakeholders, Viewpoints, and Perspectives 1

The Structure of This Book 7

Who Should Read This Book 7

Conventions Used 8

Part I: Architecture Fundamentals 9

Chapter 2: Software Architecture Concepts 11

Software Architecture 11

Architectural Elements 20

Stakeholders 21

Architectural Descriptions 24

Relationships between the Core Concepts 26

Summary 27

Further Reading 28

Chapter 3: Viewpoints and Views 31

Architectural Views 34

Viewpoints 36

Relationships between the Core Concepts 37

The Benefits of Using Viewpoints and Views 38

Viewpoint Pitfalls 39

Our Viewpoint Catalog 39

Summary 43

Further Reading 43

Chapter 4: Architectural Perspectives 45

Quality Properties 45

Architectural Perspectives 47

Applying Perspectives to Views 51

Consequences of Applying a Perspective 54

Relationships between the Core Concepts 56

The Benefits of Using Perspectives 56

Perspective Pitfalls 58

Comparing Perspectives to Viewpoints 58

Our Perspective Catalog 60

Summary 61

Further Reading 62

Chapter 5: The Role Of The Software Architect 63

The Architecture Definition Process 64

The Role of the Architect 68

Interrelationships between the Core Concepts 71

Architectural Specializations 72

The Organizational Context 73

The Architect’s Skills 76

The Architect’s Responsibilities 77

Summary 78

Further Reading 79

Part II: The Process of Software Architecture 81

Chapter 6: Introduction to the Software Architecture Process 83

Chapter 7: The Architecture Definition Process 85

Guiding Principles 85

Process Outcomes 86

The Process Context 87

Supporting Activities 89

Architecture Definition Activities 92

Process Exit Criteria 97

Architecture Definition in the Software Development Lifecycle 98

Summary 102

Further Reading 103

Chapter 8: Concerns, Principles, and Decisions 105

Problem-Focused Concerns 108

Solution-Focused Concerns 111

Other Real-World Constraints 114

What Makes a Good Concern 116

Architectural Principles 117

Architectural Decisions 122

Using Principles to Link Concerns and Decisions 125

Checklist 128

Summary 128

Further Reading 129

Chapter 9: Identifying and Engaging Stakeholders 131

Selection of Stakeholders 131

Classes of Stakeholders 133

Examples 138

Proxy Stakeholders 140

Stakeholder Groups 141

Stakeholders’ Responsibilities 141

Checklist 142

Summary 142

Further Reading 143

Chapter 10: Identifying and Using Scenarios 145

Types of Scenarios 146

Uses for Scenarios 147

Identifying and Prioritizing Scenarios 148

Capturing Scenarios 149

What Makes a Good Scenario? 153

Applying Scenarios 154

Effective Use of Scenarios 157

Checklist 159

Summary 159

Further Reading 160

Chapter 11: Using Styles and Patterns 161

Introducing Design Patterns 161

Styles, Patterns, and Idioms 164

Patterns and Architectural Tactics 166

An Example of an Architectural Style 167

The Benefits of Using Architectural Styles 170

Styles and the Architectural Description 172

Applying Design Patterns and Language Idioms 172

Checklist 174

Summary 174

Further Reading 175

Chapter 12: Producing Architectural Models 177

Why Models Are Important 178

Types of Models 181

Modeling Languages 184

Guidelines for Creating Effective Models 187

Modeling with Agile Teams 193

Checklist 194

Summary 195

Further Reading 196

Chapter 13: Creating the Architectural Description 197

Properties of an Effective Architectural Description 198

Glossaries 206

The ISO Standard 206

Contents of the Architectural Description 207

Presenting the Architectural Description 213

Checklist 215

Summary 216

Further Reading 216

Chapter 14: Evaluating the Architecture 217

Why Evaluate the Architecture? 218

Evaluation Techniques 219

Scenario-Based Evaluation Methods 226

Evaluation during the Software Lifecycle 230

Validating the Architecture of an Existing System 233

Recording the Results of Evaluation 236

Choosing an Evaluation Approach 237

Checklist 238

Summary 238

Further Reading 239

Part III: A Viewpoint Catalog 241

Chapter 15: Introduction to the Viewpoint Catalog 243

Chapter 16: The Context Viewpoint 247

Concerns 248

Models 255

Problems and Pitfalls 261

Checklist 265

Further Reading 266

Chapter 17: The Functional Viewpoint 267

Concerns 268

Models 271

Problems and Pitfalls 285

Checklist 291

Further Reading 292

Chapter 18: The Information Viewpoint 293

Concerns 294

Models 311

Problems and Pitfalls 322

Checklist 330

Further Reading 330

Chapter 19: The Concurrency Viewpoint 333

Concerns 335

Models 340

Problems and Pitfalls 351

Checklist 355

Further Reading 355

Chapter 20: The Development Viewpoint 357

Concerns 358

Models 360

Problems and Pitfalls 367

Checklist 370

Further Reading 371

Chapter 21: The Deployment Viewpoint 373

Concerns 374

Models 378

Problems and Pitfalls 387

Checklist 391

Further Reading 392

Chapter 22: The Operational Viewpoint 393

Concerns 394

Models 402

Problems and Pitfalls 419

Checklist 423

Further Reading 424

Chapter 23: Achieving Consistency Across Views 425

Relationships between Views 426

Context and Functional View Consistency 427

Context and Information View Consistency 427

Context and Deployment View Consistency 428

Functional and Information View Consistency 428

Functional and Concurrency View Consistency 429

Functional and Development View Consistency 430

Functional and Deployment View Consistency 430

Functional and Operational View Consistency 431

Information and Concurrency View Consistency 431

Information and Development View Consistency 432

Information and Deployment View Consistency 432

Information and Operational View Consistency 432

Concurrency and Development View Consistency 433

Concurrency and Deployment View Consistency 433

Deployment and Operational View Consistency 434

Part IV: The Perspective Catalog 435

Chapter 24: Introduction to the Perspective Catalog 437

Chapter 25: The Security Perspective 439

Applicability to Views 441

Concerns 442

Activities: Applying the Security Perspective 446

Architectural Tactics 456

Problems and Pitfalls 465

Checklists 473

Further Reading 474

Chapter 26: The Performance and Scalability Perspective 475

Applicability to Views 476

Concerns 476

Activities: Applying the Performance and Scalability Perspective 482

Architectural Tactics 491

Problems and Pitfalls 502

Checklists 509

Further Reading 510

Chapter 27: The Availability and Resilience Perspective 511

Applicability to Views 512

Concerns 512

Activities: Applying the Availability and Resilience Perspective 516

Architectural Tactics 526

Problems and Pitfalls 533

Checklists 539

Further Reading 541

Chapter 28: The Evolution Perspective 543

Applicability to Views 544

Concerns 545

Activities: Applying the Evolution Perspective 549

Architectural Tactics 552

Problems and Pitfalls 560

Checklists 564

Further Reading 565

Chapter 29: Other Perspectives 567

The Accessibility Perspective 568

The Development Resource Perspective 573

The Internationalization Perspective 579

The Location Perspective 585

The Regulation Perspective 591

The Usability Perspective 595

Part V: Putting It All Together 603

Chapter 30: Working As A Software Architect 605

Architecture in the Project Lifecycle 605

Supporting Different Types of Projects 615

Appendix: Other Viewpoint Sets 621

Kruchten “4+1” 621

RM-ODP 623

Siemens (Hofmeister, Nord, and Soni) 623

SEI “Views and Beyond” Views 624

Garland and Anthony 626

IAF 627

Enterprise Architecture Frameworks 627

Other Enterprise Architecture Frameworks 629

Bibliography 631

About the Authors 643

Index 645

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