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SOI Lubistors: Lateral, Unidirectional, Bipolar-type Insulated-gate Transistors [NOOK Book]

Overview

Advanced level consolidation of the technology, physics and design aspects of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) lubistors

No comprehensive description of the physics and possible applications of the Lubistor can be found in a single source even though the Lubistor is already being used in SOI LSIs. The book provides, for the first time, a comprehensive understanding of the physics of the Lubistor. The author argues that a clear understanding of the fundamental physics of the pn ...

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SOI Lubistors: Lateral, Unidirectional, Bipolar-type Insulated-gate Transistors

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Overview

Advanced level consolidation of the technology, physics and design aspects of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) lubistors

No comprehensive description of the physics and possible applications of the Lubistor can be found in a single source even though the Lubistor is already being used in SOI LSIs. The book provides, for the first time, a comprehensive understanding of the physics of the Lubistor. The author argues that a clear understanding of the fundamental physics of the pn junction is essential to allowing scientists and engineers to propose new devices. Since 2001 IBM has been applying the Lubistor to commercial SOI LSIs (large scale integrated devices) used in PCs and game machines. It is a key device in that it provides electrostatic protection to the LSIs. The book explains the device modeling for such applications, and covers the recent analog circuit application of the voltage reference circuit.

The author also reviews the physics and the modeling of ideal and non-ideal pn junctions through reconsideration of the Shockley’s theory, offering readers an opportunity to study the physics of pn junction. Pn-junction devices are already applied to the optical communication system as the light emitter and the receiver. Alternatively, optical signal modulators are proposed for coupling the Si optical waveguide with the pn-junction injector. The book also explores the photonic crystal physics and device applications of the Lubistor.

  • Advanced level consolidation of the technology, physics and design aspects of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) lubistors
  • Written by the inventor of the Lubistor, this volume describes the technology for readers to understand the physics and applications of the device
  • First book devoted to the Lubistor transistor, presently being utilized in electrostatic discharge (ESD) applications in SOI technology, a growing market for semiconductor devices and advanced technologies
  • Approaches the topic in a systematic manner, from physical theory, through to modelling, and finally circuit applications

This is an advanced level book requiring knowledge of electrical and electronics engineering at graduate level.

Contents includes: Concept of Ideal pn Junction/Proposal of Lateral, Unidirectional, Bipolar-Type Insulated-Gate Transistor (Lubistor)/ Noise Characteristics and Modeling of Lubistor/Negative Conductance Properties in Extremely Thin SOI Lubistors/

Two-Dimensionally Confined Injection Phenomena at Low Temperatures in Sub-10-nm-Thick SOI Lubistors/ Experimental Study of Two-Dimensional Confinement Effects on Reverse-Biased Current Characteristics of Ultra-Thin SOI Lubistors/

Gate-Controlled Bipolar Action in Ultra-thin Dynamic Threshold SOI MOSFET/Sub-Circuit Models of SOI Lubistors for Electrostatic Discharge Protection Circuit Design and Their Applications/A New Basic Element for Neural Logic Functions and Functionality in Circuit Applications/Possible Implementation of SOI Lubistors into Conventional Logic Circuits/Potentiality of Electro-Optic Modulator Based on SOI Waveguide/Principles of Parameter Extraction/Feasibility of Lubistor-Based Avalanche Photo Transistor

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781118487938
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 8/27/2013
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 320
  • File size: 7 MB

Table of Contents

Preface xiii

Acknowledgements xv

Introduction to an Exotic Device World xvii

Part One BRIEF REVIEWAND MODERN APPLICATIONS OF PN-JUNCTION DEVICES

1 Concept of an Ideal pn Junction 3

References 4

2 Understanding the Non-ideal pn Junction – Theoretical Reconsideration 7

2.1 Introduction 7

2.2 Bulk pn-Junction Diode 8

2.2.1 Assumptions 8

2.2.2 Model A – Low Doping Case 9

2.2.3 Model B – High Doping Case 18

2.3 Bulk pn-Junction Diode – Reverse Bias 24

2.3.1 Model A – Low Doping Case 24

2.3.2 Model B – High Doping Case 25

2.4 The Insulated-Gate pn Junction of the SOI Lubistor – Forward Bias 32

2.4.1 The Positive Gate Voltage Condition 32

2.4.2 The Negative Gate Voltage Condition 35

2.5 The Insulated-Gate pn Junction of the

SOI Lubistor – Reverse Bias 35

References 37

3 Modern Applications of the pn Junction 39

References 40

Part Two PHYSICS AND MODELING OF SOI LUBISTORS – THICK-FILM DEVICES

4 Proposal of the Lateral, Unidirectional, Bipolar-Type Insulated-Gate Transistor (Lubistor) 43

4.1 Introduction 43

4.2 Device Structure and Parameters 43

4.3 Discussion of Current–Voltage Characteristics 45

4.4 Summary 47

References 47

5 Experimental Consideration for Modeling of Lubistor Operation 49

5.1 Introduction 49

5.2 Experimental Apparatus 49

5.3 Current–Voltage Characteristics of Lubistors 52

5.4 Lubistor Potential Profiles and Features 56

5.5 Discussion 57

5.5.1 Simplified Analysis of Lubistor Operation 57

5.5.2 On the Design of Lubistors 60

5.6 Summary 61

References 61

6 Modeling of Lubistor Operation Without an EFS Layer for Circuit Simulations 63

6.1 Introduction 63

6.2 Device Structure and Measurement System 63

6.3 Equivalent Circuit Models of an SOI Lubistor 65

6.3.1 Device Simulation 65

6.3.2 Equivalent Circuit Models 68

6.4 Summary 72

References 73

7 Noise Characteristics and Modeling of Lubistor 75

7.1 Introduction 75

7.2 Experiments 75

7.2.1 Device Structure 75

7.2.2 Measurement System 77

7.3 Results and Discussion 77

7.3.1 I–V Characteristics of an SOI Lubistor and a Simple Analytical Model 77

7.3.2 Noise Spectral Density of SOI Lubistors and Their Feature 81

7.3.3 Advanced Analysis of Anode Noise Spectral Density 83

7.4 Summary 86

References 86

8 Supplementary Study on Buried Oxide Characterization 89

8.1 Introduction 89

8.2 Physical Model for the Transition Layer 90

8.3 Capacitance Simulation 93

8.3.1 A Structure to Evaluate Capacitance 93

8.3.2 Numerical Simulation Technique 94

8.4 Device Fabrication 95

8.5 Results and Discussion 96

8.5.1 Electrode-to-Electrode Capacitance Dependence on Frequency 96

8.5.2 Drain-to-Substrate Capacitance Dependence on Bias 98

8.5.3 Electrode-to-Electrode Capacitance Dependence on Transition Layer Thickness 101

8.6 Summary 101

References 102

Part Three PHYSICS AND MODELING OF SOI LUBISTORS – THIN-FILM DEVICES

9 Negative Conductance Properties in Extremely Thin SOI Lubistors 105

9.1 Introduction 105

9.2 Device Fabrication and Measurements 105

9.3 Results and Discussion 106

9.4 Summary 109

References 109

10 Two-Dimensionally Confined Injection Phenomena at Low Temperatures in Sub-10-nm-Thick SOI Lubistors 111

10.1 Introduction 111

10.2 Experiments 111

10.2.1 Anode Common Configuration 113

10.2.2 Cathode Common Configuration 113

10.3 Physical Models and Simulations 114

10.3.1 Fundamental Models 114

10.3.2 Theoretical Simulations 118

10.3.3 Influences on Characteristics of Extremely Ultra-Thin SOI MOSFET Devices 122

10.4 Summary 122

Appendix 10A: Intrinsic Carrier Concentration (niq) and the Fermi Level in 2DSS 122

Appendix 10B: Calculation of Electron and Hole Densities in 2DSS 125

References 125

11 Two-Dimensional Quantization Effect on Indirect Tunneling in SOI Lubistors with a Thin Silicon Layer 127

11.1 Introduction 127

11.2 Experimental Results 128

11.2.1 Junction Current Dependence on Anode Voltage 128

11.2.2 Junction Current Dependence on Gate Voltage 132

11.3 Theoretical Discussion 134

11.3.1 Qualitative Consideration of the Low-Dimensional Indirect Tunneling Process 134

11.3.2 Theoretical Formulations of Tunneling Current and Discussion 134

11.4 Summary 140

Appendix 11A: Wave Function Coupling Effect in the Lateral Two-Dimensional-System-to-Three-Dimensional-System (2D-to-3D) Tunneling Process 141

References 141

12 Experimental Study of Two-Dimensional Confinement Effects on Reverse-Biased Current Characteristics of Ultra-Thin SOI Lubistors 143

12.1 Introduction 143

12.2 Device Structures and Experimental Apparatus 144

12.3 Results and Discussion 145

12.3.1 I–V Characteristics under the Reverse-Biased Condition 145

12.4 Summary 151

Appendix 12A: Derivation of Equations (12.6) and (12.9) 151

References 153

13 Supplementary Consideration of I-V Characteristics of Forward-Biased Ultra-Thin Lubistors 155

13.1 Introduction 155

13.2 Device Structures and Bias Configuration 155

13.3 Results and Discussion 156

13.4 Summary 157

References 158

14 Gate-Controlled Bipolar Action in the Ultra-Thin Dynamic Threshold SOI MOSFET 159

14.1 Introduction 159

14.2 Device and Experiments 159

14.3 Results and Discussion 159

14.3.1 ID–VG and IG–VG Characteristics of the Ultra-Thin-Body DT-MOSFET 159

14.3.2 Control of Bipolar Action by the MOS Gate 162

14.4 Channel Polarity Dependence of Bipolar Action 162

14.4.1 ID–VG and gm–VG Characteristics of the Ultra-Thin-Body DT-MOSFET 162

14.4.2 Difference of Bipolar Operation between the n-Channel DT-MOS and the p-Channel DT-MOS 163

14.4.3 Impact of Body Thickness on Bipolar Operation 164

14.5 Summary 166

References 166

15 Supplementary Study on Gate-Controlled Bipolar Action in the Ultra-Thin Dynamic Threshold SOI MOSFET 167

15.1 Introduction 167

15.2 Device Structures and Parameters 167

15.3 Results and Discussion 169

15.3.1 SOI MOSFET Mode and DT-MOSFET Mode 169

15.3.2 Temperature Evolution of Transconductance (gm) Characteristics and Impact of Channel Length on gm Characteristics 170

15.3.3 Impact of SOI Layer Thickness on gm Characteristics 173

15.4 Summary 173

References 174

Part Four CIRCUIT APPLICATIONS

16 Subcircuit Models of SOI Lubistors for Electrostatic Discharge Protection Circuit Design and Their Applications 179

16.1 Introduction 179

16.2 Equivalent Circuit Models of SOI Lubistors and their Applications 180

16.2.1 Device Structure and Device Simulation 180

16.2.2 Equivalent Circuit Models 183

16.3 ESD Protection Circuit 183

16.4 Direct Current Characteristics of the ESD Protection Devices and Their SPICE Models 186

16.5 ESD Event and Performance Evaluation of an ESD Protection Circuit 189

16.6 Summary 196

References 196

17 A New Basic Element for Neural Logic Functions and Capability in Circuit Applications 199

17.1 Introduction 199

17.2 Device Structure, Model, and Proposal of a New Logic Element 199

17.2.1 Device Structure and Fundamental Characteristics 199

17.2.2 Device Model for the Lubistor 201

17.2.3 Proposal of a New Logic Element 203

17.3 Circuit Applications and Discussion 206

17.3.1 Examples of Fundamental Elements for Circuit Applications 206

17.3.2 On the Further Improvement of Functions of the Basic Logic Element 211

17.4 Summary 211

References 211

18 Sub-1-V Voltage Reference Circuit Technology as an Analog Circuit Application 213

18.1 Review of Bandgap Reference 213

18.2 Challenging Study of Sub-1-V Voltage Reference 214

References 215

19 Possible Implementation of SOI Lubistors into Conventional Logic Circuits 217

References 218

Part Five OPTICAL DEVICE APPLICATIONS OF SOI LUBISTORS

20 Potentiality of Electro-Optic Modulator Based on the SOI Waveguide 223

20.1 Introduction 223

20.2 Characterization of the Quasi-One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Waveguide 224

20.3 Electro-Optic Modulator Based on the SOI Waveguide 230

20.4 Summary 233

References 234

Part Six SOI LUBISTOR AS A TESTING TOOL

21 Principles of Parameter Extraction 237

References 239

22 Charge Pumping Technique 241

22.1 Introduction 241

22.2 Experimental and Simulation Details 241

22.3 Results and Discussion 243

22.4 Summary 246

References 246

Part Seven FUTURE PROSPECTS

23 Overview 249

23.1 Introduction 249

23.2 i-MOS Transistor 249

23.3 Tunnel FET 251

23.4 Feedback FET 254

23.5 Potential of Offset-Gate Lubistor 256

23.6 Si Fin LED with a Multi-quantum Well 258

23.7 Future of the pn Junction 258

References 259

24 Feasibility of the Lubistor-Based Avalanche Phototransistor 261

24.1 Introduction 261

24.2 Theoretical Formulation of the Avalanche Phenomenon in Direct-Bandgap Semiconductors 261

24.3 Theoretical Formulation of the Avalanche Phenomenon in Indirect-Bandgap Semiconductors 264

24.4 Theoretical Consideration of the Avalanche Phenomenon in a One-Dimensional Wire pn Junction 265

24.5 Summary 269

References 269

Part Eight SUMMARY OF PHYSICS FOR SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES AND MATHEMATICS FOR DEVICE ANALYSES

25 Physics of Semiconductor Devices for Analysis 273

25.1 Free Carrier Concentration and the Fermi Level in Semiconductors 273

25.2 Impurity Doping in Semiconductors 275

25.3 Drift and Diffusion of Carriers and Current Continuity in Semiconductors 275

25.4 Stationary-State Schr€odinger Equation to Analyze Quantum-Mechanical Effects in Semiconductors 276

25.5 Time-dependent Schr€odinger Equation to Analyze Dynamics in Semiconductors 277

25.6 Quantum Size Effects in Nano-Scale Semiconductors 278

25.7 Tunneling through Energy Barriers in Semiconductors 281

25.8 Low-Dimensional Tunneling in Nano-Scale Semiconductors 282

25.9 Photon Absorption and Electronic Transitions 284

25.9.1 Fundamental Formulations 284

25.9.2 Interband Transition – Direct Bandgap 285

25.9.3 Interband Transition – Indirect Bandgap 286

References 287

26 Mathematics Applicable to the Analysis of Device Physics 289

26.1 Linear Differential Equation 289

26.2 Operator Method 290

26.3 Klein–Gordon-Type Differential Equation 291

References 292

Bibliography 293

Index 295

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