This multi-contributor, international volume synthesizes contributions from the world's leading soil scientists and ecologists, describing cutting-edge research that provides a basis for the maintenance of soil health and sustainability. The book covers these advances from a unique perspective of examining the ecosystem services produced by soil biota across different scales - from biotic interactions at microscales to communities functioning at regional and global
scales. The ...
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Soil Ecology and Ecosystem Services

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This multi-contributor, international volume synthesizes contributions from the world's leading soil scientists and ecologists, describing cutting-edge research that provides a basis for the maintenance of soil health and sustainability. The book covers these advances from a unique perspective of examining the ecosystem services produced by soil biota across different scales - from biotic interactions at microscales to communities functioning at regional and global
scales. The book leads the user towards an understanding of how the sustainability of soils, biodiversity, and ecosystem services can be maintained and how humans, other animals, and ecosystems are dependent on living soils and ecosystem services.

This is a valuable reference book for academic libraries and professional ecologists worldwide as a statement of progress in the broad field of soil ecology. It will also be of interest to both upper level undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in soil ecology, as well as academic researchers and professionals in the field requiring an authoritative, balanced, and up-to-date overview of this fast expanding topic.
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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"This book exhibits quality and breadth of coverage throughout. The editor has brought together a group of experts who have managed to produce really readable accounts that will be understandable to their target audiences." — Biological Conservation
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780191632563
  • Publisher: OUP Oxford
  • Publication date: 7/18/2013
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • File size: 25 MB
  • Note: This product may take a few minutes to download.

Meet the Author

The Editor-in-Chief, Diana H. Wall, is University Distinguished Professor and Director of the School of Global Environmental Sustainability at Colorado State University. Diana is actively engaged in research exploring how nematode and other invertebrate diversity contributes to healthy, productive soils and thus to society, and the consequences of human activities on soil globally. Her 20+ years research in the Antarctic Dry Valleys follows the response of soil organisms and ecosystem processes to environmental change, and in Africa she examines biodiversity in fertile and degraded soils. She served as President of the Ecological Society of America, the American Institute of Biological Sciences, the Intersociety Consortium for Plant Protection, the Association of Ecosystem Research Centers, and the Society of Nematologists. Diana received her BA and Ph.D. from the University of Kentucky, Lexington and is a Professor of Biology and a Senior Scientist, Natural Research Ecology Laboratory.

The Section Editors, Richard D. Bardgett, Valerie Behan-Pelletier, Jeffrey E. Herrick, T. Hefin Jones, Karl Ritz, Johan Six, Donald R. Strong, and Wim H. van der Putten, are all leading researchers in this field.

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Table of Contents

List of Contributors xi

Introduction Diana H. Wall 1

Section 1 The Living Soil and Ecosystem Services

Introduction Karl Ritz Wim H. van der Putten 5

1.1 Soil as a Habitat Patrick Lavelle 7

1.1.1 Introduction 7

1.1.2 Conditions in soils 7

1.1.3 Adaptive strategies of soil organisms 12

1.1.4 Self-organization and the spatial organization of soils 15

1.1.5 Discrete scales in soil function 16

1.1.6 The challenge of an eco-efficient use of soils 18

1.1.7 Approaches to soil ecological research 21

1.1.8 Conclusions 21

1.2 Soil Biodiversity and Functions Susanne Wurst Gerlinde B. De Deyn Kate Orwin 28

1.2.1 Soil biodiversity 28

1.2.2 How to investigate soil communities 34

1.2.3 Diversity-function relationships 37

1.2.4 Taking a holistic view to soil diversity-ecosystem functioning 39

1.2.5 Conclusions 41

1.3 Ecosystem Services Provided by the Soil Biota Lijbert Brussaard 45

1.3.1 Introduction 45

1.3.2 Understanding ecosystem functioning 46

1.3.3 Understanding ecosystem structure: revisiting the functional group concept 49

1.3.4 Understanding effects of environmental drivers and land management on ecosystem functioning and services 51

1.3.5 Working with nature 52

1.3.6 Landscape context 54

1.3.7 Conclusions 55

Synthesis Karl Ritz Wim H. van der Putten 59

Section 2 From Genes to Ecosystem Services

Introduction Wim H. van der Putten Karl Ritz 63

2.1 From Single Genes to Microbial Networks Evelyn Hackl Michael Schloter Ute Szukics Levente Bodrossy Angela Sessitsch 65

2.1.1 Introduction 65

2.1.2 Analyzing microbial genes to understand ecosystem functioning 66

2.1.3 Methodological approaches to the gene-based study of microbial communities and networks 68

2.1.4 Genes in microbial networks of organic matter decomposition and biodegradation of pollutants 69

2.1.5 Microbial genes in nitrogen turnover cascades 71

2.1.6 Genes underlying microbial communication 72

2.1.7 Microbial genes for interacting in the plant environment 73

2.1.8 From genes to microbial networks: future prospects 75

2.2 From Genes to Ecosystems: Plant Genetics as a Link between Above- and Belowground Processes Jennifer A. Schweitzer Michael D. Madritch Emmi Felker-Cndnn Joseph K. Bailey 82

2.2.1 Introduction 82

2.2.2 The role of plant functional traits in bridging species interactions with soil community dynamics 84

2.2.3 The role of plant genetic variation on soil communities 85

2.2.4 The role of plant genetic variation on ecosystem processes 87

2.2.5 The evolutionary implications of plant-soil linkages 89

2.2.6 Conclusions and future directions 92

2.3 Delivery of Soil Ecosystem Services: From Gaia to Genes Katarina Hedlund Jim Harris 98

2.3.1 Introduction 98

2.3.2 Ecosystem services delivery and Gaia theory 99

2.3.3 At what biological levels are soil ecosystem services produced? 101

2.3.4 At what spatial scales can we describe and quantify soil ecosystem services? 102

2.3.5 Use of soil ecosystem services in a policy context 103

2.3.6 Conclusions 105

Synthesis Wim H. van der Putten Karl Ritz 111

Section 3 Community Structure and Biotic Assemblages

Introduction Dohald R. Strong Valerie Behan-Pelletier 115

3.1 Succession, Resource Processing, and Diversity in Detrital Food Webs Justin Bastow 117

3.1.1 The surprising diversity of soil communities 117

3.1.2 From litter and carrion to soil organic matter: detrital succession in soils 118

3.1.3 Mechanisms and models for detrital succession 121

3.1.4 Can successional specialization explain coexistence and the diversity in soils? 126

3.1.5 Latitudinal gradients in soil diversity: detrital food webs thwart ecology's oldest pattern 128

3.1.6 Future directions in understanding detrital succession 130

3.2 Patterns of Biodiversity at Fine and Small Spatial Scales Matty P. Berg 136

3.2.1 The riddle of soil biodiversity 136

3.2.2 It is all a matter of scale 137

3.2.3 Spatial distribution of soil functions 147

3.2.4 Spatial scales are nested 149

3.3 Linking Soil Biodiversity and Human Health: Do Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Contribute to Food Nutrition? Pedro M. Antunes Philipp Franken Dietmar Schwarz Matthias C. Rillig Marco Cosme Martha Scott Miranda M. Hart 153

3.3.1 Soil health is linked to human health and global food security 153

3.3.2 Traditional ways of boosting crop nutrients 154

3.3.3 A critical role for soil microbes 155

3.3.4 Using rhizosphere microbes to create healthier food 157

3.3.5 Negative effects of microbes on food quality 162

3.3.6 The full potential of soil microbes to improve human health 163

3.3.7 Conclusion 164

3.4 Ecosystem Influences of Fungus-Growing Termites in the Dry Paleotropics Gregor W. Schuurman 173

3.4.1 Introduction 173

3.4.2 Fungus-growers 174

3.4.3 Fungus-grower influences on ecosystem processes 177

3.4.4 Fungus-growers as ecosystem engineers 179

3.4.5 Synthesis 183

3.4.6 Take-home messages 185

3.4.7 Future directions 185

3.5 The Biogeography of Microbial Communities and Ecosystem Processes: Implications for Soil and Ecosystem Models Mark A. Bradford Noah Fierer 189

3.5.1 Predicting environmental responses of soil processes 189

3.5.2 Misplaced physics envy in soil models 190

3.5.3 Functional redundancy, similarity, equivalence, and biogeography 192

3.5.4 Experimental tests of functional equivalence 195

3.5.5 Putting ecology into soil models 197

3.5.6 Revisiting the functional paradigm in soil ecology 198

3.6 Biogeography and Phylogenetic Community Structure of Soil Invertebrate Ecosystem Engineers: Global to Local Patterns, Implications for Ecosystem Functioning and Services and Global Environmental Change Impacts Lijbert Brussaard Duur K. Aanen Maria J.I. Briones Thibaud Decaëns Gerlinde B. De Deyn Tom M. Fayle Samuel W. James Tania Nobre 201

3.6.1 Introduction 201

3.6.2 Macroecological patterns in soil invertebrate communities 203

3.6.3 Termite biogeography and phylogenetic community structure 206

3.6.4 Ant biogeography and phylogenetic community structure 211

3.6.5 Earthworms 214

3.6.6 Enchytraeids 218

3.6.7 Trait-based ecology of soil invertebrate ecosystem engineers with a view to the possible effects on global environmental change and ecosystem functioning and services 222

Synthesis Donald R. Strong Valerie Behan-Pelletier 233

Section 4 Global Changes

Introduction Richard D. Bardgett T. Hefin Jones 239

4.1 Climate Change and Soil Biotic Carbon Cycling Nicholas J. Ostle Susan E. Ward 241

4.1.1 Introduction 241

4.1.2 Climate change and plant-soil interactions 242

4.1.3 Direct effects 243

4.1.4 Indirect effects 245

4.1.5 Making predictions 248

4.1.6 Conclusions 249

4.2 The Impact of Nitrogen Enrichment on Ecosystems and Their Services Peter Mantling 256

4.2.1 Nitrogen-the Earth's most limiting resource? 256

4.2.2 Direct impacts of nitrogen enrichment on soil chemistry and plant and microbial metabolism 258

4.2.3 Effects of nitrogen enrichment on plants and the soil biota 259

4.2.4 Net effects on ecosystem services 265

4.2.5 Conclusion and future directions 267

4.3 Urbanization, Soils, and Ecosystem Services Mitchell A. Pavao-Zuckerman 270

4.3.1 Introduction to urbanization and soils in cities 270

4.3.2 Urbanization effects on soils 270

4.3.3 Examples of ecosystem services in cities 273

4.3.4 Management for urban ecosystem services 276

4.3.5 Summary 278

4.4 Management of Grassland Systems, Soil, and Ecosystem Services Phil Murray Felicity Crotty Nick van Eekeren 282

4.4.1 Introduction 282

4.4.2 Plant-soil interactions 283

4.4.3 Ecosystem services provided by the soil biota 284

4.4.4 Impact of management intensity of grassland systems 288

4.4.5 Trade-offs between ecosystem services 288

4.4.6 Conclusions 290

Synthesis Richard D. Bardgett T. Hefin Jones 295

Section 5 Sustainable Soils

Introduction Johan Six Jeffrey E. Herrick 299

5.1 Soil Productivity and Erosion Kristof Van Oost Martha M. Bakker 301

5.1.1 Introduction 301

5.1.2 Soil gain versus soil loss, and accelerated versus natural erosion 301

5.1.3 Erosion's effect on agricultural productivity 305

5.1.4 The importance of erosion-induced productivity losses for agriculture 309

5.1.5 Summary 312

5.2 Agroforestry and Soil Health: Linking Trees, Soil Biota, and Ecosystem Services Edmundo Barrios Gudeta W. Sileshi Keith Shepherd Fergus Sinclair 315

5.2.1 Introduction 315

5.2.2 How trees influence soil properties and biota 316

5.2.3 Agroforestry systems increase abundance of soil biota 318

5.2.4 Soil biological processes and soil-based ecosystem services 319

5.2.5 Tree-soil biota interactions foster the provision of soil-based ecosystem services 320

5.2.6 Soil health monitoring systems 324

5.2.7 Conclusions and recommendations 327

5.3 Soil Health: The Concept, Its Role, and Strategies for Monitoring Douglas L. Karlen 331

5.3.1 The concept of soil health 331

5.3.2 The evolution of soil health 333

5.3.3 Monitoring soil health 334

5.3.4 Summary and conclusions 335

5.4 Managing Soil Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Michel A. Cavigelli Jude E. Maul Katalin Szlavecz 337

5.4.1 Introduction 337

5.4.2 Edible crop diversity 338

5.4.3 Plant selection impacts on ecosystem services 338

5.4.4 Plant selection impacts on soil biodiversity 340

5.4.5 Managing plant diversity 341

5.4.6 Tillage impacts on ecosystem services 342

5.4.7 Tillage impacts on soil biodiversity 343

5.4.8 Chemical application impacts on ecosystem services 344

5.4.9 Chemical application impacts on soil biodiversity 345

5.4.10 CT Organic material application impacts on ecosystem services 346

5.4.11 Organic material application impacts on soil biodiversity 346

5.4.12 Organic cropping system impacts on ecosystem services 347

5.4.13 Organic cropping system impacts on soil biodiversity 348

5.4.14 Conclusions 350

5.5 Soil Ecosystem Resilience and Recovery A. Stuart Grandy Jennifer M. Fraterrigo Sharon A. Billings 357

5.5.1 Introduction 357

5.5.2 Soil disturbance, resilience, and recovery 358

5.5.3 Resilience and recovery: soil organic matter dynamics 361

5.5.4 Resilience and recovery: soil nutrient cycling 364

5.5.5 Future directions 366

5.6 Applying Soil Ecological Knowledge to Restore Ecosystem Services Sara G. Baer Liam Heneghan Valerie T. Eviner 377

5.6.1 Introduction 377

5.6.2 Low to high legacy: lessons from restoration of mined land 381

5.6.3 Moderate legacy: restoration of agricultural systems 382

5.6.4 High legacy under dynamic change: preventing invasion and restoring invaded systems 385

5.6.5 Novel legacy: no analog ecosystems and environmental conditions 387

5.6.6 Conclusions 389

Synthesis Jeffrey E. Herrick Johan Six 395

Index 397

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