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Soil, Fertilizer, and Plant Silicon Research in Japan

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Overview

Silicon (Si) plays a significant role in the resistance of plants to multiple stresses including biotic and abiotic stresses. Silicon is also the only element that does not damage plants when accumulated in excess. However, the contribution of Si to plant growth has been largely ignored due to its universal existence in the earth's crust. From numerous intensive studies on Si, initiated in Japan about 80 years ago, Japanese scientists realized that Si was important for the healthy growth of rice and for stability of rice production. In a worldwide first, silicon was recognized as a valuable fertilizer in Japan. The beneficial effects of Si on rice growth in particular, are largely attributable to the characteristics of a silica gel that is accumulated on the epidermal tissues in rice. These effects are expressed most clearly under high-density cultivation systems with heavy applications of nitrogen. Si is therefore recognized now as an ''agronomically essential element'' in Japan.

Recently, Si has become globally important because it generates resistance in many plants to diseases and pests, and may contribute to reduced rates of application of pesticides and fungicides. Silicon is also now considered as an environment-friendly element. The achievements of Si research in Japan are introduced in this book, in relation to soils, fertilizers and plant nutrition.

Silicon (Si) plays a significant role in the resistance of plants to multiple stresses including biotic and abiotic stresses. Silicon is also the only element that does not damage plants when accumulated in excess. However, the contribution of Si to plant growth has been largely ignored due to its universal existence in the earth's crust. From numerous intensive studies on Si, initiated in Japan about 80 years ago, Japanese scientists realized that Si was important for the healthy growth of rice and for stability of rice production. In a worldwide first, silicon was recognized as a valuable fertilizer in Japan. The beneficial effects of Si on rice growth in particular, are largely attributable to the characteristics of a silica gel that is accumulated on the epidermal tissues in rice. These effects are expressed most clearly under high-density cultivation systems with heavy applications of nitrogen. Si is therefore recognized now as an "agronomically essential element" in Japan.

Recently, Si has become globally important because it generates resistance in many plants to diseases and pests, and may contribute to reduced rates of application of pesticides and fungicides. Silicon is also now considered as an environment-friendly element. The achievements of Si research in Japan are introduced in this book, in relation to soils, fertilizers and plant nutrition

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780444511669
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
  • Publication date: 8/23/2002
  • Edition description: 1ST
  • Pages: 294
  • Product dimensions: 6.40 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Table of Contents

Ch. 1 Brief history of silicon research in Japan 1
Ch. 2 Silicon sources for agriculture 5
2.1 Silicon supply for paddy rice from natural sources 5
2.2 Silicon supply from organic and inorganic fertilizers 9
Ch. 3 Silicon in soil 27
3.1 Behavior of silicon in paddy soil 27
3.2 Estimating the silicon-supplying capacity of paddy soils 30
3.3 Environmental factors controlling the availability of silicon for rice plants in paddy soils 44
3.4 Balance sheet of silicon in paddy soil-past and present 45
Ch. 4 Effect of silicate fertilizer application on paddy rice 49
4.1 Criteria for predicting silicate fertilizer requirement for paddy rice 49
4.2 Field experiments on the effects of silicate fertilizer application 52
4.3 Effect of calcium in slags on silicon uptake by rice 59
Ch. 5 Silicon-accumulating plants in the plant kingdom 63
5.1 Criteria for discriminating Si-accumulating plants from non-accumulating plants 63
5.2 Characteristics of silicon accumulators and their distribution in plant kingdom 64
5.3 Variety difference in silicon content in the Si-accumulating and intermediate-type species 69
Ch. 6 Silicon uptake and accumulation in plants 73
6.1 Three modes of uptake for silicon 73
6.2 Characteristics of Si uptake by rice 76
6.3 Roles of root hairs and lateral roots in silicon uptake 88
6.4 Genotypical difference in silicon uptake 88
6.5 A rice mutant defective in silicon uptake 90
6.6 Similar mode of uptake for silicon and germanium 93
6.7 Chemical from and accumulation process of silicon in rice 100
Ch. 7 Functions of silicon in plant growth 107
7.1 Beneficial effects of silicon on plant growth 107
7.2 Functions of silicon 146
7.3 Working process of beneficial effects of silicon on plant growth 179
Ch. 8 Summary and prospect of silicon research 181
8.1 Major achievements and prospect of research on silicon in soil 181
8.2 Major achievements and prospect f research on silicon fertilizer 183
8.3 Major achievements and prospect of research on silicon in plants 184
Ch. 9 Silicon research in the world 191
9.1 Effect of silicon on crop production 191
9.2 Role of silicon in disease and pest control 195
9.3 Alleviative effect of silicon on abiotic stresses 198
App. 1 SiO[subscript 2] concentration of 380 river waters 201
App. 2 Survey on SiO[subscript 2] contents in flag leaf of rice plants 203
App. 3 Si content of vascular plants 205
App. 4 Si content of barley grain 235
References 257
Index 275
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