Soil, Fertilizer, and Plant Silicon Research in Japan

Soil, Fertilizer, and Plant Silicon Research in Japan

by Jian Feng Ma, Eiichi Takahashi
     
 

Silicon (Si) plays a significant role in the resistance of plants to multiple stresses including biotic and abiotic stresses. Silicon is also the only element that does not damage plants when accumulated in excess. However, the contribution of Si to plant growth has been largely ignored due to its universal existence in the earth's crust. From numerous intensive

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Overview

Silicon (Si) plays a significant role in the resistance of plants to multiple stresses including biotic and abiotic stresses. Silicon is also the only element that does not damage plants when accumulated in excess. However, the contribution of Si to plant growth has been largely ignored due to its universal existence in the earth's crust. From numerous intensive studies on Si, initiated in Japan about 80 years ago, Japanese scientists realized that Si was important for the healthy growth of rice and for stability of rice production. In a worldwide first, silicon was recognized as a valuable fertilizer in Japan. The beneficial effects of Si on rice growth in particular, are largely attributable to the characteristics of a silica gel that is accumulated on the epidermal tissues in rice. These effects are expressed most clearly under high-density cultivation systems with heavy applications of nitrogen. Si is therefore recognized now as an ''agronomically essential element'' in Japan.

Recently, Si has become globally important because it generates resistance in many plants to diseases and pests, and may contribute to reduced rates of application of pesticides and fungicides. Silicon is also now considered as an environment-friendly element. The achievements of Si research in Japan are introduced in this book, in relation to soils, fertilizers and plant nutrition.

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780444511669
Publisher:
Elsevier Science
Publication date:
08/23/2002
Edition description:
1ST
Pages:
294
Product dimensions:
6.40(w) x 9.30(h) x 0.90(d)

Table of Contents

Ch. 1Brief history of silicon research in Japan1
Ch. 2Silicon sources for agriculture5
2.1Silicon supply for paddy rice from natural sources5
2.2Silicon supply from organic and inorganic fertilizers9
Ch. 3Silicon in soil27
3.1Behavior of silicon in paddy soil27
3.2Estimating the silicon-supplying capacity of paddy soils30
3.3Environmental factors controlling the availability of silicon for rice plants in paddy soils44
3.4Balance sheet of silicon in paddy soil-past and present45
Ch. 4Effect of silicate fertilizer application on paddy rice49
4.1Criteria for predicting silicate fertilizer requirement for paddy rice49
4.2Field experiments on the effects of silicate fertilizer application52
4.3Effect of calcium in slags on silicon uptake by rice59
Ch. 5Silicon-accumulating plants in the plant kingdom63
5.1Criteria for discriminating Si-accumulating plants from non-accumulating plants63
5.2Characteristics of silicon accumulators and their distribution in plant kingdom64
5.3Variety difference in silicon content in the Si-accumulating and intermediate-type species69
Ch. 6Silicon uptake and accumulation in plants73
6.1Three modes of uptake for silicon73
6.2Characteristics of Si uptake by rice76
6.3Roles of root hairs and lateral roots in silicon uptake88
6.4Genotypical difference in silicon uptake88
6.5A rice mutant defective in silicon uptake90
6.6Similar mode of uptake for silicon and germanium93
6.7Chemical from and accumulation process of silicon in rice100
Ch. 7Functions of silicon in plant growth107
7.1Beneficial effects of silicon on plant growth107
7.2Functions of silicon146
7.3Working process of beneficial effects of silicon on plant growth179
Ch. 8Summary and prospect of silicon research181
8.1Major achievements and prospect of research on silicon in soil181
8.2Major achievements and prospect f research on silicon fertilizer183
8.3Major achievements and prospect of research on silicon in plants184
Ch. 9Silicon research in the world191
9.1Effect of silicon on crop production191
9.2Role of silicon in disease and pest control195
9.3Alleviative effect of silicon on abiotic stresses198
App. 1SiO[subscript 2] concentration of 380 river waters201
App. 2Survey on SiO[subscript 2] contents in flag leaf of rice plants203
App. 3Si content of vascular plants205
App. 4Si content of barley grain235
References257
Index275

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