Soil Mechanics / Edition 1

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Overview

Knowledge of the behavior of soil mechanics is essential for forecasting the internal displacements and actions of any construction. This book, although theoretical at first glance, also offers a more practical scope, giving readers adequate tools to plan geotechnical projects correctly.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

"The book is useful and pleasant reading, addressed to all, students of civil engineering, geotechnical engineering and geology, and practicing civil and geotechnical engineers. It's price makes the book suitable for the university, research institutes and public libraries, and of course it can be a really valuable part of any private library." (Pure and Applied Geophysics, 2011)

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781848211025
  • Publisher: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 6/28/2010
  • Series: ISTE Series , #382
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 416
  • Product dimensions: 6.30 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface

Chapter 1 Introduction: Basic Concepts 1

1.1 Soils and rocks 1

1.2 Engineering properties of soils 3

1.3 Soils as an aggregation of particles 7

1.4 Interaction with pore water 9

1.5 Transmission of the stress state in granular soil 10

1.6 Transmission of the stress state in the presence of a fluid 14

1.7 From discrete to continuum 17

1.8 Stress and strain tensors 21

1.9 Bibliography 25

Chapter 2 Field Equations for a Porous Medium 27

2.1 Equilibrium equations 27

2.2 Compatibility equations 27

2.3 Constitutive laws 32

2.4 Geostatic stress state and over-consolidation 40

2.5 Continuity equation and Darcy's law 44

2.6 Particular cases 48

2.6.1 Dry soil 49

2.6.2 Saturated soil with still groundwater 50

2.6.3 Saturated soil with seepage: stationary conditions 50

2.6.4 Saturated soil with seepage: transient conditions 51

2.7 Bibliography 55

Chapter 3 Seepage: Stationary Conditions 57

3.1 Introduction 57

3.2 The finite difference method 60

3.3 Flow net 63

3.4 Excess pore pressure 65

3.5 Instability due to piping 67

3.6 Safety factor against piping 68

3.7 Anisotropic permeability 70

3.8 Transition between soils characterized by different permeability coefficients 74

3.9 Free surface problems 75

3.10 In situ methods for the permeability coefficient determination 77

3.11 Bibliography 81

Chapter 4 Seepage: Transient Conditions 83

4.1 One-dimensional consolidation equation 83

4.2 Excess pore pressure isochrones 86

4.3 Consolidation settlement 91

4.4 Consolidation settlement: approximated solution 93

4.5 Consolidation under different initial or boundary conditions 97

4.6 Load linearly increasing over time: under consolidation 101

4.7 Consolidation under axial sysmmetric conditions 104

4.8 Multidimensional consolidation: the Mandel-Cryer effect 106

4.9 Oedometer test and measure of cv 114

4.10 Influence of the skeleton viscosity 118

4.11 Bibliography 123

Chapter 5 The Constitutive Relationship: Tests and Experimental Results 125

5.1 Introduction 125

5.2 Fundamental requirements of testing apparatus 127

5.3 Principal testing apparatus 130

5.3.1 The "true" triaxial test (TTA): Lame's ellipsoid and Mohr's sickle 130

5.3.2 The (standard) triaxial apparatus 135

5.3.3 The oedometer 144

5.3.4 The biaxial apparatus 144

5.3.5 Direct shear box and simple shear apparatus (SSA) 147

5.3.6 Hollow cylinder 152

5.4 The stress path concept 157

5.5 Experimental results for isotropic tests on virgin soils 163

5.6 Experimental results for radial tests on virgin soils: stress, dilatancy relationship 167

5.7 Oedometric tests on virgin soil as a particular case of the radial test: earth pressure coefficient at rest 173

5.8 Drained triaxial tests on loose sands: Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion 174

5.9 Undrained triaxial tests on loose sands: instability line and static liquefaction 179

5.10 Drained tests on dense and medium dense sand: dilatancy and critical state 186

5.11 Strain localization: shear band formation 191

5.12 Undrained tests on dense and medium dense sands: phase transformation line 196

5.13 Sand behavior in tests in which the three principal stresses are independently controled: failure in the deviatoric plane 198

5.14 Normally consolidated and over-consolidated clays: oedometric tests with loading unloading cycles---extension failure 201

5.15 Drained and undrained triaxial tests on normally consolidated clays: normalization of the mechanical behavior 208

5.16 Over-consolidated clays 214

5.17 The critical state. Plasticity index 219

5.18 Natural soils: apparent over-consolidation---yielding surface 226

5.19 Soil behavior under cyclic loading: cyclic mobility and strength degradation 230

5.20 Bibliography 236

Chapter 6 The Constitutive Relationship: Mathematical Modeling of the Experimental behavior 241

6.1 Introduction 241

6.2 Nonliner elasticity 242

6.3 Perfect elastic-plasticity 243

6.4 Yielding of metals 247

6.5 Taylor and Quinney experiments: the normality postulate 251

6.6 Generalized variables of stress and strain 258

6.7 Plastic strains for a material behaving as described by the Mohr-Coulomb criterion 259

6.8 Drucker-Prager and Matsuoka-Nakai failure Criteria 261

6.9 Dilatancy: non-associated flow rule 267

6.10 Formulation of an elastic-perfectly plastic law 269

6.11 Cam clay model 272

6.12 Reformulation of the Cam clay model as an elastic-plastic hardening model 282

6.13 Comparison between experimental behavior and mathematical modeling for normally consolidated clays 285

6.14 Lightly over-Consolidated clays 290

6.15 Heavily over-consolidated clays 293

6.16 Subsequent developments and applications 298

6.17 Non-associated flow rule: the Nova-Wood model 301

6.18 Sinfonietta classica: a model for soils and soft rocks 309

6.19 Models for soils subjected to cyclic loading 315

6.20 Conceptual use of constitutive soil behavior models 318

6.20.1 Oedometric test 318

6.20.2 Unconfined undrained (UU) test 321

6.20.3 Shear modulus "anisotropy" 324

6.21 Bibliography 325

Chapter 7 Numerical solution to Boundary Value Problems 329

7.1 Introduction 329

7.2 The finite element method for plane strain problems 330

7.3 Earth pressures on retaining structures 344

7.4 Settlements and bearing capacity of shallow foundations 354

7.5 Numerical solution of boundary value problems for fully saturated soil 364

7.6 Undrained conditions: short-term bearing capacity of a footing 371

7.7 Short-and long-term stability of an excavation 380

7.8 Bibliography 389

Postscript 391

Index 395

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