Solar Energy at Urban Scale

Overview

Increasing urbanization throughout the world, the depletion of fossil fuels and concerns about global warming have transformed the city into a physical problem of prime importance. This book proposes a multi-disciplinary and systematic approach concerning specialities as different as meteorology, geography, architecture and urban engineering systems, all surrounding the essential problem of solar radiation.
It collects the points of view of 18 specialists from around the world ...

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Overview

Increasing urbanization throughout the world, the depletion of fossil fuels and concerns about global warming have transformed the city into a physical problem of prime importance. This book proposes a multi-disciplinary and systematic approach concerning specialities as different as meteorology, geography, architecture and urban engineering systems, all surrounding the essential problem of solar radiation.
It collects the points of view of 18 specialists from around the world on the interaction between solar energy and constructions, combining territorial, urban and architectural scales to better regulate energetic efficiency and light comfort for the sustainable city.
The main subjects covered are: measures and models of solar irradiance (satellite observations, territorial and urban ground measurements, sky models, satellite data and urban mock-up), radiative contribution to the urban climate (local heat balance, radiative-aerodynamics coupling, evapotranspiration, Urban Heat Island), light and heat modeling (climate-based daylight modeling, geometrical models of the city, solar radiation modeling for urban environments, thermal simulation methods and algorithms) and urban planning, with special considerations for solar potential, solar impact and daylight rights in the temperate, northern and tropical climates, and the requirement of urban solar regulation.

Contents

1. The Odyssey of Remote Sensing from Space: Half a Century of Satellites for Earth Observations, Théo Pirard.
2. Territorial and Urban Measurements, Marius Paulescu and Viorel Badescu.
3. Sky Luminance Models, Matej Kobav and Grega Bizjak.
4. Satellite Images Applied to Surface Solar Radiation Estimation, Bella Espinar and Philippe Blanc.
5. Worldwide Aspects of Solar Radiation Impact, Benoit Beckers.
6. Local Energy Balance, Pierre Kastendeuch.
7. Evapotranspiration, Marjorie Musy.
8. Multiscale Daylight Modeling for Urban Environments, John Mardaljevic and George Janes.
9. Geometrical Models of the City, Daniel G. Aliaga.
10. Radiative Simulation Methods, Pierre Beckers and Benoit Beckers.
11. Radiation Modeling Using the Finite Element Method, Tom van Eekelen.
12. Dense Cities in the Tropical Zone, Edward Ng.
13. Dense Cities in Temperate Climates: Solar and Daylight Rights, Guedi Capeluto.
14. Solar Potential and Solar Impact, Frédéric Monette and Benoit Beckers.
Appendix 1. Table of Europe’s Platforms (Micro- and Minisatellites) for Earth Observations, Théo Pirard.
Appendix 2. Commercial Operators of Earth Observation (EO) Satellites (as of January 1, 2012), Théo Pirard.
Appendix 3. Earth’s Annual Global Mean Energy Budget, Benoit Beckers.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781848213562
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 7/3/2012
  • Series: ISTE Series , #691
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 384
  • Product dimensions: 6.30 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Table of Contents

Introduction xiii

The Authors xvi

Chapter 1 The Odyssey of Remote Sensing from Space: Half a Century of Satellites for Earth Observations Théo Pirard 1

1.1 To improve the weather forecasts 2

1.2 Technological challenges to spy and to map from orbit 3

1.3 Toward global environmental observers in space 6

1.4 The digital revolution of the ICTs for GIS applications 9

1.5 Suggested reading 12

Chapter 2 Territorial and Urban and Measurements Marius Paulescu Viorel Badescu 13

2.1 Solar irradiation at the Earth's surface 13

2.2 Instrumentation 17

2.2.1 Fundamentals of solar irradiance measurements 18

2.2.2 Solar radiometers 20

2.2.2.1 Pyrheliometers 20

2.2.2.2 Pyranometers 20

2.2.2.3 World radiometric reference 23

2.2.2.4 Radiometers calibration and uncertainty 23

2.2.2.5 Classification of pyranometers 25

2.2.3 Sunshine duration measurements 25

2.2.3.1 Burning card method 25

2.2.3.2 Pyranometric method 27

2.2.4 Data quality assessment 28

2.2.5 Data availability 29

2.3 Radiation measurements in urban environment 29

2.3.1 Description scales 29

2.3.2 Urban site description 30

2.3.3 WMO recommendations 31

2.3.3.1 Scope of measurements and measurement site selection 31

2.3.3.2 Measurements and corrections 32

2.4 Conclusions 33

2.5 Acknowledgments 33

2.6 Bibliography 33

Chapter 3 Sky Luminance Models Matej Kobav Grega Bizjak 37

3.1 CIE standard overcast sky (1955) 39

3.2 CIE standard clear sky (1996) 39

3.3 CIE standard general sky 40

3.4 All-weather model for sky luminance distribution - Perez 45

3.5 ASRC-CIE model 48

3.6 Igawa all-sky model 49

3.7 Absolute luminance 52

3.8 Visualization 54

3.9 Conclusion 54

3.10 Bibliography 55

Chapter 4 Satellite Images Applied to Surface Solar Radiation Estimation Bella Espinar Phillippe Blanc 57

4.1 The solar resource 57

4.2 Ground measurements of the solar resource 60

4.2.1 Ground instruments 60

4.2.2 The spatial variability of solar radiation 62

4.3 Satellite images for SSI estimation 64

4.4 Two different approaches for satellite-based SSI estimation 68

4.4.1 SSI clear-sky models 68

4.4.2 The inverse approach 69

4.4.2.1 The calculation of the cloud coverage index 69

4.4.2.2 The calculation of the GHI 70

4.4.3 The direct approach 72

4.5 Accuracy of satellite-based SSI estimations 74

4.6 Use of satellite observations for high-resolutions solar radiation estimation 78

4.6.1 High-resolution solar atlas of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur 79

4.6.1.1 Model for the variation of the optical path length 80

4.6.1.2 Model for sky obstruction effects by the orography 81

4.6.1.3 Uncertainty analysis of the solar atlas 85

4.6.1.4 Dissemination of the solar atlas 86

4.6.2 Solar resource assessment at urban scale 87

4.7 Bibliography 92

Chapter 5 Worldwide Aspects of Solar Radiation Impact Benoit Beckers 99

5.1 Global energy budget at the Earth level 99

5.2 The distribution of solar radiation on the Earth's surface 102

5.2.1 Consequence of the unequal distribution of sunshine 103

5.2.2 Effect of the Earth's rotation 104

5.2.3 Influence of continental masses 106

5.3 The Sun at different latitudes 107

5.4 The solar diagrams 108

5.5 Climate and housing 111

5.6 Solar energy at urban scale 113

5.7 Conclusions and perspectives 115

5.8 Bibliography 117

Chapter 6 Local Energy Balance Pierre Kastendeuch 119

6.1 Introduction 119

6.2 Soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer model 120

6.3 Physiographic data and boundary conditions 121

6.4 Solar radiation transfers 123

6.5 Infrared radiation transfers 129

6.6 Other heat fluxes 131

6.7 Conclusions 134

6.8 Bibliography 135

Chapter 7 Evapotranspiration Marjorie Musy 139

7.1 Physical bases 140

7.2 Related interest of different types of evapotranspirating surfaces 142

7.2.1 Bare soil 142

7.2.2 Grass-covered areas 143

7.2.3 Green roofs 144

7.2.4 Green walls 144

7.2.5 Trees 146

7.2.6 Parks 148

7.3 From microscale to city scale: the modeling approaches 149

7.3.1 Microscale 149

7.3.2 District scale 152

7.3.3 City scale 153

7.4 Conclusions 154

7.5 Bibliography 154

Chapter 8 Multiscale Daylight Modeling for Urban Environments John Mardaljevic George M. Janes 159

8.1 Introduction 159

8.2 Background 160

8.2.1 Climate and microclimate 160

8.2.2 The urban solar microclimate 161

8.2.3 The USM and human experience 162

8.2.4 The USM in guidelines and recommendations 163

8.2.5 "Real" climate 164

8.2.6 Climate-based daylight modeling 165

8.3 Visualizing the urban solar microclimate 167

8.3.1 The San Francisco 3D model 167

8.3.2 Harvesting solar energy 169

8.3.3 A strategic evaluation of urban solar potential 170

8.3.4 Irradiation mapping of "virtual London" 172

8.4 The ASL building: a solar access study 173

8.4.1 Density and zoning in New York City 173

8.4.2 The Art Students League building 174

8.4.3 Quantifying the potential daylight injury 175

8.4.4 Outcomes and implications 178

8.5 Daylighting the New York Times building 180

8.5.1 3D model for NYT building and surroundings 181

8.5.2 The spatiotemporal dynamics of sunlight exposure 182

8.5.3 Balancing daylight provision and visual comfort 183

8.6 Summary 187

8.7 Acknowledgments 187

8.8 Bibliography 187

Chapter 9 Geometrical Models of the City Daniel G. Aliaga 191

9.1 Introduction 191

9.1.1 Modeling challenges 192

9.1.2 State-of-the-art 193

9.2 Forward procedural modeling 194

9.2.1 Plants and architecture 194

9.2.2 Buildings and cities 194

9.2.3 Streets and parcels 195

9.3 Inverse procedural modeling 196

9.3.1 Inverse parameter estimation 197

9.3.2 Inverse procedure and parameter estimation 198

9.4 Simulation-based modeling 199

9.5 Example systems 200

9.6 Bibliography 200

Chapter 10 Radiative Simulation Methods Pierre Beckers Benoit Beckers 205

10.1 Introduction 205

10.2 Geometry 206

10.2.1 The geometric model 206

10.2.2 Solar geometry: calculating the Sun's position 207

10.2.2.1 Earth's revolution 209

10.2.2.2 Earth's rotation 211

10.2.2.3 Sun's azimuth and zenith angle 212

10.2.3 Geometric description of the environment of a point 213

10.2.3.1 Contribution of cartography 213

10.2.3.2 Urban geometry, stereography, and isochronous graph 216

10.3 Loading 218

10.3.1 Radiation sources: Sun and sky 218

10.3.2 Irradiance on differently oriented planes 219

10.3.2.1 Direct radiation on a plane always facing the Sun 219

10.3.2.2 Horizontal plane 221

10.3.2.3 Computation of energy 222

10.4 Computation model 223

10.4.1 Radiosity equations 224

10.4.2 View factors 225

10.4.2.1 Properties of the view factor 225

10.4.2.2 View factors algebra 228

10.4.2.3 Point to area view factor 228

10.4.3 Digital processing of the view factor 230

10.4.4 Characteristics of the discrete model: the mesh and its control 231

10.5 Transient thermal couple problem 232

10.6 Conclusion 234

10.7 Bibliography 234

Chapter 11 Radiation Modeling Using the Finite Element Method Tom van Eekelen 237

11.1 Basic assumptions 237

11.2 Visibility and view factors 239

11.2.1 Definition 239

11.2.2 Monte Carlo-based ray-tracing method 241

11.3 Thermal balance equations 245

11.3.1 Conductive thermal balance 245

11.3.2 Radiation thermal balance 246

11.3.2.1 Gray approximation 249

11.3.2.2 Non-gray (multiband) solution 249

11.4 Finite element formulation 250

11.5 Example problems 254

11.6 Bibliography 257

Chapter 12 Dense Cities in the Tropical Zone Edward Ng 259

12.1 Introduction 259

12.2 Access to the sky 261

12.3 Designing for daylight 266

12.4 Designing for solar access 272

12.5 Designing with solar renewable energy 281

12.6 Conclusion 287

12.7 Bibliography 288

Chapter 13 Dense Cities in Temperate Climates: Solar and Daylight Rights Guedi Capeluto 291

13.1 Introduction 291

13.1.1 Urban form and thermal comfort 291

13.2 Solar rights in urban design 292

13.3 Solar envelopes as a design tool 293

13.4 Solar envelopes as a tool for urban development 295

13.5 Regulations and applications 297

13.6 Methods of application 299

13.7 A simple design tool 300

13.8 Modeling the building shape for self-shading using the solar collection envelope 302

13.9 Daylight rights 306

13.10 Daylight access 306

13.11 Conclusions 308

13.12 Bibliography 309

Chapter 14 Solar Potential and Solar Impact Frédéric Monette Benoit Beckers 311

14.1 Methodological considerations 312

14.2 Definition of the residential area 312

14.3 Estimation of irradiance and solar gains 319

14.4 Estimation of energy needs for heating 321

14.5 Results analysis 322

14.6 Perspectives and conclusions 331

14.7 Acknowledgments 332

14.8 Bibliography 332

Conclusion Benoit Beckers 335

Appendices 339

Appendix 1 Table of Europe's Platforms (Micro- and Minisatellites) for Earth Observations Théo Pirard 341

Appendix 2 Commercial Operators of Earth Observation (EO) Satellites (as of January 1, 2012) Théo Pirard 347

Appendix 3 Earth's Annual Global Mean Energy Budget Benoit Beckers 355

List of Authors 357

Index 361

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